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When we have already assigned the semaphore ticket to a specific
waiter, we want to get the waiter running as fast as possible since
no other G waiting on the semaphore can acquire it optimistically.

The net effect is that, when a sync.Mutex is contended, the code in
the critical section guarded by the Mutex gets a priority boost.

Fixes #33747

The original work was done in CL 200577 by Carlo Alberto Ferraris. The
change was reverted in CL 205817 because it broke the linux-arm64-packet
and solaris-amd64-oraclerel builders.

Change-Id: I76d79b1d63fd206ed1c57fe6900cb7ae9e4d46cb
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <>
9 contributors

Users who have contributed to this file

@dvyukov @CAFxX @rsc @rhysh @valyala @pjweinbgo @joneskoo @bradfitz @bcmills
226 lines (213 sloc) 7.32 KB
// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package sync provides basic synchronization primitives such as mutual
// exclusion locks. Other than the Once and WaitGroup types, most are intended
// for use by low-level library routines. Higher-level synchronization is
// better done via channels and communication.
// Values containing the types defined in this package should not be copied.
package sync
import (
func throw(string) // provided by runtime
// A Mutex is a mutual exclusion lock.
// The zero value for a Mutex is an unlocked mutex.
// A Mutex must not be copied after first use.
type Mutex struct {
state int32
sema uint32
// A Locker represents an object that can be locked and unlocked.
type Locker interface {
const (
mutexLocked = 1 << iota // mutex is locked
mutexWaiterShift = iota
// Mutex fairness.
// Mutex can be in 2 modes of operations: normal and starvation.
// In normal mode waiters are queued in FIFO order, but a woken up waiter
// does not own the mutex and competes with new arriving goroutines over
// the ownership. New arriving goroutines have an advantage -- they are
// already running on CPU and there can be lots of them, so a woken up
// waiter has good chances of losing. In such case it is queued at front
// of the wait queue. If a waiter fails to acquire the mutex for more than 1ms,
// it switches mutex to the starvation mode.
// In starvation mode ownership of the mutex is directly handed off from
// the unlocking goroutine to the waiter at the front of the queue.
// New arriving goroutines don't try to acquire the mutex even if it appears
// to be unlocked, and don't try to spin. Instead they queue themselves at
// the tail of the wait queue.
// If a waiter receives ownership of the mutex and sees that either
// (1) it is the last waiter in the queue, or (2) it waited for less than 1 ms,
// it switches mutex back to normal operation mode.
// Normal mode has considerably better performance as a goroutine can acquire
// a mutex several times in a row even if there are blocked waiters.
// Starvation mode is important to prevent pathological cases of tail latency.
starvationThresholdNs = 1e6
// Lock locks m.
// If the lock is already in use, the calling goroutine
// blocks until the mutex is available.
func (m *Mutex) Lock() {
// Fast path: grab unlocked mutex.
if atomic.CompareAndSwapInt32(&m.state, 0, mutexLocked) {
if race.Enabled {
// Slow path (outlined so that the fast path can be inlined)
func (m *Mutex) lockSlow() {
var waitStartTime int64
starving := false
awoke := false
iter := 0
old := m.state
for {
// Don't spin in starvation mode, ownership is handed off to waiters
// so we won't be able to acquire the mutex anyway.
if old&(mutexLocked|mutexStarving) == mutexLocked && runtime_canSpin(iter) {
// Active spinning makes sense.
// Try to set mutexWoken flag to inform Unlock
// to not wake other blocked goroutines.
if !awoke && old&mutexWoken == 0 && old>>mutexWaiterShift != 0 &&
atomic.CompareAndSwapInt32(&m.state, old, old|mutexWoken) {
awoke = true
old = m.state
new := old
// Don't try to acquire starving mutex, new arriving goroutines must queue.
if old&mutexStarving == 0 {
new |= mutexLocked
if old&(mutexLocked|mutexStarving) != 0 {
new += 1 << mutexWaiterShift
// The current goroutine switches mutex to starvation mode.
// But if the mutex is currently unlocked, don't do the switch.
// Unlock expects that starving mutex has waiters, which will not
// be true in this case.
if starving && old&mutexLocked != 0 {
new |= mutexStarving
if awoke {
// The goroutine has been woken from sleep,
// so we need to reset the flag in either case.
if new&mutexWoken == 0 {
throw("sync: inconsistent mutex state")
new &^= mutexWoken
if atomic.CompareAndSwapInt32(&m.state, old, new) {
if old&(mutexLocked|mutexStarving) == 0 {
break // locked the mutex with CAS
// If we were already waiting before, queue at the front of the queue.
queueLifo := waitStartTime != 0
if waitStartTime == 0 {
waitStartTime = runtime_nanotime()
runtime_SemacquireMutex(&m.sema, queueLifo, 1)
starving = starving || runtime_nanotime()-waitStartTime > starvationThresholdNs
old = m.state
if old&mutexStarving != 0 {
// If this goroutine was woken and mutex is in starvation mode,
// ownership was handed off to us but mutex is in somewhat
// inconsistent state: mutexLocked is not set and we are still
// accounted as waiter. Fix that.
if old&(mutexLocked|mutexWoken) != 0 || old>>mutexWaiterShift == 0 {
throw("sync: inconsistent mutex state")
delta := int32(mutexLocked - 1<<mutexWaiterShift)
if !starving || old>>mutexWaiterShift == 1 {
// Exit starvation mode.
// Critical to do it here and consider wait time.
// Starvation mode is so inefficient, that two goroutines
// can go lock-step infinitely once they switch mutex
// to starvation mode.
delta -= mutexStarving
atomic.AddInt32(&m.state, delta)
awoke = true
iter = 0
} else {
old = m.state
if race.Enabled {
// Unlock unlocks m.
// It is a run-time error if m is not locked on entry to Unlock.
// A locked Mutex is not associated with a particular goroutine.
// It is allowed for one goroutine to lock a Mutex and then
// arrange for another goroutine to unlock it.
func (m *Mutex) Unlock() {
if race.Enabled {
_ = m.state
// Fast path: drop lock bit.
new := atomic.AddInt32(&m.state, -mutexLocked)
if new != 0 {
// Outlined slow path to allow inlining the fast path.
// To hide unlockSlow during tracing we skip one extra frame when tracing GoUnblock.
func (m *Mutex) unlockSlow(new int32) {
if (new+mutexLocked)&mutexLocked == 0 {
throw("sync: unlock of unlocked mutex")
if new&mutexStarving == 0 {
old := new
for {
// If there are no waiters or a goroutine has already
// been woken or grabbed the lock, no need to wake anyone.
// In starvation mode ownership is directly handed off from unlocking
// goroutine to the next waiter. We are not part of this chain,
// since we did not observe mutexStarving when we unlocked the mutex above.
// So get off the way.
if old>>mutexWaiterShift == 0 || old&(mutexLocked|mutexWoken|mutexStarving) != 0 {
// Grab the right to wake someone.
new = (old - 1<<mutexWaiterShift) | mutexWoken
if atomic.CompareAndSwapInt32(&m.state, old, new) {
runtime_Semrelease(&m.sema, false, 1)
old = m.state
} else {
// Starving mode: handoff mutex ownership to the next waiter, and yield
// our time slice so that the next waiter can start to run immediately.
// Note: mutexLocked is not set, the waiter will set it after wakeup.
// But mutex is still considered locked if mutexStarving is set,
// so new coming goroutines won't acquire it.
runtime_Semrelease(&m.sema, true, 1)