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sync: use lock-free structure for Pool stealing
Currently, Pool stores each per-P shard's overflow in a slice
protected by a Mutex. In order to store to the overflow or steal from
another shard, a P must lock that shard's Mutex. This allows for
simple synchronization between Put and Get, but has unfortunate
consequences for clearing pools.

Pools are cleared during STW sweep termination, and hence rely on
pinning a goroutine to its P to synchronize between Get/Put and
clearing. This makes the Get/Put fast path extremely fast because it
can rely on quiescence-style coordination, which doesn't even require
atomic writes, much less locking.

The catch is that a goroutine cannot acquire a Mutex while pinned to
its P (as this could deadlock). Hence, it must drop the pin on the
slow path. But this means the slow path is not synchronized with
clearing. As a result,

1) It's difficult to reason about races between clearing and the slow
path. Furthermore, this reasoning often depends on unspecified nuances
of where preemption points can occur.

2) Clearing must zero out the pointer to every object in every Pool to
prevent a concurrent slow path from causing all objects to be
retained. Since this happens during STW, this has an O(# objects in
Pools) effect on STW time.

3) We can't implement a victim cache without making clearing even
slower.

This CL solves these problems by replacing the locked overflow slice
with a lock-free structure. This allows Gets and Puts to be pinned the
whole time they're manipulating the shards slice (Pool.local), which
eliminates the races between Get/Put and clearing. This, in turn,
eliminates the need to zero all object pointers, reducing clearing to
O(# of Pools) during STW.

In addition to significantly reducing STW impact, this also happens to
speed up the Get/Put fast-path and the slow path. It somewhat
increases the cost of PoolExpensiveNew, but we'll fix that in the next
CL.

name                 old time/op     new time/op     delta
Pool-12                 3.00ns ± 0%     2.21ns ±36%  -26.32%  (p=0.000 n=18+19)
PoolOverflow-12          600ns ± 1%      587ns ± 1%   -2.21%  (p=0.000 n=16+18)
PoolSTW-12              71.0µs ± 2%      5.6µs ± 3%  -92.15%  (p=0.000 n=20+20)
PoolExpensiveNew-12     3.14ms ± 5%     3.69ms ± 7%  +17.67%  (p=0.000 n=19+20)

name                 old p50-ns/STW  new p50-ns/STW  delta
PoolSTW-12               70.7k ± 1%       5.5k ± 2%  -92.25%  (p=0.000 n=20+20)

name                 old p95-ns/STW  new p95-ns/STW  delta
PoolSTW-12               73.1k ± 2%       6.7k ± 4%  -90.86%  (p=0.000 n=18+19)

name                 old GCs/op      new GCs/op      delta
PoolExpensiveNew-12       0.38 ± 1%       0.39 ± 1%   +2.07%  (p=0.000 n=20+18)

name                 old New/op      new New/op      delta
PoolExpensiveNew-12       33.9 ± 6%       40.0 ± 6%  +17.97%  (p=0.000 n=19+20)

(https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20190311.1)

Fixes #22331.
For #22950.

Change-Id: Ic5cd826e25e218f3f8256dbc4d22835c1fecb391
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/166960
Run-TryBot: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: David Chase <drchase@google.com>
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aclements committed Apr 5, 2019
1 parent 59f2704 commit d5fd2dd6a17a816b7dfd99d4df70a85f1bf0de31
Showing 1 changed file with 26 additions and 48 deletions.
@@ -55,9 +55,8 @@ type Pool struct {

// Local per-P Pool appendix.
type poolLocalInternal struct {
private interface{} // Can be used only by the respective P.
shared []interface{} // Can be used by any P.
Mutex // Protects shared.
private interface{} // Can be used only by the respective P.
shared poolChain // Local P can pushHead/popHead; any P can popTail.
}

type poolLocal struct {
@@ -97,17 +96,15 @@ func (p *Pool) Put(x interface{}) {
race.ReleaseMerge(poolRaceAddr(x))
race.Disable()
}
l := p.pin()
l, _ := p.pin()
if l.private == nil {
l.private = x
x = nil
}
runtime_procUnpin()
if x != nil {
l.Lock()
l.shared = append(l.shared, x)
l.Unlock()
l.shared.pushHead(x)
}
runtime_procUnpin()
if race.Enabled {
race.Enable()
}
@@ -125,22 +122,19 @@ func (p *Pool) Get() interface{} {
if race.Enabled {
race.Disable()
}
l := p.pin()
l, pid := p.pin()
x := l.private
l.private = nil
runtime_procUnpin()
if x == nil {
l.Lock()
last := len(l.shared) - 1
if last >= 0 {
x = l.shared[last]
l.shared = l.shared[:last]
}
l.Unlock()
// Try to pop the head of the local shard. We prefer
// the head over the tail for temporal locality of
// reuse.
x, _ = l.shared.popHead()
if x == nil {
x = p.getSlow()
x = p.getSlow(pid)
}
}
runtime_procUnpin()
if race.Enabled {
race.Enable()
if x != nil {
@@ -153,31 +147,24 @@ func (p *Pool) Get() interface{} {
return x
}

func (p *Pool) getSlow() (x interface{}) {
func (p *Pool) getSlow(pid int) interface{} {
// See the comment in pin regarding ordering of the loads.
size := atomic.LoadUintptr(&p.localSize) // load-acquire
local := p.local // load-consume
// Try to steal one element from other procs.
pid := runtime_procPin()
runtime_procUnpin()
for i := 0; i < int(size); i++ {
l := indexLocal(local, (pid+i+1)%int(size))
l.Lock()
last := len(l.shared) - 1
if last >= 0 {
x = l.shared[last]
l.shared = l.shared[:last]
l.Unlock()
break
if x, _ := l.shared.popTail(); x != nil {
return x
}
l.Unlock()
}
return x
return nil
}

// pin pins the current goroutine to P, disables preemption and returns poolLocal pool for the P.
// pin pins the current goroutine to P, disables preemption and
// returns poolLocal pool for the P and the P's id.
// Caller must call runtime_procUnpin() when done with the pool.
func (p *Pool) pin() *poolLocal {
func (p *Pool) pin() (*poolLocal, int) {
pid := runtime_procPin()
// In pinSlow we store to localSize and then to local, here we load in opposite order.
// Since we've disabled preemption, GC cannot happen in between.
@@ -186,12 +173,12 @@ func (p *Pool) pin() *poolLocal {
s := atomic.LoadUintptr(&p.localSize) // load-acquire
l := p.local // load-consume
if uintptr(pid) < s {
return indexLocal(l, pid)
return indexLocal(l, pid), pid
}
return p.pinSlow()
}

func (p *Pool) pinSlow() *poolLocal {
func (p *Pool) pinSlow() (*poolLocal, int) {
// Retry under the mutex.
// Can not lock the mutex while pinned.
runtime_procUnpin()
@@ -202,7 +189,7 @@ func (p *Pool) pinSlow() *poolLocal {
s := p.localSize
l := p.local
if uintptr(pid) < s {
return indexLocal(l, pid)
return indexLocal(l, pid), pid
}
if p.local == nil {
allPools = append(allPools, p)
@@ -212,26 +199,17 @@ func (p *Pool) pinSlow() *poolLocal {
local := make([]poolLocal, size)
atomic.StorePointer(&p.local, unsafe.Pointer(&local[0])) // store-release
atomic.StoreUintptr(&p.localSize, uintptr(size)) // store-release
return &local[pid]
return &local[pid], pid
}

func poolCleanup() {
// This function is called with the world stopped, at the beginning of a garbage collection.
// It must not allocate and probably should not call any runtime functions.
// Defensively zero out everything, 2 reasons:
// 1. To prevent false retention of whole Pools.
// 2. If GC happens while a goroutine works with l.shared in Put/Get,
// it will retain whole Pool. So next cycle memory consumption would be doubled.

// Because the world is stopped, no pool user can be in a
// pinned section (in effect, this has all Ps pinned).
for i, p := range allPools {
allPools[i] = nil
for i := 0; i < int(p.localSize); i++ {
l := indexLocal(p.local, i)
l.private = nil
for j := range l.shared {
l.shared[j] = nil
}
l.shared = nil
}
p.local = nil
p.localSize = 0
}

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