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A simple library used for sending HTTP and HTTPS requests.
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README.md

README.md

Request

A simple library used for sending HTTP and HTTPS requests, with many data management functions designed to make sending requests and parsing the response as easy as possible.

Table of contents

The Request Object

This class provides methods to send HTTP and HTTPS requests.

Constructors

You can construct a Request object in a couple different ways. The first is to pass it the URL string:

Request request = new Request("http://www.google.com");

Request supports HTTP and HTTPS requests. Using this method you can omit the protocol from the URL, and HTTP will be used by default.

You can also pass it the URL object directly:

URL url = new URL("http://www.google.com");
Request request = new Request(url);

If you want to create the Request object, but set the URL later, you can use the empty constructor, in conjunction with the setURL method, which acts similarly to the above constructors.

Request request = new Request();
request.setURL("http://www.google.com");

The URL string can be retrieved later with the method getURL, as well as the protocol with getProtocol.

Headers/Request Properties

To set headers (a.k.a. request properties), simply use the setRequestProperty method:

request.setRequestProperty("Authorization", "Basic bXl1c2VyOm15cGFzcw==");

To unset, or remove, a certain request property, you can use removeRequestProperty:

request.removeRequestProperty("Authorization");

and to remove all previously set request properties, use clearRequestProperties:

request.clearRequestProperties();

To retrieve the value of a specific previously set request property, you can use the method getRequestProperty:

String value = request.getRequestProperty("Authorization");

Also, to get a map of all the request properties to their values, use getRequestProperties:

Map<String, String> propertyMap = request.getRequestProperties();

Query Parameters

Request obviously allows URLs with query parameters included to be passed into the constructor. However, you can also add them programmatically using the addQueryParameter method:

request.addQueryParameter("key", "value")

To remove a certain parameter, use the removeQueryParamater method:

request.removeQueryParameter("key")

Additionally, to remove all query parameters, use the method clearQueryParameters:

request.clearQueryParameters();

To retrieve the value of a certain paremeter, use getQueryParameter. Note this method returns a list of values, since query parameter keys do not have to be distinct:

List<String> values = request.getQueryParameter("key");

Finally, if you want to retrieve all parameters in the query, use the method getQueryParameters:

Map<String, List<String>> queryMap = request.getQueryParameters();

Adding the Body

While a body is not necessary for some requests, it is for many. Multiple body types are supported by Request. If several types are added to the same request object, the last type to be added is used, unless you explicitly declare which body type should be used.

Note: Many of the methods presented below will throw a IOException if an error occurs, and this is not made explicit.

  • Form Data (mutlipart/form-data)

    Request supports adding fields, raw files, and binary files as form data using addFormField, addFormRawFile, and addFormBinaryFile. For raw or binary files, you can pass in a file path or a File object. Additionally, for fields or raw files you can include an optional third argument which is the charset to be used:

    request.addFormField("key", "value"); // field
    request.addFormField("key", "value", Charset.forName("utf-8")); // field with specified charset
    
    request.addFormRawFile("someTextFile", "example.txt"); // raw file
    request.addFormRawFile("someTextFile", new File("example.txt")); // raw file using File object
    request.addFormRawFile("someTextFile", "example.txt", Charset.forName("utf-8")); // raw file with specified charset
    
    request.addFormBinaryFile("someBinaryFile", "image.jpg"); // binary file
    request.addFormBinaryFile("someBinaryFile", new File("image.jpg")); // binary file using File object

    To remove a certain entry, whether it be a field, raw file, or binary file, use the removeFormEntry method:

    request.removeFormEntry("key");

    To remove all of them, use clearFormEntries:

    request.clearFormEntries();

    To retrieve the value of a certain entry, use the method getFormEntry. Note this method also returns a list of values, since form entry keys do not have to be distinct:

    List<FormData> values = request.getFormEntry("key");

    and to retrieve all entries, use getFormEntries:

    Map<String, List<FormData>> formMap = request.getFormEntries();

    If the last type of body data you added was not form data, but you want the form data to be written to the body instead, you must tell Request that you want to use the form data with useFormData:

    request.useFormData();

    Upon sending the request, if the header Content-Type is not already set and form data is being used, Request will set it to mutlipart/form-data.

  • URL-Encoded Form Data (application/x-www-form-urlencoded)

    To add a field to the URL-encoded form data, use the method addEncodedField:

    request.addEncodedField("key", "value");

    The methods removeEncodedField, clearEncodedFields, getEncodedField, getEncodedFields, and useEncodedFormData can be used to perform similar functions as above. Methods getEncodedField and getEncodedFields have a return type of List<String> and Map<String, List<String>>, respectively.

    Upon sending the request, if the header Content-Type is not already set and URL-encoded form data is being used, Request will set it to application/x-www-form-urlencoded.

  • Raw Data (text/plain)

    To append raw data to the request body, use addRawData, which takes as a parameter a String or a File object. When using the File object as parameter, you can include an optional second argument which is the charset to be used:

    request.addRawData("Hello world!"); // raw data from String
    request.addRawData(new File("helloWorld.txt")); // raw data from File object
    request.addRawData(new File("helloWorld.txt"), Charset.forName("utf-8"); // raw data from File object with specified charset

    The methods clearRawData and getRawData can be used to remove all raw data and retrieve the raw data, respectively. Also, use useRawData to set the body type to raw data.

    Upon sending the request, if the header Content-Type is not already set and raw data is being used, Request will set it to text/plain.

  • JSON Data (application/json)

    To add JSON data to the request body, use addJsonData, which takes as a parameter a JSONObject or JSONArray from the JSON-java library:

    JSONObject obj = new JSONObject();
    try {
        obj.put("key", "value"); // May throw JSONException, so must handle
    } catch (JSONException e) { ... }
    request.addJsonData(obj); // JSON data from JSONObject
    JSONArray arr = new JSONArray();
    arr.put("value");
    request.addJsonData(arr); // JSON data from JSONArray

    You can also pass in a String representing that JSON data to add JSON data instead. If the String cannot be parsed into either a JSONObject or JSONArray, a JSONException will be thrown:

    try {
        request.addJsonData("{'key':'value'}"); // JSON data from String. May throw JSONException, so must handle
    } catch (JSONException e) { ... }

    !!! Important: Adding JSON data will replace any other JSON data previously added, as a body with Content-Type application/json is sent as a string, which servers expect to represent a single JSON data structure.

    The methods clearJsonData and getJsonData can be used to remove the JSON data and retrieve the JSON data, respectively. Also, use useJsonData to set the body type to JSON data.

    Upon sending the request, if the header Content-Type is not already set and JSON data is being used, Request will set it to application/json.

  • Binary Data (application/octet-stream)

    To append binary data to the request body, use addBinaryData, which takes as a parameter a byte[] or a File object:

    byte[] bytes = "Hello World!".getBytes(); // Get the bytes from somewhere
    request.addBinaryData(bytes); // binary data from byte array
    
    request.addBinaryData(new File("helloWorld.txt")); // binary data from File object

    The methods clearBinaryData and getBinaryData can be used to remove the binary data and retrieve the binary data, respectively. Also, use useBinaryData to set the body type to binary data.

    Upon sending the request, if the header Content-Type is not already set and binary data is being used, Request will set it to application/octet-stream.

If you want to know which body type Request will use, use the method getBodyType, which returns a BodyType (an enum within the Request class) of one of the following:

BodyType.FORM_DATA
BodyType.X_WWW_FORM_URLENCODED
BodyType.RAW
BodyType.JSON
BodyType.BINARY

Sending the Request

Request intentionally makes it very simply to setup and send requests using the Request object. Once the request is setup (request properties are set, body is added, etc.), sending it is just a matter of calling a single method. When one of these methods is called, Request will create a new URLConnection internally, and initialize it using the properties you have set. The body is then added to the request, the request is sent, and as soon as a response is received, a Response object is constructed and returned.

Request supports GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE requests.

  • To send a GET request, use the method GET:

    Response response = request.GET();

    Alternatively, if you only require a simple GET request without any configuring of the properties, you can use the static GET method, which takes as a parameter a String that is the URL or a URL object:

    Response response = Request.get("http://www.google.com"); // response from String
    URL url = new URL("http://www.google.com");
    Response response = Request.GET(url); // response from URL object
  • To send a POST request, use the method POST:

    Response response = request.POST();
  • To send a PUT request, use the method PUT:

    Response response = request.PUT();
  • To send a DELETE request, use the method DELETE:

    Response response = request.DELETE();

You can also programmatically set the method using setMethod, which takes as a parameter a String that is the method name (case insensitive) or a RequestMethod type (an enum within the Request class):

request.setMethod("post"); // method from String
request.setMethod(RequestMethod.POST); // method from RequestMethod

Then, after setting the method, you can use send to send a request of that method type:

Response response = request.send();

Note: the default method is GET.

The Response Object

This immutable class provides methods to access the response of a request, and attempts to automatically parse it into useful forms such as JSON and HTML data types.

The Head

To get the values of a specific header, use the method getHeaderField:

List<String> values = response.getHeaderField("Transfer-Encoding");

To get a map of all the headers to their values, use getHeaderFields:

Map<String, List<String>> headerMap = response.getHeaderFields();

You can also use getStatusLine to get the status line (the first line of the response), getStatusCode to get the status of the response, getDate to get the time and date that the response was sent, and getURL to get the URL the response came from.

The Body

Getting the Response

To get the binary data of the body of the response, use the method getBinaryData:

byte[] bytes = response.getBinaryData();

More likely, though, you would want to use getText to return a String version of the binary data:

String text = response.getText();

Request will automatically attempt to parse the response body into JSON, using a library called JSON-java. You can check to see if the response was JSON data, using isJsonObject and isJsonArray, and if it is, you can retrieve that data using getJsonObject and getJsonArray, which return a JSONObject and JSONArray, respectively, or null if it is not actually JSON data:

JSONObject obj = response.getJsonObject(); // if it's a JSON object
JSONArray arr = response.getJsonArray(); // if it's a JSON array

Request will also attempt to parse the response body into HTML, using a library called jsoup. You can check if it is HTML with the method isHtml, and if it is, you can retrieve that data using getHtml, which returns a Jsoup HTMLDocument, or null if it is not actually HTML data:

HTMLDocument html = response.getHtml(); // if it's HTML

Access to the original data in binary and text form, as well as parsed JSON and HTML data types is an integral part of this library, and reduces the work required by the user significantly.

Saving as a File

If you want to save the response to a file, use the method saveAsFile, which takes as a parameter a String that is the file path or a File object:

response.saveAsFile("response.txt"); // saved using file path
response.saveAsFile(new File("response.txt")); // saved using a File object

This method saves the binary data directly, instead of the text, so it can be used to save requests containing binary files such as images, etc.:

response.saveAsFile("image.jpg");

The documentation for JSON-java and jsoup can be found below:

License

Copyright © 2016 Eric Wadkins

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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