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README.md

gambit-ffi-types

This library provides Scheme-friendly management of C structs, unions, and memory allocated opaque types. For conciseness, we'll refer to all of these as 'structs' in this text.

C structs are accessed and modified in place. Only primitives (integers, strings, etc.) are copied when converting from Scheme to C and back. So, for example, you can pass such a struct to a C function that modifies its argument in place, and any changes will be reflected when you next access the fields in that struct after the call returns.

The library takes care to maintain the lifecycle of your objects in a schemey way: they will be kept around only as long as you have references to them (or to some field of them, or to some subfield of a field of them, etc.)

Usage

An example

To use, include ffi-types-include.scm and load or compile ffi-types-lib.scm with your application. Then, if you have a declaration like the following in a C file or a c-define:

struct point_node {
    struct point {
        int x;
        int y;
    } point;
    struct point_node *next;
};

You model it in Scheme like this

(c-struct point
  (int x)
  (int y))

(c-struct point_node
  (struct point point)
  (pointer struct point_node next))

And use it like this

; Create instances.
(define a (make-point_node))
(define p (point_node-point a))

; Check their type.
(println (point_node? a))  ; -> #t
(println (point? a))  ; -> #f

; Set primitive fields.
(point-x-set! p 1)

; Get the values of primitive fields.
(println (point-x p)) ; -> 1

; Set non-primitive fields (copy semantics).
(define q (make-point))
(point-x-set! q 2)
(point_node-point-set! a q)
(point-x p)  ; 2

; Set pointer fields.
(define b (make-point_node))
(point_node-next-set! b a)
(point-x-set! (point_node-point (point_node-next b)) 3)
(point-x p) ; -> 3

; Since p points to memory in a, the library will make sure not to
; deallocate that memory while you have a reference to p.
(set! a #f)
(##gc)
(point-x p) ; -> 2, not a segfault or garbage.

; By default the library doesn't do that for pointer links, but you
; can tell it that b depends on a, and the library will make sure
; a is not reclaimed while a dependency on b is set.
(include "ffi-types#.scm")
(register-dependency! b a)
(set! p #f)
(##gc)
(point-x (point_node-point (point_node-next b))) ; -> 2

; But objects will be automatically reclaimed when there are no more
; direct or indirect references to them.
(set! b #f)

; The space for both a and b can no longer be accessed from scheme code,
; so it will be reclaimed on garbage collection.

Syntax

In general, you wrap C struct, union, or opaque types like this

(c-struct|c-union|c-type name field ...)

Where name is the name of the C type, exactly as declared in the C source file or c-declare form, and each field describes one of the fields in the struct/union/type. The order in which you specify the fields doesn't matter, and you don't need to mention all the fields in the C struct/union/type; only those you want to access from scheme code.

Each field has the form: ([[pointer] struct|union|type] type-name field-name)

Where

  • pointer should be indicated if the field is a pointer (that is, if space for the struct is not allocated in the containing struct itself.)
  • struct, union, or type should be specified if the field is not a primitive type. Note that at this moment pointers to primitive types are not supported (but should be easy to add if you need them.)
  • type-name is the name of the struct, union or type if the field is composite, or the name of the type (as described in the Gambit manual; for example, char-string if the field is a string) if the field is primitive.
  • field-name is the name of the field, exactly as declared in the C source file or c-define form.

See integration-test.scm (after the ; BEGIN TESTS comment) for usage examples.

Custom lifecycle dependencies

If some object d in your program depends logically on another object r, such that you don't want r to be reclaimed as long as you hold a reference to d, you can say [1]

(ffi-types#register-dependency! d r)

and the library will take care of r's lifecycle.

Note that you don't need to do this for non-pointer fields in structures that you create using this library. Dependencies only need to be specified manually when they involve pointer fields, or objects not created with this library.

Depending on arbitrary objects

While any Scheme memory-allocated object will do fine as a dependent object (d above), some more work is required if you want r to be anything but an object obtained with this library. Imagine, for example, that C library foo has a function get_foo() that gives you a struct foo that you are required to clean up, when you're done with it, by calling cleanup_foo. You can use struct foo seamlessly with the objects you create yourself using gambit-ffi-types, like so:

(c-struct foo
  (union bar)
  (int baz))

(c-union bar
  (unsigned-long ul)
  (char c))

(define get_foo (c-lambda () foo "get_foo"))
(define cleanup_foo (c-lambda (foo) void "cleanup_foo"))

(define foo (get_foo))

(let ((refcount 0))
   (ffi-types#register-root!
      foo
      (lambda ()
        (set! refcount (+ refcount 1)))
      (lambda ()
        (set! refcount (- refcount 1))
        (if (= refcount 0)
          (cleanup_foo)))))

; And now use foo just as if you had created it with gambit-ffi-types.

(define bar (foo-bar foo))
(bar-c-set! (foo-bar foo) #\x)

; Forget foo.
(set! foo #f)
(##gc)

(bar-c bar)  ; -> #\x, not garbage or segfault

; Forget bar; the foo object is now unreachable.
(set! bar #f)

(##gc)
(##gc)
; cleanup_foo has been called.

The following rules apply for lifecycle management of objects not created with this library:

  1. If you have registered o to depend on any object created with this library, then you can make any other object depend on o.

  2. Any object can be registered as a root dependency if you register it with the following call.

    (ffi-types#register-root! scheme-object incref-thunk! decref-thunk!)

where

  • scheme-object is the object you want to be able to use as a dependency root.
  • incref-thunk! is a procedure with no arguments that will be called when a new dependency is registered on your object, and
  • decref-thunk! is a procedure with no arguments that will be called when a reference to your object has been cleared by the garbage collector.

For the common case of a C object allocated through ___alloc_rc, you can use the following shortcut: (ffi-types#register-rc-root! object)

And the object will be released when its refcount reaches 0.

Implementation

The challenge in this is to make child substructures keep the parent alive while they are reachable in Scheme. This is done by keeping a mapping with serial numbers (as in object->serial-number) of the dependent objects as the key, and as the value a list of pairs of thunks, each of which manages the lifecycle of one ultimately depended-upon object (i.e., a 'root'). The table is scanned after every garbage collection, and the entries for which the serial number is no longer in ##serial-number-to-object-table are discarded. Reference counting is used, instead of just keeping references to the roots, to prevent cycles of dependencies from causing leakage. See ffi-types-lib.scm.

Notes

[1] In this and subsequent examples, you can omit the ffi-types# part if you (include "ffi-types#.scm").