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// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package bufio implements buffered I/O. It wraps an io.Reader or io.Writer
// object, creating another object (Reader or Writer) that also implements
// the interface but provides buffering and some help for textual I/O.
package bufio
import (
"bytes"
"errors"
"io"
"unicode/utf8"
)
const (
defaultBufSize = 4096
)
var (
ErrInvalidUnreadByte = errors.New("bufio: invalid use of UnreadByte")
ErrInvalidUnreadRune = errors.New("bufio: invalid use of UnreadRune")
ErrBufferFull = errors.New("bufio: buffer full")
ErrNegativeCount = errors.New("bufio: negative count")
)
// Buffered input.
// Reader implements buffering for an io.Reader object.
type Reader struct {
buf []byte
rd io.Reader // reader provided by the client
r, w int // buf read and write positions
err error
lastByte int
lastRuneSize int
}
const minReadBufferSize = 16
const maxConsecutiveEmptyReads = 100
// NewReaderSize returns a new Reader whose buffer has at least the specified
// size. If the argument io.Reader is already a Reader with large enough
// size, it returns the underlying Reader.
func NewReaderSize(rd io.Reader, size int) *Reader {
// Is it already a Reader?
b, ok := rd.(*Reader)
if ok && len(b.buf) >= size {
return b
}
if size < minReadBufferSize {
size = minReadBufferSize
}
r := new(Reader)
r.reset(make([]byte, size), rd)
return r
}
// NewReader returns a new Reader whose buffer has the default size.
func NewReader(rd io.Reader) *Reader {
return NewReaderSize(rd, defaultBufSize)
}
// Size returns the size of the underlying buffer in bytes.
func (b *Reader) Size() int { return len(b.buf) }
// Reset discards any buffered data, resets all state, and switches
// the buffered reader to read from r.
func (b *Reader) Reset(r io.Reader) {
b.reset(b.buf, r)
}
func (b *Reader) reset(buf []byte, r io.Reader) {
*b = Reader{
buf: buf,
rd: r,
lastByte: -1,
lastRuneSize: -1,
}
}
var errNegativeRead = errors.New("bufio: reader returned negative count from Read")
// fill reads a new chunk into the buffer.
func (b *Reader) fill() {
// Slide existing data to beginning.
if b.r > 0 {
copy(b.buf, b.buf[b.r:b.w])
b.w -= b.r
b.r = 0
}
if b.w >= len(b.buf) {
panic("bufio: tried to fill full buffer")
}
// Read new data: try a limited number of times.
for i := maxConsecutiveEmptyReads; i > 0; i-- {
n, err := b.rd.Read(b.buf[b.w:])
if n < 0 {
panic(errNegativeRead)
}
b.w += n
if err != nil {
b.err = err
return
}
if n > 0 {
return
}
}
b.err = io.ErrNoProgress
}
func (b *Reader) readErr() error {
err := b.err
b.err = nil
return err
}
// Peek returns the next n bytes without advancing the reader. The bytes stop
// being valid at the next read call. If Peek returns fewer than n bytes, it
// also returns an error explaining why the read is short. The error is
// ErrBufferFull if n is larger than b's buffer size.
func (b *Reader) Peek(n int) ([]byte, error) {
if n < 0 {
return nil, ErrNegativeCount
}
b.lastByte = -1
b.lastRuneSize = -1
for b.w-b.r < n && b.w-b.r < len(b.buf) && b.err == nil {
b.fill() // b.w-b.r < len(b.buf) => buffer is not full
}
if n > len(b.buf) {
return b.buf[b.r:b.w], ErrBufferFull
}
// 0 <= n <= len(b.buf)
var err error
if avail := b.w - b.r; avail < n {
// not enough data in buffer
n = avail
err = b.readErr()
if err == nil {
err = ErrBufferFull
}
}
return b.buf[b.r : b.r+n], err
}
// Discard skips the next n bytes, returning the number of bytes discarded.
//
// If Discard skips fewer than n bytes, it also returns an error.
// If 0 <= n <= b.Buffered(), Discard is guaranteed to succeed without
// reading from the underlying io.Reader.
func (b *Reader) Discard(n int) (discarded int, err error) {
if n < 0 {
return 0, ErrNegativeCount
}
if n == 0 {
return
}
remain := n
for {
skip := b.Buffered()
if skip == 0 {
b.fill()
skip = b.Buffered()
}
if skip > remain {
skip = remain
}
b.r += skip
remain -= skip
if remain == 0 {
return n, nil
}
if b.err != nil {
return n - remain, b.readErr()
}
}
}
// Read reads data into p.
// It returns the number of bytes read into p.
// The bytes are taken from at most one Read on the underlying Reader,
// hence n may be less than len(p).
// To read exactly len(p) bytes, use io.ReadFull(b, p).
// At EOF, the count will be zero and err will be io.EOF.
func (b *Reader) Read(p []byte) (n int, err error) {
n = len(p)
if n == 0 {
return 0, b.readErr()
}
if b.r == b.w {
if b.err != nil {
return 0, b.readErr()
}
if len(p) >= len(b.buf) {
// Large read, empty buffer.
// Read directly into p to avoid copy.
n, b.err = b.rd.Read(p)
if n < 0 {
panic(errNegativeRead)
}
if n > 0 {
b.lastByte = int(p[n-1])
b.lastRuneSize = -1
}
return n, b.readErr()
}
// One read.
// Do not use b.fill, which will loop.
b.r = 0
b.w = 0
n, b.err = b.rd.Read(b.buf)
if n < 0 {
panic(errNegativeRead)
}
if n == 0 {
return 0, b.readErr()
}
b.w += n
}
// copy as much as we can
n = copy(p, b.buf[b.r:b.w])
b.r += n
b.lastByte = int(b.buf[b.r-1])
b.lastRuneSize = -1
return n, nil
}
// ReadByte reads and returns a single byte.
// If no byte is available, returns an error.
func (b *Reader) ReadByte() (byte, error) {
b.lastRuneSize = -1
for b.r == b.w {
if b.err != nil {
return 0, b.readErr()
}
b.fill() // buffer is empty
}
c := b.buf[b.r]
b.r++
b.lastByte = int(c)
return c, nil
}
// UnreadByte unreads the last byte. Only the most recently read byte can be unread.
func (b *Reader) UnreadByte() error {
if b.lastByte < 0 || b.r == 0 && b.w > 0 {
return ErrInvalidUnreadByte
}
// b.r > 0 || b.w == 0
if b.r > 0 {
b.r--
} else {
// b.r == 0 && b.w == 0
b.w = 1
}
b.buf[b.r] = byte(b.lastByte)
b.lastByte = -1
b.lastRuneSize = -1
return nil
}
// ReadRune reads a single UTF-8 encoded Unicode character and returns the
// rune and its size in bytes. If the encoded rune is invalid, it consumes one byte
// and returns unicode.ReplacementChar (U+FFFD) with a size of 1.
func (b *Reader) ReadRune() (r rune, size int, err error) {
for b.r+utf8.UTFMax > b.w && !utf8.FullRune(b.buf[b.r:b.w]) && b.err == nil && b.w-b.r < len(b.buf) {
b.fill() // b.w-b.r < len(buf) => buffer is not full
}
b.lastRuneSize = -1
if b.r == b.w {
return 0, 0, b.readErr()
}
r, size = rune(b.buf[b.r]), 1
if r >= utf8.RuneSelf {
r, size = utf8.DecodeRune(b.buf[b.r:b.w])
}
b.r += size
b.lastByte = int(b.buf[b.r-1])
b.lastRuneSize = size
return r, size, nil
}
// UnreadRune unreads the last rune. If the most recent read operation on
// the buffer was not a ReadRune, UnreadRune returns an error. (In this
// regard it is stricter than UnreadByte, which will unread the last byte
// from any read operation.)
func (b *Reader) UnreadRune() error {
if b.lastRuneSize < 0 || b.r < b.lastRuneSize {
return ErrInvalidUnreadRune
}
b.r -= b.lastRuneSize
b.lastByte = -1
b.lastRuneSize = -1
return nil
}
// Buffered returns the number of bytes that can be read from the current buffer.
func (b *Reader) Buffered() int { return b.w - b.r }
// ReadSlice reads until the first occurrence of delim in the input,
// returning a slice pointing at the bytes in the buffer.
// The bytes stop being valid at the next read.
// If ReadSlice encounters an error before finding a delimiter,
// it returns all the data in the buffer and the error itself (often io.EOF).
// ReadSlice fails with error ErrBufferFull if the buffer fills without a delim.
// Because the data returned from ReadSlice will be overwritten
// by the next I/O operation, most clients should use
// ReadBytes or ReadString instead.
// ReadSlice returns err != nil if and only if line does not end in delim.
func (b *Reader) ReadSlice(delim byte) (line []byte, err error) {
s := 0 // search start index
for {
// Search buffer.
if i := bytes.IndexByte(b.buf[b.r+s:b.w], delim); i >= 0 {
i += s
line = b.buf[b.r : b.r+i+1]
b.r += i + 1
break
}
// Pending error?
if b.err != nil {
line = b.buf[b.r:b.w]
b.r = b.w
err = b.readErr()
break
}
// Buffer full?
if b.Buffered() >= len(b.buf) {
b.r = b.w
line = b.buf
err = ErrBufferFull
break
}
s = b.w - b.r // do not rescan area we scanned before
b.fill() // buffer is not full
}
// Handle last byte, if any.
if i := len(line) - 1; i >= 0 {
b.lastByte = int(line[i])
b.lastRuneSize = -1
}
return
}
// ReadLine is a low-level line-reading primitive. Most callers should use
// ReadBytes('\n') or ReadString('\n') instead or use a Scanner.
//
// ReadLine tries to return a single line, not including the end-of-line bytes.
// If the line was too long for the buffer then isPrefix is set and the
// beginning of the line is returned. The rest of the line will be returned
// from future calls. isPrefix will be false when returning the last fragment
// of the line. The returned buffer is only valid until the next call to
// ReadLine. ReadLine either returns a non-nil line or it returns an error,
// never both.
//
// The text returned from ReadLine does not include the line end ("\r\n" or "\n").
// No indication or error is given if the input ends without a final line end.
// Calling UnreadByte after ReadLine will always unread the last byte read
// (possibly a character belonging to the line end) even if that byte is not
// part of the line returned by ReadLine.
func (b *Reader) ReadLine() (line []byte, isPrefix bool, err error) {
line, err = b.ReadSlice('\n')
if err == ErrBufferFull {
// Handle the case where "\r\n" straddles the buffer.
if len(line) > 0 && line[len(line)-1] == '\r' {
// Put the '\r' back on buf and drop it from line.
// Let the next call to ReadLine check for "\r\n".
if b.r == 0 {
// should be unreachable
panic("bufio: tried to rewind past start of buffer")
}
b.r--
line = line[:len(line)-1]
}
return line, true, nil
}
if len(line) == 0 {
if err != nil {
line = nil
}
return
}
err = nil
if line[len(line)-1] == '\n' {
drop := 1
if len(line) > 1 && line[len(line)-2] == '\r' {
drop = 2
}
line = line[:len(line)-drop]
}
return
}
// ReadBytes reads until the first occurrence of delim in the input,
// returning a slice containing the data up to and including the delimiter.
// If ReadBytes encounters an error before finding a delimiter,
// it returns the data read before the error and the error itself (often io.EOF).
// ReadBytes returns err != nil if and only if the returned data does not end in
// delim.
// For simple uses, a Scanner may be more convenient.
func (b *Reader) ReadBytes(delim byte) ([]byte, error) {
// Use ReadSlice to look for array,
// accumulating full buffers.
var frag []byte
var full [][]byte
var err error
for {
var e error
frag, e = b.ReadSlice(delim)
if e == nil { // got final fragment
break
}
if e != ErrBufferFull { // unexpected error
err = e
break
}
// Make a copy of the buffer.
buf := make([]byte, len(frag))
copy(buf, frag)
full = append(full, buf)
}
// Allocate new buffer to hold the full pieces and the fragment.
n := 0
for i := range full {
n += len(full[i])
}
n += len(frag)
// Copy full pieces and fragment in.
buf := make([]byte, n)
n = 0
for i := range full {
n += copy(buf[n:], full[i])
}
copy(buf[n:], frag)
return buf, err
}
// ReadString reads until the first occurrence of delim in the input,
// returning a string containing the data up to and including the delimiter.
// If ReadString encounters an error before finding a delimiter,
// it returns the data read before the error and the error itself (often io.EOF).
// ReadString returns err != nil if and only if the returned data does not end in
// delim.
// For simple uses, a Scanner may be more convenient.
func (b *Reader) ReadString(delim byte) (string, error) {
bytes, err := b.ReadBytes(delim)
return string(bytes), err
}
// WriteTo implements io.WriterTo.
// This may make multiple calls to the Read method of the underlying Reader.
// If the underlying reader supports the WriteTo method,
// this calls the underlying WriteTo without buffering.
func (b *Reader) WriteTo(w io.Writer) (n int64, err error) {
n, err = b.writeBuf(w)
if err != nil {
return
}
if r, ok := b.rd.(io.WriterTo); ok {
m, err := r.WriteTo(w)
n += m
return n, err
}
if w, ok := w.(io.ReaderFrom); ok {
m, err := w.ReadFrom(b.rd)
n += m
return n, err
}
if b.w-b.r < len(b.buf) {
b.fill() // buffer not full
}
for b.r < b.w {
// b.r < b.w => buffer is not empty
m, err := b.writeBuf(w)
n += m
if err != nil {
return n, err
}
b.fill() // buffer is empty
}
if b.err == io.EOF {
b.err = nil
}
return n, b.readErr()
}
var errNegativeWrite = errors.New("bufio: writer returned negative count from Write")
// writeBuf writes the Reader's buffer to the writer.
func (b *Reader) writeBuf(w io.Writer) (int64, error) {
n, err := w.Write(b.buf[b.r:b.w])
if n < 0 {
panic(errNegativeWrite)
}
b.r += n
return int64(n), err
}
// buffered output
// Writer implements buffering for an io.Writer object.
// If an error occurs writing to a Writer, no more data will be
// accepted and all subsequent writes, and Flush, will return the error.
// After all data has been written, the client should call the
// Flush method to guarantee all data has been forwarded to
// the underlying io.Writer.
type Writer struct {
err error
buf []byte
n int
wr io.Writer
}
// NewWriterSize returns a new Writer whose buffer has at least the specified
// size. If the argument io.Writer is already a Writer with large enough
// size, it returns the underlying Writer.
func NewWriterSize(w io.Writer, size int) *Writer {
// Is it already a Writer?
b, ok := w.(*Writer)
if ok && len(b.buf) >= size {
return b
}
if size <= 0 {
size = defaultBufSize
}
return &Writer{
buf: make([]byte, size),
wr: w,
}
}
// NewWriter returns a new Writer whose buffer has the default size.
func NewWriter(w io.Writer) *Writer {
return NewWriterSize(w, defaultBufSize)
}
// Size returns the size of the underlying buffer in bytes.
func (b *Writer) Size() int { return len(b.buf) }
// Reset discards any unflushed buffered data, clears any error, and
// resets b to write its output to w.
func (b *Writer) Reset(w io.Writer) {
b.err = nil
b.n = 0
b.wr = w
}
// Flush writes any buffered data to the underlying io.Writer.
func (b *Writer) Flush() error {
if b.err != nil {
return b.err
}
if b.n == 0 {
return nil
}
n, err := b.wr.Write(b.buf[0:b.n])
if n < b.n && err == nil {
err = io.ErrShortWrite
}
if err != nil {
if n > 0 && n < b.n {
copy(b.buf[0:b.n-n], b.buf[n:b.n])
}
b.n -= n
b.err = err
return err
}
b.n = 0
return nil
}
// Available returns how many bytes are unused in the buffer.
func (b *Writer) Available() int { return len(b.buf) - b.n }
// Buffered returns the number of bytes that have been written into the current buffer.
func (b *Writer) Buffered() int { return b.n }
// Write writes the contents of p into the buffer.
// It returns the number of bytes written.
// If nn < len(p), it also returns an error explaining
// why the write is short.
func (b *Writer) Write(p []byte) (nn int, err error) {
for len(p) > b.Available() && b.err == nil {
var n int
if b.Buffered() == 0 {
// Large write, empty buffer.
// Write directly from p to avoid copy.
n, b.err = b.wr.Write(p)
} else {
n = copy(b.buf[b.n:], p)
b.n += n
b.Flush()
}
nn += n
p = p[n:]
}
if b.err != nil {
return nn, b.err
}
n := copy(b.buf[b.n:], p)
b.n += n
nn += n
return nn, nil
}
// WriteByte writes a single byte.
func (b *Writer) WriteByte(c byte) error {
if b.err != nil {
return b.err
}
if b.Available() <= 0 && b.Flush() != nil {
return b.err
}
b.buf[b.n] = c
b.n++
return nil
}
// WriteRune writes a single Unicode code point, returning
// the number of bytes written and any error.
func (b *Writer) WriteRune(r rune) (size int, err error) {
if r < utf8.RuneSelf {
err = b.WriteByte(byte(r))
if err != nil {
return 0, err
}
return 1, nil
}
if b.err != nil {
return 0, b.err
}
n := b.Available()
if n < utf8.UTFMax {
if b.Flush(); b.err != nil {
return 0, b.err
}
n = b.Available()
if n < utf8.UTFMax {
// Can only happen if buffer is silly small.
return b.WriteString(string(r))
}
}
size = utf8.EncodeRune(b.buf[b.n:], r)
b.n += size
return size, nil
}
// WriteString writes a string.
// It returns the number of bytes written.
// If the count is less than len(s), it also returns an error explaining
// why the write is short.
func (b *Writer) WriteString(s string) (int, error) {
nn := 0
for len(s) > b.Available() && b.err == nil {
n := copy(b.buf[b.n:], s)
b.n += n
nn += n
s = s[n:]
b.Flush()
}
if b.err != nil {
return nn, b.err
}
n := copy(b.buf[b.n:], s)
b.n += n
nn += n
return nn, nil
}
// ReadFrom implements io.ReaderFrom. If the underlying writer
// supports the ReadFrom method, and b has no buffered data yet,
// this calls the underlying ReadFrom without buffering.
func (b *Writer) ReadFrom(r io.Reader) (n int64, err error) {
if b.Buffered() == 0 {
if w, ok := b.wr.(io.ReaderFrom); ok {
return w.ReadFrom(r)
}
}
var m int
for {
if b.Available() == 0 {
if err1 := b.Flush(); err1 != nil {
return n, err1
}
}
nr := 0
for nr < maxConsecutiveEmptyReads {
m, err = r.Read(b.buf[b.n:])
if m != 0 || err != nil {
break
}
nr++
}
if nr == maxConsecutiveEmptyReads {
return n, io.ErrNoProgress
}
b.n += m
n += int64(m)
if err != nil {
break
}
}
if err == io.EOF {
// If we filled the buffer exactly, flush preemptively.
if b.Available() == 0 {
err = b.Flush()
} else {
err = nil
}
}
return n, err
}
// buffered input and output
// ReadWriter stores pointers to a Reader and a Writer.
// It implements io.ReadWriter.
type ReadWriter struct {
*Reader
*Writer
}
// NewReadWriter allocates a new ReadWriter that dispatches to r and w.
func NewReadWriter(r *Reader, w *Writer) *ReadWriter {
return &ReadWriter{r, w}
}