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Terminal Cheat Sheet

What is this?

For the novice and intermediate users of terminals on Linux, macOS, and other operating systems, finding, understanding, learning, remembering common commands is an essential skill. There are a variety of one-off websites, GitHub gists, marketing pages, etc. that have these commands, but few provide the type of user-centered design that makes learning even easier.

Terminal Cheat Sheet aims to balance approachability through straightforward content, reduced friction by localizing, accessibility through best practices like WCAG, and performance through the use of static content. It's also meant to complement, not replace, options like man pages or detailed user guides.

Tech stack

  • Jekyll - static site builder that works with GitHub pages
  • AMP - used to enforce speed, simplicity, and SEO

Libraries

  • PureCSS - used for basic components and grid
  • Workbox - used for offline support/PWA functionality
  • Termynal - modified a bit to work with <amp-script>

Infra

  • GitHub for source and deployment
  • GitHub Pages for hosting the content
  • Cloudflare for CDN

Running locally

You'll need to set up Jekyll for local development. Visit https://jekyllrb.com/docs/installation/ for instructions.

Checkout the code from GitHub and then run jekyll serve in the repo directory.

Since this is AMP code, make sure you validate locally before merging.

Contributing

Contributions welcomed! See CONTRIBUTING.md if you would like to contribute!

Internationalization/localization (i18n/l10n)

How it works

The website is internationalized to support localization through translations, asset variations, and more. This is done without the use of additional Jekyll plugins. There are many parts of the site that use this work, but the main parts for new pages are in the following structure:

├── _data
│   ├── translations.yml
│   └── commands
│       ├── basic.yml
│       ├── files.yml
│       └── <newcommands.yml>
│
├── _includes
│   └── i18n
│       ├── index.html
│       └── <newpage.html>
│
├── assets
│   └── pagetype
│       ├── randomasset-en.png
│       ├── randomasset-es.png
│       ├── randomasset-<newlang>.png
│       ├── <newasset>-en.mp4
│       ├── <newasset>-es.mp4
│       └── <newasset>-<newlang>.mp4
│
├── i18n
│   ├── es
│   │   ├── index.html
│   │   ├── otherpage.md
│   │   └── <newpage.html>
│   │
│   ├── fr
│   │   ├── index.html
│   │   ├── otherpage.md
│   │   └── <newpage.html>
│   │
│   └── <newlang>
│       ├── index.html
│       ├── otherpage.md
│       └── <newpage.html>
│
├── index.html
├── otherpage.md
├── <newpage.html>
...

For pages written in HTML using data

_includes/i18n/* contains the actual content of each page. This content is localized by combining translations from _data/translations.yml and _data/commands/*.yml with the page.lang variable.

i18n/* contains the pages for each language. These only contain some front matter and the include for the actual content from _includes/i18n/*. Most importantly, the page.lang variable is set at the top. If the language uses a RTL script, make sure you set page.direction to rtl as well to automatically reflow the correct parts of the site.

The default language of the site is English, so the files outside of the i18n directory have the language set to English in page.lang. They also include the actual content from _includes/i18n/*.

For pages written in markdown without data

i18n/* contains the pages for each language. These contain some front matter and the fully translated page written in markdown. The page.lang variable is set at the top. If the language uses a RTL script, make sure you set page.direction to rtl as well to automatically reflow the correct parts of the site.

The default language of the site is English, so the files outside of the i18n directory have the language set to English in page.lang and the content written in markdown as English.

How to add new content

You should not add new content without appropriate translations!

Add a new page with translations as data

In the structure above, you'll need to add:

  • Any translations you need to the data files
  • An English page in the top directory
  • A page for each language in the appropriate folder within i18n
  • The actual content page under _includes/i18n
  • Front matter set correctly in each page
  • Localized assets in the assets directory

Add a new page in markdown

In the structure above, you'll need to add:

  • An English markdown page in the top directory
  • A markdown page for each language in the appropriate folder within i18n
  • Front matter set correctly in each page
  • Localized assets in the assets directory. For screenshots/GIFs of terminal interaction, it may be OK to use the English locale for most cases

Specifics for adding guides

Make sure you:

  • Add the guide to the _data/guides/guide-index.yml file so that the navbar auto-generates correctly.
  • Try to be consistent with other guides by adding sections like "Introduction", "Prerequisites", and a table of contents

Tips for creating example assets (images, GIFs)

Use the demo environment

Using Docker, we can keep the demo environment consistent across collaborators. Note: all of these commands are from within the demo_env folder.

To create a new image:

docker build -t testimage:v1 --no-cache .

To run and attach to the container:

docker run -it -p 8000:8000 testimage:v1 bash

Keeping the dates consistent on files and folders helps to create consistency across the guides. To do this, you can update the modified date to 2020-01-01:

touch -mt 202001010000 *

Keeping assets consistent on macOS

A few tips to keep the screenshots and GIFs consistent:

  • Use a tool like BetterTouchTool to create a reuseable window size snapping area. A lot of the assets are 665x387 right now, so this helps to be consistent with that
  • When taking screenshots with the built-in macOS tool, use CMD + Shift + 4, then press Space to make it a window screenshot, and then hold Alt when clicking to avoid capturing the window shadow effect

Known issues

  • The 404 page defaults to English no matter what context you came from
  • It's sometimes hard to highlight LTR code mixed with RTL prose
  • The use of i18n versus l10n needs some cleanup

Contributors

License

SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

Visit LICENSE for full text.

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All the knowledge you need to get up and running on terminals across operating systems. If you are contributing to open issue on this repo, please ask to be assigned to the issue so people know you are working on it.

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