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TRiad Is A Decompiler. Triad is a tiny, free and open source, Capstone based x86 decompiler for ELF binaries.
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Triad decompiler version 0.4 Alpha Test. Not intended to be used for copyright infringement or other illegal activities. What is triad: TRiad Is A Decompiler Triad is a tiny, free and open source, Capstone based x86 decompiler that will take in ELF files as input and spit out pseudo-C. Installation: Triad requires Capstone to be installed first. http://www.capstone-engine.org/ For 32 bit tests, gcc-multilib is also required. First, it will be necessary to build triad. "make triad" should suffice. After its components are built, the triad binary will be placed in the build directory. To copy the binary into /usr/bin, simply use "sudo make install." Usage: triad <flags> <file name> <(optional)start address> <(optional) cutoff address> Simply run the triad binary from the command line and specify an ELF to decompile as a parameter. By default, triad will try to find the main function of the given file and start decompiling from there. Sometimes ELFs have all symbols stripped, so triad will be unable to find main. In such a scenario, the user may simply specify a starting address as the second command line parameter. But, an incorrect starting address will likely result in incorrect decompilation or no decompilation. Occasionally it is ambiguous as to where a function actually ends. If a user thinks he/she knows better where a particular function ends than triad and has specified a start address, he/she can specify a cutoff address. The default cutoff address is the end of the segment containing the entry point. Triad has the ability to follow function calls and automatically decompile callees. This is especially helpful when dealing with stripped binaries or other binaries in which relevant code isn't clearly distinguishable from data. Flags: -f: Full decompilation. This is the default. -p: Partial decompilation. Recovered control flow is always going to be bad, so Triad has an option to only partially decompile code. This means Triad will identify variables and parameters, try to recover calling convention, and translate most instructions back into their C operator equivalents, but Triad will leave jumps and comparisons as is with the philosophy that the user knows best how to follow them. -d: Disassemble. Make no attempt to decompile code, simply print out a disassembly in AT&T syntax. -s: Disable call following, just decompile main/whatever code was at the specified address. -h: Print all constants in hexadecimal format. Limitations PLEASE READ BEFORE SUBMITTING A BUG REPORT: Triad really only works on x86 and x86_64 ELF executables. Other architectures may be possible in the future, but there are currently no plans to add them. The triad decompiler is still very much an alpha. The project is nowhere near completion and as such is missing some critical features, contains numerous bugs, has several odd quirks, and has a propensity for segfaulting. Missing features include support for switch decompilation and full support for strings and statically allocated arrays (dynamically allocated arrays will actually probably work to one degree or another, but the syntax will be most unusual e.g. *(char*)(eax + (12)) = 96 instead of array = 'a'). Struct analysis will be a long ways a way as well, and unions may never work properly. The only supported binary format currently supported is the Executable and Linkable Format (ELF), commonly used on UNIX like systems, such as LINUX. Control flow decompilation should be mostly correct, but it may look funky. Continues, and forward gotos inside of conditional statements might wind up as if-else statements. This is actually semantically equivalent, just different from original source. Optimization and computed jumps will probably cause a program to be decompiled completely incorrectly. Triad was designed and tested for programs compiled using gcc. It is important to understand that the generated source code will NEVER be exactly the original source (unless the program was compiled with debug symbols, of course). If triad segfaults on you, feel free to tell me. Include a stack trace and a description of the conditions that triggered the crash if at all possible. For obvious reasons, it is quite important that triad crash as little as possible. "Hacking"/Modding notes: I will be honest, the code is a bit of a mess. It is a short mess, probably less than 2 KLOC, but the amount of pointer arithmetic and number of globals used is not for the faint of heart. That said, feel free to "hack" in features! The license is just MIT, so do whatever. Feel free to contact me if you have any questions about how the code works or think you have a cool feature that should be merged into the codebase. I tried to document the source, but I'm sure certain lines will leave many programmers confused and/or horrified. My email is just firstname.lastname@example.org