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Non-Health and Safety Issues in the GMO Controversy

A Bibliography

Compiled by Dan Hicks, Philosophy, University of Western Ontario

Thanks to Kelly Bronson for suggesting contributions. Click or scroll down for help.


  • Altieri, Miguel A, and P Rosset. “Ten Reasons Why Biotechnology Will Not Ensure Food Security, Protect the Environment and Reduce Poverty in the Developing World.” AgBioForum 2, no. 3 (1999): 155–162.

  • Andreé, Peter and Lucy Sharratt. “Genetically Modified Organisms and Precaution: Is the Canadian Government Implementing the Royal Society of Canada’s Recommendations?” A Report on the Canadian Government’s Response to the Royal Society of Canada’s Expert Panel Report entitled “Elements of Precaution: Recommendations for the Regulation of Food Biotechnology in Canada.” Ottawa: Polaris Institute, 2004.

  • Berg, Paul, Baltimore, David, Boyer, Herbert, Cohen, Stanley, Davis, Ronald, Hogness, David, Nathans, Daniel, Roblin, Richard, Watson, James, Weissman, Sherman, and Zinder, Norton. “Potential Biohazards of Recombinant DNA Molecules.” Science 185, no. 4148 (1974): 303.

  • Bronson, Kelly. “What We Talk About When We Talk About Biotechnology” Politics and Culture Issue 2 (2009): online at

  • Bronson, Kelly. “Science Communicators as Ethical Agents: Taking a Reflexive Politics of Knowledge Approach in Technoscience Controversies.” In Ethical Issues in Science Communication: a Theory-Based Approach, edited by Jean Goodwin, Michael Dahlstrom, and Susanna Priest, 29–44, CreateSpace, 2013.

  • Cook, Guy, Elisa Pieri, and Peter T Robbins. “‘The Scientists Think and the Public Feels’: Expert Perceptions of the Discourse of GM Food.” Discourse and Society 15, no. 4 (July 2004): 433–449.

  • Demortain, D. “Regulatory Toxicology in Controversy.” Science, Technology & Human Values (May 27, 2013). doi:10.1177/0162243913490201.

  • Durant, John. “Participatory Technology Assessment and the Democratic Model of the Public Understanding of Science.” Science and Public Policy 26, no. 5 (October 1, 1999): 313–19. doi:10.3152/147154399781782329.

  • Ervin, David E, Leland L Glenna, and Raymond A Jussaume. “Are Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture Compatible?” Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 25, no. 2 (March 30, 2010): 143–57. doi:10.1017/S1742170510000189.

  • Foley, Jonathan. "GMOs, Silver Bullets, and the Trap of Reductionist Thinking." Ensia (February 25, 2014): online at

  • Friedmann, Harriet. “From Colonialism to Green Capitalism: Social Movements and Emergence of Food Regimes.” In Research in Rural Sociology and Development, 11:227–264. Research in Rural Sociology and Development, Bingley: Emerald (MCB UP ), 2006. doi:10.1016/S1057-1922(05)11009-9.

  • Friedmann, Harriet and Philip McMichael. “Agriculture and the State System: The Rise and the Fall of National Agricultures, 1870-Present.” Sociologia Ruralis 29 (1989): 93-117.

  • Garforth, Kathryn and Ainslie, Paige. “When Worlds Collide: Biotechnology Meets Organic Farming in Hoffman v Monsanto.” Journal of Environmental Law 18, no. 3 (2006): 459-77.

  • Glenna, Leland L, Rick Welsh, David Ervin, William B Lacy, and Dina Biscotti. “Commercial Science, Scientists’ Values, and University Biotechnology Research Agendas.” Research Evaluation 40, no. 7 (September 1, 2011): 957–968. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2011.05.002.

  • Glenna, Leland L, and Raymond A Jr Jussaume. “Social Equity and the Genetically Engineered Crops Controversy.” Choices 25, no. 2 (2010).

  • Glenna, Leland and Daniel Cahoy. "Agribusiness Concentration, Intellectual Property, and the Prospects for Rural Economic Benefit from the Emerging Biofuel Economy." Southern Rural Sociology 24, no. 2 (2009): 111-29.

  • Herdt, Robert, Gary Toenniessen, and John O'Toole. “Chapter 50 Plant Biotechnology for Developing Countries.” In Agricultural Development: Farmers, Farm Production and Farm Markets, edited by R Evenson and P Pingali, 3:2641–2667. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier, 2007.

  • Irwin, Alan. Citizen Science, Routledge, 1995, chapter 2.

  • Johnson, Nathanael. "What I learned from six months of GMO research: None of it matters." Grist (January 9, 2014): online at

  • Johnson, Nathanael. "Teaching a humongous foundation to listen to small farmers." Grist (August 11, 2014): online at

  • Kaltoft, Pernille. “Values About Nature in Organic Farming Practice and Knowledge.” Sociologia Ruralis 9, no. 1 (1999): 39-53.

  • Kinchy, Abby J, Daniel Lee Kleinman, and Robyn Autry. “Against Free Markets, Against Science? Regulating the Socio-Economic Effects of Biotechnology.” Rural Sociology 73, no. 2 (June 1, 2008): 147–179. doi:10.1526/003601108784514570.

  • Kinchy, Abby J. Seeds, Science, and Struggle: The Global Politics of Transgenic Crops, MIT Press, 2012.

  • Kleinman, Daniel Lee, and Abby J Kinchy. “Against the Neoliberal Steamroller? the Biosafety Protocol and the Social Regulation of Agricultural Biotechnologies.” Agriculture and Human Values 24, no. 2 (2007): 195–206.

  • Kleinman, Daniel Lee, Abby J Kinchy, and Robyn Autry. “Local Variation or Global Convergence in Agricultural Biotechnology Policy? a Comparative Analysis.” Science and Public Policy 36, no. 5 (June 1, 2009): 361–71. doi:10.3152/030234209X442043.

  • Kloppenburg, Jack. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology. New York, NY: University of Cambridge Press, 1988.

  • Kneen, Brewster. From Land to Mouth: Understanding the Food System. Toronto, ON: NC Press, 1995.

  • Lacey, Hugh. “Assessing the Value of Transgenic Crops.” Science and Engineering Ethics 8, no. 4 (December 2002): 497–511. doi:10.1007/s11948-002-0003-8.

  • Lawrence, Geoffrey, and Philip McMichael. “The Question of Food Security.” International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 19, no. 2 (June 24, 2012): 135–42.

  • Lewontin, Richard. "Genes in the Food!" New York Review of Books (June 21, 2001): online at:

  • Lewontin, Richard. "The Maturing of Capitalist Agriculture: Farmer as Proletarian." Monthly Review 50, no. 3 (July-August 1998): online at

  • Li, Wei, and LiSheng Cai. “The Scope of Patent Protection for Gene Technology in China” 32, no. 10 (n.d.): 1001–3.

  • McMichael, Philip. “Global Development and the Corporate Food Regime.” Rural Sociology and Development 11 (2006): 265–299. doi:10.1016/S1057-1922(05)11010-5.

  • McMichael, Philip, and Mindi Schneider. “Food Security Politics and the Millennium Development Goals.” Ethics, Policy & Environment 32, no. 1 (February 2011): 119–39. doi:10.1080/01436597.2011.543818.

  • Mascarenhas and Busch. "Seeds of Change: Intellectual Property Rights, Genetically Modified Soybeans, and Seed Saving in the United States.'' Sociologia Ruralis 45, no. 2 (April 2006): 122-38.

  • Morvaridi, Behrooz. “Capitalist Philanthropy and the New Green Revolution for Food Security.” International Journal of Sociology of Agriculture and Food 19, no. 2 (June 28, 2012): 243–56.

  • Nestle, Marion. Safe Food: The Politics of Food Safety, 2010, part 2.

  • Pechlander, Gabriela and Gerardo Otero. "The Third Food Regime: Neoliberal Globalism and Agricultural Biotechnology in North America." Sociologia Ruralis 48, no. 4 (October 2008): 351-71.

  • Piesse, J, and C Thirtle. “Agricultural R&D, Technology and Productivity.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365, no. 1554 (August 16, 2010): 3035–3047. doi:10.1126/science.205.4411.1101.

  • Sagar, Ambuj, Arthur Daemmrich, and Mona Ashiya. “The Tragedy of the Commoners: Biotechnology and Its Publics.” Nature Biotechnology 18, no. 1 (January 1, 2000): 2–4. doi:10.1038/71861.

  • Sarewitz, Daniel. “How Science Makes Environmental Controversies Worse.” Environmental Science and Policy 7, no. 5 (2004): 385–403. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2004.06.001.

  • Scoones, Ian. “Mobilizing Against GM Crops in India, South Africa and Brazil.” Journal of Agrarian Change 8, no. 2 (April 2008): 315–44. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0366.2008.00172.x.

  • Scoones, Ian, and John Thompson. “The Politics of Seed in Africa's Green Revolution: Alternative Narratives and Competing Pathways.” IDS Bulletin 42, no. 4 (June 28, 2011): 1–23. doi:10.1111/j.1759-5436.2011.00232.x.

  • Scott, Dane. "The Technological Fix Criticisms and the Agricultural Biotechnology Debate." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24, no. 3 (June 2011): 207-26.

  • Stone, Glenn Davis. “Both Sides Now.” Current Anthropology 43, no. 4 (August 2002): 611–630. doi:10.1086/341532.

  • Stone, Glenn Davis. “The Anthropology of Genetically Modified Crops.” Annual Review of Anthropology 39, no. 1 (October 21, 2010): 381–400. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.012809.105058.

  • Thompson, Paul. “Ethics, Hunger, and the Case for Genetically Modified (GM) Crops.” In Ethics, Hunger, and Globalization: in Search of Appropriate Policies, edited by P Pinstrup-Andersen and P Sandøe, 215–235, Springer, 2007.

  • Thompson, Paul, and William Hannah. “Food and Agricultural Biotechnology: a Summary and Analysis of Ethical Concerns.” In Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, edited by Ulf Stahl, UteE B Donalies, and Elke Nevoigt, 111:229–264–264. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. doi:10.1007/10_2008_100.

  • Thompson, Paul B. Food Biotechnology in Ethical Perspective‎, 2007.

  • Thompson, Paul B. “The GMO Quandary and What It Means for Social Philosophy.” Social Philosophy Today, 2014. doi:10.5840/socphiltoday201461210.

  • Timmermann, Cristian. “Pesticides and the Patent Bargain.” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, August 10, 2014, 1–19. doi:10.1007/s10806-014-9515-x.


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