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12 django/contrib/auth/models.py
@@ -47,6 +47,13 @@ def check_password(raw_password, enc_password):
class SiteProfileNotAvailable(Exception):
pass
+class PermissionManager(models.Manager):
+ def get_by_natural_key(self, codename, app_label, model):
+ return self.get(
+ codename=codename,
+ content_type=ContentType.objects.get_by_natural_key(app_label, model)
+ )
+
class Permission(models.Model):
"""The permissions system provides a way to assign permissions to specific users and groups of users.
@@ -63,6 +70,7 @@ class Permission(models.Model):
name = models.CharField(_('name'), max_length=50)
content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType)
codename = models.CharField(_('codename'), max_length=100)
+ objects = PermissionManager()
class Meta:
verbose_name = _('permission')
@@ -76,6 +84,10 @@ def __unicode__(self):
unicode(self.content_type),
unicode(self.name))
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.codename,) + self.content_type.natural_key()
+ natural_key.dependencies = ['contenttypes.contenttype']
+
class Group(models.Model):
"""Groups are a generic way of categorizing users to apply permissions, or some other label, to those users. A user can belong to any number of groups.
View
10 django/contrib/contenttypes/models.py
@@ -8,6 +8,13 @@ class ContentTypeManager(models.Manager):
# This cache is shared by all the get_for_* methods.
_cache = {}
+ def get_by_natural_key(self, app_label, model):
+ try:
+ ct = self.__class__._cache[(app_label, model)]
+ except KeyError:
+ ct = self.get(app_label=app_label, model=model)
+ return ct
+
def get_for_model(self, model):
"""
Returns the ContentType object for a given model, creating the
@@ -93,3 +100,6 @@ def get_object_for_this_type(self, **kwargs):
so code that calls this method should catch it.
"""
return self.model_class()._default_manager.get(**kwargs)
+
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.app_label, self.model)
View
87 django/core/management/commands/dumpdata.py
@@ -13,6 +13,8 @@ class Command(BaseCommand):
help='Specifies the indent level to use when pretty-printing output'),
make_option('-e', '--exclude', dest='exclude',action='append', default=[],
help='App to exclude (use multiple --exclude to exclude multiple apps).'),
+ make_option('-n', '--natural', action='store_true', dest='use_natural_keys', default=False,
+ help='Use natural keys if they are available.'),
)
help = 'Output the contents of the database as a fixture of the given format.'
args = '[appname ...]'
@@ -24,6 +26,7 @@ def handle(self, *app_labels, **options):
indent = options.get('indent',None)
exclude = options.get('exclude',[])
show_traceback = options.get('traceback', False)
+ use_natural_keys = options.get('use_natural_keys', False)
excluded_apps = [get_app(app_label) for app_label in exclude]
@@ -67,18 +70,86 @@ def handle(self, *app_labels, **options):
except KeyError:
raise CommandError("Unknown serialization format: %s" % format)
+ # Now collate the objects to be serialized.
objects = []
- for app, model_list in app_list.items():
- if model_list is None:
- model_list = get_models(app)
-
- for model in model_list:
- if not model._meta.proxy:
- objects.extend(model._default_manager.all())
+ for model in sort_dependencies(app_list.items()):
+ if not model._meta.proxy:
+ objects.extend(model._default_manager.all())
try:
- return serializers.serialize(format, objects, indent=indent)
+ return serializers.serialize(format, objects, indent=indent,
+ use_natural_keys=use_natural_keys)
except Exception, e:
if show_traceback:
raise
raise CommandError("Unable to serialize database: %s" % e)
+
+def sort_dependencies(app_list):
+ """Sort a list of app,modellist pairs into a single list of models.
+
+ The single list of models is sorted so that any model with a natural key
+ is serialized before a normal model, and any model with a natural key
+ dependency has it's dependencies serialized first.
+ """
+ from django.db.models import get_model, get_models
+ # Process the list of models, and get the list of dependencies
+ model_dependencies = []
+ models = set()
+ for app, model_list in app_list:
+ if model_list is None:
+ model_list = get_models(app)
+
+ for model in model_list:
+ models.add(model)
+ # Add any explicitly defined dependencies
+ if hasattr(model, 'natural_key'):
+ deps = getattr(model.natural_key, 'dependencies', [])
+ if deps:
+ deps = [get_model(*d.split('.')) for d in deps]
+ else:
+ deps = []
+
+ # Now add a dependency for any FK or M2M relation with
+ # a model that defines a natural key
+ for field in model._meta.fields:
+ if hasattr(field.rel, 'to'):
+ rel_model = field.rel.to
+ if hasattr(rel_model, 'natural_key'):
+ deps.append(rel_model)
+ for field in model._meta.many_to_many:
+ rel_model = field.rel.to
+ if hasattr(rel_model, 'natural_key'):
+ deps.append(rel_model)
+ model_dependencies.append((model, deps))
+
+ model_dependencies.reverse()
+ # Now sort the models to ensure that dependencies are met. This
+ # is done by repeatedly iterating over the input list of models.
+ # If all the dependencies of a given model are in the final list,
+ # that model is promoted to the end of the final list. This process
+ # continues until the input list is empty, or we do a full iteration
+ # over the input models without promoting a model to the final list.
+ # If we do a full iteration without a promotion, that means there are
+ # circular dependencies in the list.
+ model_list = []
+ while model_dependencies:
+ skipped = []
+ changed = False
+ while model_dependencies:
+ model, deps = model_dependencies.pop()
+ if all((d not in models or d in model_list) for d in deps):
+ # If all of the models in the dependency list are either already
+ # on the final model list, or not on the original serialization list,
+ # then we've found another model with all it's dependencies satisfied.
+ model_list.append(model)
+ changed = True
+ else:
+ skipped.append((model, deps))
+ if not changed:
+ raise CommandError("Can't resolve dependencies for %s in serialized app list." %
+ ', '.join('%s.%s' % (model._meta.app_label, model._meta.object_name)
+ for model, deps in sorted(skipped, key=lambda obj: obj[0].__name__))
+ )
+ model_dependencies = skipped
+
+ return model_list
View
1  django/core/serializers/base.py
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ def serialize(self, queryset, **options):
self.stream = options.get("stream", StringIO())
self.selected_fields = options.get("fields")
+ self.use_natural_keys = options.get("use_natural_keys", False)
self.start_serialization()
for obj in queryset:
View
1  django/core/serializers/json.py
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@ class Serializer(PythonSerializer):
def end_serialization(self):
self.options.pop('stream', None)
self.options.pop('fields', None)
+ self.options.pop('use_natural_keys', None)
simplejson.dump(self.objects, self.stream, cls=DjangoJSONEncoder, **self.options)
def getvalue(self):
View
42 django/core/serializers/python.py
@@ -47,17 +47,24 @@ def handle_field(self, obj, field):
def handle_fk_field(self, obj, field):
related = getattr(obj, field.name)
if related is not None:
- if field.rel.field_name == related._meta.pk.name:
- # Related to remote object via primary key
- related = related._get_pk_val()
+ if self.use_natural_keys and hasattr(related, 'natural_key'):
+ related = related.natural_key()
else:
- # Related to remote object via other field
- related = getattr(related, field.rel.field_name)
- self._current[field.name] = smart_unicode(related, strings_only=True)
+ if field.rel.field_name == related._meta.pk.name:
+ # Related to remote object via primary key
+ related = related._get_pk_val()
+ else:
+ # Related to remote object via other field
+ related = smart_unicode(getattr(related, field.rel.field_name), strings_only=True)
+ self._current[field.name] = related
def handle_m2m_field(self, obj, field):
if field.rel.through._meta.auto_created:
- self._current[field.name] = [smart_unicode(related._get_pk_val(), strings_only=True)
+ if self.use_natural_keys and hasattr(field.rel.to, 'natural_key'):
+ m2m_value = lambda value: value.natural_key()
+ else:
+ m2m_value = lambda value: smart_unicode(value._get_pk_val(), strings_only=True)
+ self._current[field.name] = [m2m_value(related)
for related in getattr(obj, field.name).iterator()]
def getvalue(self):
@@ -86,13 +93,28 @@ def Deserializer(object_list, **options):
# Handle M2M relations
if field.rel and isinstance(field.rel, models.ManyToManyRel):
- m2m_convert = field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python
- m2m_data[field.name] = [m2m_convert(smart_unicode(pk)) for pk in field_value]
+ if hasattr(field.rel.to._default_manager, 'get_by_natural_key'):
+ def m2m_convert(value):
+ if hasattr(value, '__iter__'):
+ return field.rel.to._default_manager.get_by_natural_key(*value).pk
+ else:
+ return smart_unicode(field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python(value))
+ else:
+ m2m_convert = lambda v: smart_unicode(field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python(v))
+ m2m_data[field.name] = [m2m_convert(pk) for pk in field_value]
# Handle FK fields
elif field.rel and isinstance(field.rel, models.ManyToOneRel):
if field_value is not None:
- data[field.attname] = field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(field_value)
+ if hasattr(field.rel.to._default_manager, 'get_by_natural_key'):
+ if hasattr(field_value, '__iter__'):
+ obj = field.rel.to._default_manager.get_by_natural_key(*field_value)
+ value = getattr(obj, field.rel.field_name)
+ else:
+ value = field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(field_value)
+ data[field.attname] = value
+ else:
+ data[field.attname] = field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(field_value)
else:
data[field.attname] = None
View
7 django/core/serializers/pyyaml.py
@@ -26,9 +26,9 @@ class Serializer(PythonSerializer):
"""
Convert a queryset to YAML.
"""
-
+
internal_use_only = False
-
+
def handle_field(self, obj, field):
# A nasty special case: base YAML doesn't support serialization of time
# types (as opposed to dates or datetimes, which it does support). Since
@@ -40,10 +40,11 @@ def handle_field(self, obj, field):
self._current[field.name] = str(getattr(obj, field.name))
else:
super(Serializer, self).handle_field(obj, field)
-
+
def end_serialization(self):
self.options.pop('stream', None)
self.options.pop('fields', None)
+ self.options.pop('use_natural_keys', None)
yaml.dump(self.objects, self.stream, Dumper=DjangoSafeDumper, **self.options)
def getvalue(self):
View
74 django/core/serializers/xml_serializer.py
@@ -81,13 +81,22 @@ def handle_fk_field(self, obj, field):
self._start_relational_field(field)
related = getattr(obj, field.name)
if related is not None:
- if field.rel.field_name == related._meta.pk.name:
- # Related to remote object via primary key
- related = related._get_pk_val()
+ if self.use_natural_keys and hasattr(related, 'natural_key'):
+ # If related object has a natural key, use it
+ related = related.natural_key()
+ # Iterable natural keys are rolled out as subelements
+ for key_value in related:
+ self.xml.startElement("natural", {})
+ self.xml.characters(smart_unicode(key_value))
+ self.xml.endElement("natural")
else:
- # Related to remote object via other field
- related = getattr(related, field.rel.field_name)
- self.xml.characters(smart_unicode(related))
+ if field.rel.field_name == related._meta.pk.name:
+ # Related to remote object via primary key
+ related = related._get_pk_val()
+ else:
+ # Related to remote object via other field
+ related = getattr(related, field.rel.field_name)
+ self.xml.characters(smart_unicode(related))
else:
self.xml.addQuickElement("None")
self.xml.endElement("field")
@@ -100,8 +109,25 @@ def handle_m2m_field(self, obj, field):
"""
if field.rel.through._meta.auto_created:
self._start_relational_field(field)
+ if self.use_natural_keys and hasattr(field.rel.to, 'natural_key'):
+ # If the objects in the m2m have a natural key, use it
+ def handle_m2m(value):
+ natural = value.natural_key()
+ # Iterable natural keys are rolled out as subelements
+ self.xml.startElement("object", {})
+ for key_value in natural:
+ self.xml.startElement("natural", {})
+ self.xml.characters(smart_unicode(key_value))
+ self.xml.endElement("natural")
+ self.xml.endElement("object")
+ else:
+ def handle_m2m(value):
+ self.xml.addQuickElement("object", attrs={
+ 'pk' : smart_unicode(value._get_pk_val())
+ })
for relobj in getattr(obj, field.name).iterator():
- self.xml.addQuickElement("object", attrs={"pk" : smart_unicode(relobj._get_pk_val())})
+ handle_m2m(relobj)
+
self.xml.endElement("field")
def _start_relational_field(self, field):
@@ -187,16 +213,40 @@ def _handle_fk_field_node(self, node, field):
if node.getElementsByTagName('None'):
return None
else:
- return field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(
- getInnerText(node).strip())
+ if hasattr(field.rel.to._default_manager, 'get_by_natural_key'):
+ keys = node.getElementsByTagName('natural')
+ if keys:
+ # If there are 'natural' subelements, it must be a natural key
+ field_value = [getInnerText(k).strip() for k in keys]
+ obj = field.rel.to._default_manager.get_by_natural_key(*field_value)
+ obj_pk = getattr(obj, field.rel.field_name)
+ else:
+ # Otherwise, treat like a normal PK
+ field_value = getInnerText(node).strip()
+ obj_pk = field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(field_value)
+ return obj_pk
+ else:
+ field_value = getInnerText(node).strip()
+ return field.rel.to._meta.get_field(field.rel.field_name).to_python(field_value)
def _handle_m2m_field_node(self, node, field):
"""
Handle a <field> node for a ManyToManyField.
"""
- return [field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python(
- c.getAttribute("pk"))
- for c in node.getElementsByTagName("object")]
+ if hasattr(field.rel.to._default_manager, 'get_by_natural_key'):
+ def m2m_convert(n):
+ keys = n.getElementsByTagName('natural')
+ if keys:
+ # If there are 'natural' subelements, it must be a natural key
+ field_value = [getInnerText(k).strip() for k in keys]
+ obj_pk = field.rel.to._default_manager.get_by_natural_key(*field_value).pk
+ else:
+ # Otherwise, treat like a normal PK value.
+ obj_pk = field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python(n.getAttribute('pk'))
+ return obj_pk
+ else:
+ m2m_convert = lambda n: field.rel.to._meta.pk.to_python(n.getAttribute('pk'))
+ return [m2m_convert(c) for c in node.getElementsByTagName("object")]
def _get_model_from_node(self, node, attr):
"""
View
13 docs/ref/django-admin.txt
@@ -234,6 +234,17 @@ name to ``dumpdata``, the dumped output will be restricted to that model,
rather than the entire application. You can also mix application names and
model names.
+.. django-admin-option:: --natural
+
+.. versionadded:: 1.2
+
+Use :ref:`natural keys <topics-serialization-natural-keys>` to represent
+any foreign key and many-to-many relationship with a model that provides
+a natural key definition. If you are dumping ``contrib.auth`` ``Permission``
+objects or ``contrib.contenttypes`` ``ContentType`` objects, you should
+probably be using this flag.
+
+
flush
-----
@@ -701,7 +712,7 @@ information.
.. versionadded:: 1.2
-Use the ``--failfast`` option to stop running tests and report the failure
+Use the ``--failfast`` option to stop running tests and report the failure
immediately after a test fails.
testserver <fixture fixture ...>
View
10 docs/releases/1.2.txt
@@ -267,3 +267,13 @@ include %}`` tags).
As a side effect, it is now much easier to support non-Django template
languages. For more details, see the :ref:`notes on supporting
non-Django template languages<topic-template-alternate-language>`.
+
+Natural keys in fixtures
+------------------------
+
+Fixtures can refer to remote objects using
+:ref:`topics-serialization-natural-keys`. This lookup scheme is an
+alternative to the normal primary-key based object references in a
+fixture, improving readability, and resolving problems referring to
+objects whose primary key value may not be predictable or known.
+
View
192 docs/topics/serialization.txt
@@ -154,10 +154,10 @@ to install third-party Python modules:
.. _PyYAML: http://www.pyyaml.org/
Notes for specific serialization formats
-----------------------------------------
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
json
-~~~~
+^^^^
If you're using UTF-8 (or any other non-ASCII encoding) data with the JSON
serializer, you must pass ``ensure_ascii=False`` as a parameter to the
@@ -191,3 +191,191 @@ them. Something like this will work::
.. _special encoder: http://svn.red-bean.com/bob/simplejson/tags/simplejson-1.7/docs/index.html
+.. _topics-serialization-natural-keys:
+
+Natural keys
+------------
+
+The default serialization strategy for foreign keys and many-to-many
+relations is to serialize the value of the primary key(s) of the
+objects in the relation. This strategy works well for most types of
+object, but it can cause difficulty in some circumstances.
+
+Consider the case of a list of objects that have foreign key on
+:class:`ContentType`. If you're going to serialize an object that
+refers to a content type, you need to have a way to refer to that
+content type. Content Types are automatically created by Django as
+part of the database synchronization process, so you don't need to
+include content types in a fixture or other serialized data. As a
+result, the primary key of any given content type isn't easy to
+predict - it will depend on how and when :djadmin:`syncdb` was
+executed to create the content types.
+
+There is also the matter of convenience. An integer id isn't always
+the most convenient way to refer to an object; sometimes, a
+more natural reference would be helpful.
+
+Deserialization of natural keys
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+It is for these reasons that Django provides `natural keys`. A natural
+key is a tuple of values that can be used to uniquely identify an
+object instance without using the primary key value.
+
+Consider the following two models::
+
+ from django.db import models
+
+ class Person(models.Model):
+ first_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ last_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+
+ birthdate = models.DateField()
+
+ class Book(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ author = models.ForeignKey(Person)
+
+Ordinarily, serialized data for ``Book`` would use an integer to refer to
+the author. For example, in JSON, a Book might be serialized as::
+
+ ...
+ {
+ "pk": 1,
+ "model": "store.book",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Mostly Harmless",
+ "author": 42
+ }
+ }
+ ...
+
+This isn't a particularly natural way to refer to an author. It
+requires that you know the primary key value for the author; it also
+requires that this primary key value is stable and predictable.
+
+However, if we add natural key handling to Person, the fixture becomes
+much more humane. To add natural key handling, you define a default
+Manager for Person with a ``get_by_natural_key()`` method. In the case
+of a Person, a good natural key might be the pair of first and last
+name::
+
+ from django.db import models
+
+ class PersonManager(models.Manager):
+ def get_by_natural_key(self, first_name, last_name):
+ return self.filter(first_name=first_name, last_name=last_name)
+
+ class Person(models.Model):
+ objects = PersonManager()
+
+ first_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ last_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+
+ birthdate = models.DateField()
+
+Now books can use that natural key to refer to ``Person`` objects::
+
+ ...
+ {
+ "pk": 1,
+ "model": "store.book",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Mostly Harmless",
+ "author": ["Douglas", "Adams"]
+ }
+ }
+ ...
+
+When you try to load this serialized data, Django will use the
+``get_by_natural_key()`` method to resolve ``["Douglas", "Adams"]``
+into the primary key of an actual ``Person`` object.
+
+Serialization of natural keys
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+So how do you get Django to emit a natural key when serializing an object?
+Firstly, you need to add another method -- this time to the model itself::
+
+ class Person(models.Model):
+ objects = PersonManager()
+
+ first_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ last_name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+
+ birthdate = models.DateField()
+
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.first_name, self.last_name)
+
+Then, when you call ``serializers.serialize()``, you provide a
+``use_natural_keys=True`` argument::
+
+ >>> serializers.serialize([book1, book2], format='json', indent=2, use_natural_keys=True)
+
+When ``use_natural_keys=True`` is specified, Django will use the
+``natural_key()`` method to serialize any reference to objects of the
+type that defines the method.
+
+If you are using :djadmin:`dumpdata` to generate serialized data, you
+use the `--natural` command line flag to generate natural keys.
+
+.. note::
+
+ You don't need to define both ``natural_key()`` and
+ ``get_by_natural_key()``. If you don't want Django to output
+ natural keys during serialization, but you want to retain the
+ ability to load natural keys, then you can opt to not implement
+ the ``natural_key()`` method.
+
+ Conversely, if (for some strange reason) you want Django to output
+ natural keys during serialization, but *not* be able to load those
+ key values, just don't define the ``get_by_natural_key()`` method.
+
+Dependencies during serialization
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Since natural keys rely on database lookups to resolve references, it
+is important that data exists before it is referenced. You can't make
+a `forward reference` with natural keys - the data you are referencing
+must exist before you include a natural key reference to that data.
+
+To accommodate this limitation, calls to :djadmin:`dumpdata` that use
+the :djadminopt:`--natural` optionwill serialize any model with a
+``natural_key()`` method before it serializes normal key objects.
+
+However, this may not always be enough. If your natural key refers to
+another object (by using a foreign key or natural key to another object
+as part of a natural key), then you need to be able to ensure that
+the objects on which a natural key depends occur in the serialized data
+before the natural key requires them.
+
+To control this ordering, you can define dependencies on your
+``natural_key()`` methods. You do this by setting a ``dependencies``
+attribute on the ``natural_key()`` method itself.
+
+For example, consider the ``Permission`` model in ``contrib.auth``.
+The following is a simplified version of the ``Permission`` model::
+
+ class Permission(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
+ content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType)
+ codename = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ # ...
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.codename,) + self.content_type.natural_key()
+
+The natural key for a ``Permission`` is a combination of the codename for the
+``Permission``, and the ``ContentType`` to which the ``Permission`` applies. This means
+that ``ContentType`` must be serialized before ``Permission``. To define this
+dependency, we add one extra line::
+
+ class Permission(models.Model):
+ # ...
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.codename,) + self.content_type.natural_key()
+ natural_key.dependencies = ['contenttypes.contenttype']
+
+This definition ensures that ``ContentType`` models are serialized before
+``Permission`` models. In turn, any object referencing ``Permission`` will
+be serialized after both ``ContentType`` and ``Permission``.
View
41 tests/modeltests/fixtures/fixtures/fixture6.json
@@ -0,0 +1,41 @@
+[
+ {
+ "pk": "1",
+ "model": "fixtures.tag",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "copyright",
+ "tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"],
+ "tagged_id": "3"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "2",
+ "model": "fixtures.tag",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "law",
+ "tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"],
+ "tagged_id": "3"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "1",
+ "model": "fixtures.person",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Django Reinhardt"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "2",
+ "model": "fixtures.person",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Stephane Grappelli"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "3",
+ "model": "fixtures.person",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Prince"
+ }
+ }
+]
View
27 tests/modeltests/fixtures/fixtures/fixture7.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,27 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<django-objects version="1.0">
+ <object pk="2" model="fixtures.tag">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">legal</field>
+ <field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel">
+ <natural>fixtures</natural>
+ <natural>article</natural>
+ </field>
+ <field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">3</field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="3" model="fixtures.tag">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">django</field>
+ <field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel">
+ <natural>fixtures</natural>
+ <natural>article</natural>
+ </field>
+ <field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">4</field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="4" model="fixtures.tag">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">world domination</field>
+ <field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel">
+ <natural>fixtures</natural>
+ <natural>article</natural>
+ </field>
+ <field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">4</field>
+ </object>
+</django-objects>
View
32 tests/modeltests/fixtures/fixtures/fixture8.json
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+[
+ {
+ "pk": "1",
+ "model": "fixtures.visa",
+ "fields": {
+ "person": ["Django Reinhardt"],
+ "permissions": [
+ ["add_user", "auth", "user"],
+ ["change_user", "auth", "user"],
+ ["delete_user", "auth", "user"]
+ ]
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "2",
+ "model": "fixtures.visa",
+ "fields": {
+ "person": ["Stephane Grappelli"],
+ "permissions": [
+ ["add_user", "auth", "user"]
+ ]
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "3",
+ "model": "fixtures.visa",
+ "fields": {
+ "person": ["Prince"],
+ "permissions": []
+ }
+ }
+]
View
48 tests/modeltests/fixtures/fixtures/fixture9.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<django-objects version="1.0">
+ <object pk="2" model="fixtures.visa">
+ <field type="CharField" name="person">
+ <natural>Stephane Grappelli</natural>
+ </field>
+ <field to="auth.permission" name="permissions" rel="ManyToManyRel">
+ <object>
+ <natural>add_user</natural>
+ <natural>auth</natural>
+ <natural>user</natural>
+ </object>
+ <object>
+ <natural>delete_user</natural>
+ <natural>auth</natural>
+ <natural>user</natural>
+ </object>
+ </field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="3" model="fixtures.person">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">
+ <natural>Artist formerly known as &quot;Prince&quot;</natural>
+ </field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="3" model="fixtures.visa">
+ <field type="CharField" name="person">
+ <natural>Artist formerly known as &quot;Prince&quot;</natural>
+ </field>
+ <field to="auth.permission" name="permissions" rel="ManyToManyRel">
+ <object>
+ <natural>change_user</natural>
+ <natural>auth</natural>
+ <natural>user</natural>
+ </object>
+ </field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="1" model="fixtures.book">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">Music for all ages</field>
+ <field to="fixtures.person" name="authors" rel="ManyToManyRel">
+ <object>
+ <natural>Django Reinhardt</natural>
+ </object>
+ <object>
+ <natural>Artist formerly known as &quot;Prince&quot;</natural>
+ </object>
+ </field>
+ </object>
+</django-objects>
View
119 tests/modeltests/fixtures/models.py
@@ -8,6 +8,9 @@
``FIXTURE_DIRS`` setting.
"""
+from django.contrib.auth.models import Permission
+from django.contrib.contenttypes import generic
+from django.contrib.contenttypes.models import ContentType
from django.db import models
from django.conf import settings
@@ -31,6 +34,62 @@ def __unicode__(self):
class Meta:
ordering = ('-pub_date', 'headline')
+class Blog(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ featured = models.ForeignKey(Article, related_name='fixtures_featured_set')
+ articles = models.ManyToManyField(Article, blank=True,
+ related_name='fixtures_articles_set')
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
+
+class Tag(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ tagged_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType, related_name="fixtures_tag_set")
+ tagged_id = models.PositiveIntegerField(default=0)
+ tagged = generic.GenericForeignKey(ct_field='tagged_type',
+ fk_field='tagged_id')
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return '<%s: %s> tagged "%s"' % (self.tagged.__class__.__name__,
+ self.tagged, self.name)
+
+class PersonManager(models.Manager):
+ def get_by_natural_key(self, name):
+ return self.get(name=name)
+
+class Person(models.Model):
+ objects = PersonManager()
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.name,)
+
+class Visa(models.Model):
+ person = models.ForeignKey(Person)
+ permissions = models.ManyToManyField(Permission, blank=True)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return '%s %s' % (self.person.name,
+ ', '.join(p.name for p in self.permissions.all()))
+
+class Book(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
+ authors = models.ManyToManyField(Person)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return '%s by %s' % (self.name,
+ ' and '.join(a.name for a in self.authors.all()))
+
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
>>> from django.core import management
>>> from django.db.models import get_app
@@ -90,12 +149,53 @@ class Meta:
>>> Article.objects.all()
[<Article: XML identified as leading cause of cancer>, <Article: Django conquers world!>, <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is>, <Article: Poker on TV is great!>, <Article: Python program becomes self aware>]
+# Load fixture 6, JSON file with dynamic ContentType fields. Testing ManyToOne.
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture6.json', verbosity=0)
+>>> Tag.objects.all()
+[<Tag: <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is> tagged "copyright">, <Tag: <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is> tagged "law">]
+
+# Load fixture 7, XML file with dynamic ContentType fields. Testing ManyToOne.
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture7.xml', verbosity=0)
+>>> Tag.objects.all()
+[<Tag: <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is> tagged "copyright">, <Tag: <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is> tagged "legal">, <Tag: <Article: Django conquers world!> tagged "django">, <Tag: <Article: Django conquers world!> tagged "world domination">]
+
+# Load fixture 8, JSON file with dynamic Permission fields. Testing ManyToMany.
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture8.json', verbosity=0)
+>>> Visa.objects.all()
+[<Visa: Django Reinhardt Can add user, Can change user, Can delete user>, <Visa: Stephane Grappelli Can add user>, <Visa: Prince >]
+
+# Load fixture 9, XML file with dynamic Permission fields. Testing ManyToMany.
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture9.xml', verbosity=0)
+>>> Visa.objects.all()
+[<Visa: Django Reinhardt Can add user, Can change user, Can delete user>, <Visa: Stephane Grappelli Can add user, Can delete user>, <Visa: Artist formerly known as "Prince" Can change user>]
+
+>>> Book.objects.all()
+[<Book: Music for all ages by Artist formerly known as "Prince" and Django Reinhardt>]
+
# Load a fixture that doesn't exist
>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'unknown.json', verbosity=0)
# object list is unaffected
>>> Article.objects.all()
[<Article: XML identified as leading cause of cancer>, <Article: Django conquers world!>, <Article: Copyright is fine the way it is>, <Article: Poker on TV is great!>, <Article: Python program becomes self aware>]
+
+# By default, you get raw keys on dumpdata
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures.book', format='json')
+[{"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.book", "fields": {"name": "Music for all ages", "authors": [3, 1]}}]
+
+# But you can get natural keys if you ask for them and they are available
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures.book', format='json', use_natural_keys=True)
+[{"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.book", "fields": {"name": "Music for all ages", "authors": [["Artist formerly known as \\"Prince\\""], ["Django Reinhardt"]]}}]
+
+# Dump the current contents of the database as a JSON fixture
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures', format='json', use_natural_keys=True)
+[{"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.category", "fields": {"description": "Latest news stories", "title": "News Stories"}}, {"pk": 5, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "XML identified as leading cause of cancer", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 16:00:00"}}, {"pk": 4, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Django conquers world!", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 15:00:00"}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Copyright is fine the way it is", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 14:00:00"}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Poker on TV is great!", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 11:00:00"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Python program becomes self aware", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 11:00:00"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "copyright", "tagged_id": 3}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "legal", "tagged_id": 3}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "django", "tagged_id": 4}}, {"pk": 4, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "world domination", "tagged_id": 4}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Artist formerly known as \\"Prince\\""}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Django Reinhardt"}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Stephane Grappelli"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.visa", "fields": {"person": ["Django Reinhardt"], "permissions": [["add_user", "auth", "user"], ["change_user", "auth", "user"], ["delete_user", "auth", "user"]]}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.visa", "fields": {"person": ["Stephane Grappelli"], "permissions": [["add_user", "auth", "user"], ["delete_user", "auth", "user"]]}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.visa", "fields": {"person": ["Artist formerly known as \\"Prince\\""], "permissions": [["change_user", "auth", "user"]]}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.book", "fields": {"name": "Music for all ages", "authors": [["Artist formerly known as \\"Prince\\""], ["Django Reinhardt"]]}}]
+
+# Dump the current contents of the database as an XML fixture
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures', format='xml', use_natural_keys=True)
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<django-objects version="1.0"><object pk="1" model="fixtures.category"><field type="CharField" name="title">News Stories</field><field type="TextField" name="description">Latest news stories</field></object><object pk="5" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">XML identified as leading cause of cancer</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 16:00:00</field></object><object pk="4" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Django conquers world!</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 15:00:00</field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Copyright is fine the way it is</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 14:00:00</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Poker on TV is great!</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 11:00:00</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Python program becomes self aware</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 11:00:00</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">copyright</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">3</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">legal</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">3</field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">django</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">4</field></object><object pk="4" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">world domination</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">4</field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Artist formerly known as "Prince"</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Django Reinhardt</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Stephane Grappelli</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.visa"><field to="fixtures.person" name="person" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>Django Reinhardt</natural></field><field to="auth.permission" name="permissions" rel="ManyToManyRel"><object><natural>add_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object><object><natural>change_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object><object><natural>delete_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object></field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.visa"><field to="fixtures.person" name="person" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>Stephane Grappelli</natural></field><field to="auth.permission" name="permissions" rel="ManyToManyRel"><object><natural>add_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object><object><natural>delete_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object></field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.visa"><field to="fixtures.person" name="person" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>Artist formerly known as "Prince"</natural></field><field to="auth.permission" name="permissions" rel="ManyToManyRel"><object><natural>change_user</natural><natural>auth</natural><natural>user</natural></object></field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.book"><field type="CharField" name="name">Music for all ages</field><field to="fixtures.person" name="authors" rel="ManyToManyRel"><object><natural>Artist formerly known as "Prince"</natural></object><object><natural>Django Reinhardt</natural></object></field></object></django-objects>
+
"""}
# Database flushing does not work on MySQL with the default storage engine
@@ -159,6 +259,25 @@ class Meta:
>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture5', verbosity=0) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Multiple fixtures named 'fixture5' in '...fixtures'. Aborting.
+>>> management.call_command('flush', verbosity=0, interactive=False)
+
+# Load back in fixture 1, we need the articles from it
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture1', verbosity=0)
+
+# Try to load fixture 6 using format discovery
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'fixture6', verbosity=0)
+>>> Tag.objects.all()
+[<Tag: <Article: Time to reform copyright> tagged "copyright">, <Tag: <Article: Time to reform copyright> tagged "law">]
+
+# Dump the current contents of the database as a JSON fixture
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures', format='json', use_natural_keys=True)
+[{"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.category", "fields": {"description": "Latest news stories", "title": "News Stories"}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Time to reform copyright", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 13:00:00"}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Poker has no place on ESPN", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 12:00:00"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.article", "fields": {"headline": "Python program becomes self aware", "pub_date": "2006-06-16 11:00:00"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "copyright", "tagged_id": 3}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.tag", "fields": {"tagged_type": ["fixtures", "article"], "name": "law", "tagged_id": 3}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Django Reinhardt"}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Prince"}}, {"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures.person", "fields": {"name": "Stephane Grappelli"}}]
+
+# Dump the current contents of the database as an XML fixture
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures', format='xml', use_natural_keys=True)
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<django-objects version="1.0"><object pk="1" model="fixtures.category"><field type="CharField" name="title">News Stories</field><field type="TextField" name="description">Latest news stories</field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Time to reform copyright</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 13:00:00</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Poker has no place on ESPN</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 12:00:00</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.article"><field type="CharField" name="headline">Python program becomes self aware</field><field type="DateTimeField" name="pub_date">2006-06-16 11:00:00</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">copyright</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">3</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.tag"><field type="CharField" name="name">law</field><field to="contenttypes.contenttype" name="tagged_type" rel="ManyToOneRel"><natural>fixtures</natural><natural>article</natural></field><field type="PositiveIntegerField" name="tagged_id">3</field></object><object pk="1" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Django Reinhardt</field></object><object pk="3" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Prince</field></object><object pk="2" model="fixtures.person"><field type="CharField" name="name">Stephane Grappelli</field></object></django-objects>
+
"""
from django.test import TestCase
View
32 tests/regressiontests/fixtures_regress/fixtures/forward_ref_lookup.json
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+[
+ {
+ "pk": "4",
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.person",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Neal Stephenson"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "2",
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.store",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Amazon"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": "3",
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.store",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Borders"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": 1,
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.book",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Cryptonomicon",
+ "author": ["Neal Stephenson"],
+ "stores": [["Amazon"], ["Borders"]]
+ }
+ }
+]
View
25 tests/regressiontests/fixtures_regress/fixtures/non_natural_1.json
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+[
+ {
+ "pk": 12,
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.person",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Greg Egan"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": 11,
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.store",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Angus and Robertson"
+ }
+ },
+ {
+ "pk": 10,
+ "model": "fixtures_regress.book",
+ "fields": {
+ "name": "Permutation City",
+ "author": 12,
+ "stores": [11]
+ }
+ }
+]
View
16 tests/regressiontests/fixtures_regress/fixtures/non_natural_2.xml
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<django-objects version="1.0">
+ <object pk="22" model="fixtures_regress.person">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">Orson Scott Card</field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="21" model="fixtures_regress.store">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">Collins Bookstore</field>
+ </object>
+ <object pk="20" model="fixtures_regress.book">
+ <field type="CharField" name="name">Ender's Game</field>
+ <field to="fixtures_regress.person" name="author" rel="ManyToOneRel">22</field>
+ <field to="fixtures_regress.store" name="stores" rel="ManyToManyRel">
+ <object pk="21"/>
+ </field>
+ </object>
+</django-objects>
View
175 tests/regressiontests/fixtures_regress/models.py
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ class Animal(models.Model):
specimens = models.Manager()
def __unicode__(self):
- return self.common_name
+ return self.name
def animal_pre_save_check(signal, sender, instance, **kwargs):
"A signal that is used to check the type of data loaded from fixtures"
@@ -69,10 +69,66 @@ class Meta:
class Widget(models.Model):
name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
class WidgetProxy(Widget):
class Meta:
proxy = True
+# Check for forward references in FKs and M2Ms with natural keys
+
+class TestManager(models.Manager):
+ def get_by_natural_key(self, key):
+ return self.get(name=key)
+
+class Store(models.Model):
+ objects = TestManager()
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.name,)
+
+class Person(models.Model):
+ objects = TestManager()
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return self.name
+
+ # Person doesn't actually have a dependency on store, but we need to define
+ # one to test the behaviour of the dependency resolution algorithm.
+ def natural_key(self):
+ return (self.name,)
+ natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.store']
+
+class Book(models.Model):
+ name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+ author = models.ForeignKey(Person)
+ stores = models.ManyToManyField(Store)
+
+ class Meta:
+ ordering = ('name',)
+
+ def __unicode__(self):
+ return u'%s by %s (available at %s)' % (
+ self.name,
+ self.author.name,
+ ', '.join(s.name for s in self.stores.all())
+ )
+
__test__ = {'API_TESTS':"""
>>> from django.core import management
@@ -192,4 +248,121 @@ class Meta:
>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures_regress', format='json')
[{"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures_regress.widget", "fields": {"name": "grommet"}}]
+###############################################
+# Check that natural key requirements are taken into account
+# when serializing models
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'forward_ref_lookup.json', verbosity=0)
+
+>>> management.call_command('dumpdata', 'fixtures_regress.book', 'fixtures_regress.person', 'fixtures_regress.store', verbosity=0, use_natural_keys=True)
+[{"pk": 2, "model": "fixtures_regress.store", "fields": {"name": "Amazon"}}, {"pk": 3, "model": "fixtures_regress.store", "fields": {"name": "Borders"}}, {"pk": 4, "model": "fixtures_regress.person", "fields": {"name": "Neal Stephenson"}}, {"pk": 1, "model": "fixtures_regress.book", "fields": {"stores": [["Amazon"], ["Borders"]], "name": "Cryptonomicon", "author": ["Neal Stephenson"]}}]
+
+# Now lets check the dependency sorting explicitly
+
+# First Some models with pathological circular dependencies
+>>> class Circle1(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle2']
+
+>>> class Circle2(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle1']
+
+>>> class Circle3(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle3']
+
+>>> class Circle4(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle5']
+
+>>> class Circle5(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle6']
+
+>>> class Circle6(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.circle4']
+
+>>> class ExternalDependency(models.Model):
+... name = models.CharField(max_length=255)
+... def natural_key(self):
+... return self.name
+... natural_key.dependencies = ['fixtures_regress.book']
+
+# It doesn't matter what order you mention the models
+# Store *must* be serialized before then Person, and both
+# must be serialized before Book.
+>>> from django.core.management.commands.dumpdata import sort_dependencies
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Book, Person, Store])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Book, Store, Person])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Store, Book, Person])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Store, Person, Book])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, Book, Store])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, Store, Book])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+# A dangling dependency - assume the user knows what they are doing.
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, Circle1, Store, Book])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Circle1'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Store'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>]
+
+# A tight circular dependency
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, Circle2, Circle1, Store, Book])])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+CommandError: Can't resolve dependencies for fixtures_regress.Circle1, fixtures_regress.Circle2 in serialized app list.
+
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Circle1, Book, Circle2])])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+CommandError: Can't resolve dependencies for fixtures_regress.Circle1, fixtures_regress.Circle2 in serialized app list.
+
+# A self referential dependency
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Book, Circle3])])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+CommandError: Can't resolve dependencies for fixtures_regress.Circle3 in serialized app list.
+
+# A long circular dependency
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, Circle2, Circle1, Circle3, Store, Book])])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+CommandError: Can't resolve dependencies for fixtures_regress.Circle1, fixtures_regress.Circle2, fixtures_regress.Circle3 in serialized app list.
+
+# A dependency on a normal, non-natural-key model
+>>> sort_dependencies([('fixtures_regress', [Person, ExternalDependency, Book])])
+[<class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Person'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.Book'>, <class 'regressiontests.fixtures_regress.models.ExternalDependency'>]
+
+###############################################
+# Check that normal primary keys still work
+# on a model with natural key capabilities
+
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'non_natural_1.json', verbosity=0)
+>>> management.call_command('loaddata', 'non_natural_2.xml', verbosity=0)
+
+>>> Book.objects.all()
+[<Book: Cryptonomicon by Neal Stephenson (available at Amazon, Borders)>, <Book: Ender's Game by Orson Scott Card (available at Collins Bookstore)>, <Book: Permutation City by Greg Egan (available at Angus and Robertson)>]
+
"""}
+
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