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A small PHP 5.3 dependency injection container

branch: master

minor #116 Root namespace for exceptions (vlakarados)

This PR was merged into the 2.0.x-dev branch.


Root namespace for exceptions

Prepend `\` (backslash) to all PHP built-in classes for those who namespace the library.

This is quite necessary as while developing it's possible not stumble upon exceptions and this will kill production with an uncaught exception, which has a great chance because this library is mainly used in the core of the application where `try/catch` is used rarely.


fac4177 Root namespace for exceptions
latest commit e8b5fe6f77
Fabien Potencier authored April 20, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 lib Root namespace for exceptions April 02, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 tests fixed missing property February 11, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 .gitignore Ignoring phpunit.xml August 15, 2011
Octocat-spinner-32 .travis.yml Added PHP 5.6 and HHVM to travis. April 12, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 CHANGELOG Fugbix typo. November 11, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 LICENSE updated license year January 04, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 README.rst removed the mention of PHP 5.3 as 5.2 is very outdated now February 10, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 composer.json changed services to be shared by default November 10, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 phpunit.xml.dist initial test suite March 26, 2011



This is the documentation for Pimple 2.x. If you are using Pimple 1.x, read the Pimple 1.x documentation. Reading the Pimple 1.x code is also a good way to learn more about how to create a simple Dependency Injection Container (Pimple 2.x implementation being more focused on performance).

Pimple is a small Dependency Injection Container for PHP that consists of just one file and one class (about 80 lines of code).

Download it, require it in your code, and you're good to go

require_once '/path/to/Pimple.php';

Creating a container is a matter of instating the Pimple class

$container = new Pimple();

As many other dependency injection containers, Pimple is able to manage two different kind of data: services and parameters.

Defining Parameters

Defining a parameter is as simple as using the Pimple instance as an array

// define some parameters
$container['cookie_name'] = 'SESSION_ID';
$container['session_storage_class'] = 'SessionStorage';

Defining Services

A service is an object that does something as part of a larger system. Examples of services: Database connection, templating engine, mailer. Almost any object could be a service.

Services are defined by anonymous functions that return an instance of an object

// define some services
$container['session_storage'] = function ($c) {
    return new $c['session_storage_class']($c['cookie_name']);

$container['session'] = function ($c) {
    return new Session($c['session_storage']);

Notice that the anonymous function has access to the current container instance, allowing references to other services or parameters.

As objects are only created when you get them, the order of the definitions does not matter, and there is no performance penalty.

Using the defined services is also very easy

// get the session object
$session = $container['session'];

// the above call is roughly equivalent to the following code:
// $storage = new SessionStorage('SESSION_ID');
// $session = new Session($storage);

Protecting Parameters

Because Pimple sees anonymous functions as service definitions, you need to wrap anonymous functions with the protect() method to store them as parameter

$container['random'] = $container->protect(function () { return rand(); });

Modifying services after creation

In some cases you may want to modify a service definition after it has been defined. You can use the extend() method to define additional code to be run on your service just after it is created

$container['mail'] = function ($c) {
    return new \Zend_Mail();

$container->extend('mail', function($mail, $c) {

    return $mail;

The first argument is the name of the object, the second is a function that gets access to the object instance and the container.

Fetching the service creation function

When you access an object, Pimple automatically calls the anonymous function that you defined, which creates the service object for you. If you want to get raw access to this function, you can use the raw() method

$container['session'] = function ($c) {
    return new Session($c['session_storage']);

$sessionFunction = $container->raw('session');

Packaging a Container for reusability

If you use the same libraries over and over, you might want to create reusable containers. Creating a reusable container is as simple as creating a class that extends Pimple, and configuring it in the constructor

class SomeContainer extends Pimple
    public function __construct()

        $this['parameter'] = 'foo';
        $this['object'] = function () { return stdClass(); };

Using this container from your own is as easy as it can get

$container = new Pimple();

// define your project parameters and services
// ...

// embed the SomeContainer container
$container['embedded'] = function () { return new SomeContainer(); };

// configure it
$container['embedded']['parameter'] = 'bar';

// use it

Defining Factory Services

By default, each time you get a service, Pimple returns the same instance of it. If you want a different instance to be returned for all calls, wrap your anonymous function with the factory() method

$container['session'] = $container->factory(function ($c) {
    return new Session($c['session_storage']);
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