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runtime: smarter scavenging #30333

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mknyszek opened this issue Feb 20, 2019 · 21 comments

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commented Feb 20, 2019

Proposal: Smarter Scavenging

Motivation & Purpose

Out-of-memory errors (OOMs) have been a pain-point for Go applications. A class of these errors come from the same underlying cause: a temporary spike in memory causes the Go runtime to grow the heap, but it takes a very long time (on the order of minutes) to return that unneeded memory back to the system. The system can end up killing the application in many situations, such as if the system has no swap space or if system monitors count this space against your application. In addition, if this additional space is counted against your application, you end up paying more for memory when you don’t really need it.

The Go runtime does have internal mechanisms to help deal with this, but they don’t react to changes in the application promptly enough. The way users solve this problem today is through a runtime library function called debug.FreeOSMemory. debug.FreeOSMemory performs a GC and subsequently returns all unallocated memory back to the underlying system. However, this solution is very heavyweight:

  • Returning all free memory back to the underlying system at once is expensive, and can lead to latency spikes as it holds the heap lock through the whole process.
  • It’s an invasive solution: you need to modify your code to call it when you need it.
  • Reusing free chunks of memory becomes more expensive. On UNIX-y systems that means an extra page fault (which is surprisingly expensive on some systems).

I believe the Go runtime should do better here by default, so that for most cases the scavenger is prompt enough and debug.FreeOSMemory is unnecessary.

See #16930 and #14045.

Background

Scavenging

Dynamic memory allocators typically obtain memory from the operating system by requesting for it to be mapped into their virtual address space. Sometimes this space ends up unused, and modern operating systems provide a way to tell the OS that certain virtual memory address regions won’t be used without unmapping them. This means the physical memory backing those regions may be taken back by the OS and used elsewhere. We in the Go runtime refer to this technique as “scavenging”.

Scavenging is especially useful in dealing with page-level external fragmentation, since we can give these fragments back to the OS, reducing the process’ resident set size (RSS). That is, the amount of memory that is backed by physical memory in the application’s address space.

Go 1.11

As of Go 1.11, the only scavenging process in the Go runtime was a periodic scavenger which runs every 2.5 minutes. This scavenger combs over all the free spans in the heap and scavenge them if they have been unused for at least 5 minutes. When the runtime coalesced spans, it would track how much of the new span was scavenged.

While this simple technique is surprisingly effective for long-running applications, the peak RSS of an application can end up wildly exaggerated in many circumstances, even though the application’s peak in-use memory is significantly smaller. The periodic scavenger just does not react quickly enough to changes in the application’s memory usage.

Go 1.12

As of Go 1.12, in addition to the periodic scavenger, the Go runtime also performs heap-growth scavenging. On each heap growth up to N bytes of the largest spans are scavenged, where N is the amount of bytes the heap grew by. The idea here is to “pay back” the cost of a heap growth. This technique helped to reduce the peak RSS of some applications (#14045).

Goals

The goal in scavenging smarter is two-fold:

  • Reduce the average and peak RSS of Go applications.
  • Minimize the CPU impact of keeping the RSS low.

The two goals go hand-in-hand. On the one hand, you want to keep the RSS of the application as close to its in-use memory usage as possible. On the other hand, doing so is expensive in terms of CPU time, having to make syscalls and handle page faults. If we’re too aggressive and scavenge every free space we have, then on every span allocation we effectively incur a hard page fault (or invoke a syscall), and we’re calling a syscall on every span free.

The ideal scenario, in my view, is that the RSS of the application “tracks” the peak in-use memory over time.

  • We should keep the RSS close to the actual in-use heap, but leave enough of a buffer such that the application has a pool of unscavenged memory to allocate from.
  • We should try to smooth over fast and transient changes in heap size.

The goal of this proposal is to improve the Go runtime’s scavenging mechanisms such that it exhibits the behavior described. Compared with today’s implementation, this behavior should reduce the average overall RSS of most Go applications with minimal impact on performance.

Proposal

Three questions represent the key policy decisions that describe a memory scavenging system.

  1. At what rate is memory scavenged?
  2. How much memory should we retain (not scavenge)?
  3. Which memory should we scavenge?

I propose that for the Go runtime, we:

  1. Scavenge at a rate proportional to the rate at which the application is allocating memory, in the same vein as proportional sweeping.
  2. Retain some constant times the peak heap goal over the last N GCs (same as #16930).
  3. Scavenge the unscavenged spans with the highest base addresses first.

Additionally, I propose we change the span allocation policy to prefer unscavenged spans over scavenged spans, and to be first-fit rather than best-fit.

A brief rationale is that:

  1. We get guarantees about when memory will get scavenged, and spread the expense of scavenging operations across a GC cycle, to avoid latency spikes.
  2. By retaining the max heap goal over N GCs we can smooth out latency spikes. Retaining a constant times that gives us the overhead to avoid page faults.
  3. Best-fit allocation is difficult to glean any trends out of. On the other hand, first-fit allocation trivially prefers lower address. First-fit allocation policies tend to perform just as well as best-fit allocation, and can be implemented efficiently. By picking higher addresses first with a first-fit scavenging policy, we're scavenging memory that is less likely to be used.

Detailed rationale and design available very soon.

@mknyszek mknyszek self-assigned this Feb 20, 2019

@gopherbot gopherbot added this to the Proposal milestone Feb 20, 2019

@gopherbot gopherbot added the Proposal label Feb 20, 2019

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commented Feb 20, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/163217 mentions this issue: design: add 30333-smarter-scavenging

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commented Feb 21, 2019

Thus, I propose the following heuristic, borrowed from #16930: retain C*max(heap goal, max(heap goal over the last N GCs))

What happens in an application that has a huge heap spike (say, an initial loading phase) and then the heap drops significantly? In particular, let's say this is drastic enough that the runtime doesn't even notice the drop until a 2 minute GC kicks in. At that scale, it could take a while for N GCs to pass, and we won't reclaim the heap spike until they do.

One issue with this design is situations where the application goes idle. In that case, the scavenger will do at least one unit of work (scavenge one span) on wake-up to ensure it makes progress as long as there's work to be done.

I wonder if it makes sense to pace this to periodic GC. E.g., pace scavenging to the max of the heap growth and the two minute delay before the periodic GC..

The additional scavenging during allocation could prove expensive, given the costs associated with the madvise syscall. I believe we can dramatically reduce the amount of times this is necessary by reusing unscavenged memory before scavenged memory when allocating. Thus, where currently we try to find the best-fit span across both scavenged and unscavenged spans, I propose we prefer unscavenged to scavenged spans during allocation.

If we're switching to first-fit and scavenging from higher addresses, do we also need to prefer unscavenged spans during allocation?

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commented Feb 21, 2019

Thus, I propose the following heuristic, borrowed from #16930: retain C*max(heap goal, max(heap goal over the last N GCs))

What happens in an application that has a huge heap spike (say, an initial loading phase) and then the heap drops significantly? In particular, let's say this is drastic enough that the runtime doesn't even notice the drop until a 2 minute GC kicks in. At that scale, it could take a while for N GCs to pass, and we won't reclaim the heap spike until they do.

This is something that came to my mind recently too. An alternative is to set a schedule to decrease the scavenge goal linearly, or according to a smoothstep function, which goes to zero over N GCs. If this schedule ever gets below C * the heap goal, we use that instead. We'll get smoother cliffs in general and still make progress in the case you describe. Smoothstep is preferred here since we won't over-fit to transient drops in heap size, but this also means we might be slower to react in the case you described. I prefer not to over-fit here because that carries a performance cost.

One issue with this design is situations where the application goes idle. In that case, the scavenger will do at least one unit of work (scavenge one span) on wake-up to ensure it makes progress as long as there's work to be done.

I wonder if it makes sense to pace this to periodic GC. E.g., pace scavenging to the max of the heap growth and the two minute delay before the periodic GC..

That makes a lot of sense to me, and I think this is the right call. Thanks!

The additional scavenging during allocation could prove expensive, given the costs associated with the madvise syscall. I believe we can dramatically reduce the amount of times this is necessary by reusing unscavenged memory before scavenged memory when allocating. Thus, where currently we try to find the best-fit span across both scavenged and unscavenged spans, I propose we prefer unscavenged to scavenged spans during allocation.

If we're switching to first-fit and scavenging from higher addresses, do we also need to prefer unscavenged spans during allocation?

There's a trade-off here: by preferring unscavenged spans we're cementing that we want to avoid page faults at all cost. By not preferring them, we may end up getting overall better cache locality ("first-fit at all costs") but we could incur more page faults. Given that the policy already works to our advantage it's hard to say what works better in practice. I'm trying to avoid additional syscalls and page faults to perhaps an excessive degree at this point, but in practice I hypothesize the performance would be similar either way.

Maybe only one thing has me leaning toward preferring unscavenged spans: the implementation for that is definitely simpler. While it's not much code, I definitely got global best-fit wrong a couple times. :) But if there's another reason to do a global first-fit allocation policy that I'm not seeing (perhaps stability of the policy?), I don't feel too strongly about this.

gopherbot pushed a commit to golang/proposal that referenced this issue Feb 25, 2019
design: add 30333-smarter-scavenging
This change adds a design document/proposal for improving the
scavenging mechanisms in the Go runtime.

For golang/go#30333.

Change-Id: I2dc2cad8d5585347574f893ace970523e9889a72
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/163217
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/143157 mentions this issue: runtime: remove periodic scavenging

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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/142960 mentions this issue: runtime: add proportional background scavenger

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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/164099 mentions this issue: runtime: prefer unscavenged spans over scavenged spans

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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/164100 mentions this issue: runtime: add tests for runtime mTreap

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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/164101 mentions this issue: runtime: change the span allocation policy to first-fit

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commented Feb 27, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/142959 mentions this issue: runtime: track the last 16 heap goals

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commented Apr 4, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/170860 mentions this issue: runtime: track the number of free unscavenged huge pages

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commented Apr 4, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/170859 mentions this issue: runtime: track spans larger than a huge page separately

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commented Apr 4, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/170858 mentions this issue: runtime: add physHugePageSize

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commented Apr 4, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/170857 mentions this issue: runtime: introduce treapForSpan to reduce code duplication

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 10, 2019
runtime: add tests for runtime mTreap
This change exports the runtime mTreap in export_test.go and then adds a
series of tests which check that the invariants of the treap are
maintained under different operations. These tests also include tests
for the treap iterator type.

Also, we note that the find() operation on the treap never actually was
best-fit, so the tests just ensure that it returns an appropriately
sized span.

For #30333.

Change-Id: If81f7c746dda6677ebca925cb0a940134701b894
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/164100
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 10, 2019
runtime: introduce treapForSpan to reduce code duplication
Currently which treap a span should be inserted into/removed from is
checked by looking at the span's properties. This logic is repeated in
four places. As this logic gets more complex, it makes sense to
de-duplicate this, so introduce treapForSpan instead which captures this
logic by returning the appropriate treap for the span.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I4bd933d93dc50c5fc7c7c7f56ceb95194dcbfbcc
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/170857
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
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commented Apr 17, 2019

There doesn’t seem like there’s much to decide on from a proposal standpoint. Removing the proposal label for now.

@gopherbot gopherbot added the Proposal label Apr 17, 2019

@andybons andybons modified the milestones: Proposal, Unplanned Apr 17, 2019

@andybons andybons changed the title proposal: runtime: smarter scavenging runtime: smarter scavenging Apr 17, 2019

@andybons andybons removed the Proposal label Apr 17, 2019

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commented Apr 22, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/173338 mentions this issue: runtime: ensure free (and unscavenged) spans may be backed by huge pages

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commented Apr 24, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/173757 mentions this issue: runtime: remove sys.HugePageSize

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commented Apr 25, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/173940 mentions this issue: runtime: add tests for runtime mTreap

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue Apr 26, 2019
runtime: add tests for runtime mTreap
This change exports the runtime mTreap in export_test.go and then adds a
series of tests which check that the invariants of the treap are
maintained under different operations. These tests also include tests
for the treap iterator type.

Also, we note that the find() operation on the treap never actually was
best-fit, so the tests just ensure that it returns an appropriately
sized span.

For #30333.

Change-Id: If81f7c746dda6677ebca925cb0a940134701b894
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/164100
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
(cherry picked from commit d13a931)
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173940
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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commented Apr 29, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/174398 mentions this issue: runtime: merge all treaps into one implementation

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 1, 2019
runtime: change the span allocation policy to first-fit
This change modifies the treap implementation to be address-ordered
instead of size-ordered, and further augments it so it may be used for
allocation. It then modifies the find method to implement a first-fit
allocation policy.

This change to the treap implementation consequently makes it so that
spans are scavenged in highest-address-first order without any
additional changes to the scavenging code. Because the treap itself is
now address ordered, and the scavenging code iterates over it in
reverse, the highest address is now chosen instead of the largest span.

This change also renames the now wrongly-named "scavengeLargest" method
on mheap to just "scavengeLocked" and also fixes up logic in that method
which made assumptions about size.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I94b6f3209211cc1bfdc8cdaea04152a232cfbbb4
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/164101
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
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commented May 2, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/174399 mentions this issue: runtime: scavenge huge spans first

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commented May 2, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/174878 mentions this issue: runtime: make treap iteration more efficient

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 3, 2019
runtime: add physHugePageSize
This change adds the global physHugePageSize which is initialized in
osinit(). physHugePageSize contains the system's transparent huge page
(or superpage) size in bytes.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I2f0198c40729dbbe6e6f2676cef1d57dd107562c
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/170858
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 3, 2019
runtime: remove sys.HugePageSize
sys.HugePageSize was superceded in the last commit by physHugePageSize
which is determined dynamically by querying the operating system.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I827bfca8bdb347e989cead31564a8fffe56c66ff
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173757
Run-TryBot: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 6, 2019
runtime: merge all treaps into one implementation
This change modifies the treap implementation to support holding all
spans in a single treap, instead of keeping them all in separate treaps.

This improves ergonomics for nearly all treap-related callsites.
With that said, iteration is now more expensive, but it never occurs on
the fast path, only on scavenging-related paths.

This change opens up the opportunity for further optimizations, such as
splitting spans without treap removal (taking treap removal off the span
allocator's critical path) as well as improvements to treap iteration
(building linked lists for each iteration type and managing them on
insert/removal, since those operations should be less frequent).

For #30333.

Change-Id: I3dac97afd3682a37fda09ae8656a770e1369d0a9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174398
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 6, 2019
runtime: make treap iteration more efficient
This change introduces a treapIterFilter type which represents the
power set of states described by a treapIterType.

This change then adds a treapIterFilter field to each treap node
indicating the types of spans that live in that subtree. The field is
maintained via the same mechanism used to maintain maxPages. This allows
pred, succ, start, and end to be judicious about which subtrees it will
visit, ensuring that iteration avoids traversing irrelevant territory.

Without this change, repeated scavenging attempts can end up being N^2
as the scavenger walks over what it already scavenged before finding new
spans available for scavenging.

Finally, this change also only scavenges a span once it is removed from
the treap. There was always an invariant that spans owned by the treap
may not be mutated in-place, but with this change violating that
invariant can cause issues with scavenging.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I8040b997e21c94a8d3d9c8c6accfe23cebe0c3d3
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174878
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 6, 2019
runtime: scavenge huge spans first
This change adds two new treap iteration types: one for large
unscavenged spans (contain at least one huge page) and one for small
unscavenged spans. This allows us to scavenge the huge spans first by
first iterating over the large ones, then the small ones.

Also, since we now depend on physHugePageSize being a power of two,
ensure that that's the case when it's retrieved from the OS.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I51662740205ad5e4905404a0856f5f2b2d2a5680
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174399
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 6, 2019
runtime: track the number of free unscavenged huge pages
This change tracks the number of potential free and unscavenged huge
pages which will be used to inform the rate at which scavenging should
occur.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I47663e5ffb64cac44ffa10db158486783f707479
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/170860
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 6, 2019
runtime: ensure free and unscavenged spans may be backed by huge pages
This change adds a new sysHugePage function to provide the equivalent of
Linux's madvise(MADV_HUGEPAGE) support to the runtime. It then uses
sysHugePage to mark a newly-coalesced free span as backable by huge
pages to make the freeHugePages approximation a bit more accurate.

The problem being solved here is that if a large free span is composed
of many small spans which were coalesced together, then there's a chance
that they have had madvise(MADV_NOHUGEPAGE) called on them at some point,
which makes freeHugePages less accurate.

For #30333.

Change-Id: Idd4b02567619fc8d45647d9abd18da42f96f0522
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173338
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
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commented May 7, 2019

Change https://golang.org/cl/175797 mentions this issue: runtime: split spans when scavenging if it's more than we need

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 9, 2019
runtime: remove periodic scavenging
This change removes the periodic scavenger which goes over every span
in the heap and scavenges it if it hasn't been used for 5 minutes. It
should no longer be necessary if we have background scavenging
(follow-up).

For #30333.

Change-Id: Ic3a1a4e85409dc25719ba4593a3b60273a4c71e0
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/143157
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>

@gopherbot gopherbot closed this in fe67ea3 May 9, 2019

gopherbot pushed a commit that referenced this issue May 9, 2019
runtime: split spans when scavenging if it's more than we need
This change makes it so that during scavenging we split spans when the
span we have next for scavenging is larger than the amount of work we
have left to do.

The purpose of this change is to improve the worst-case behavior of the
scavenger: currently, if the scavenger only has a little bit of work to
do but sees a very large free span, it will scavenge the whole thing,
spending a lot of time to get way ahead of the scavenge pacing for no
reason.

With this change the scavenger should follow the pacing more closely,
but may still over-scavenge by up to a physical huge page since the
splitting behavior avoids breaking up huge pages in free spans.

This change is also the culmination of the scavenging improvements, so
we also include benchmark results for this series (starting from
"runtime: merge all treaps into one implementation" until this patch).

This patch stack results in average and peak RSS reductions (up to 11%
and 7% respectively) for some benchmarks, with mostly minimal
performance degredation (3-4% for some benchmarks, ~0% geomean). Each of
these benchmarks was executed with GODEBUG=madvdontneed=1 on Linux; the
performance degredation is even smaller when MADV_FREE may be used, but
the impact on RSS is much harder to measure. Applications that generally
maintain a steady heap size for the most part show no change in
application performance.

These benchmarks are taken from an experimental benchmarking suite
representing a variety of open-source Go packages, the raw results may
be found here:

https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20190509.1

For #30333.

Change-Id: I618a48534d2d6ce5f656bb66825e3c383ab1ffba
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/175797
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>
Kiku-Reise added a commit to Kiku-Reise/go that referenced this issue May 16, 2019
fix (#1)
* cmd/compile: add unsigned divisibility rules

"Division by invariant integers using multiplication" paper
by Granlund and Montgomery contains a method for directly computing
divisibility (x%c == 0 for c constant) by means of the modular inverse.
The method is further elaborated in "Hacker's Delight" by Warren Section 10-17

This general rule can compute divisibilty by one multiplication and a compare
for odd divisors and an additional rotate for even divisors.

To apply the divisibility rule, we must take into account
the rules to rewrite x%c = x-((x/c)*c) and (x/c) for c constant on the first
optimization pass "opt".  This complicates the matching as we want to match
only in the cases where the result of (x/c) is not also available.
So, we must match on the expanded form of (x/c) in the expression x == c*(x/c)
in the "late opt" pass after common subexpresion elimination.

Note, that if there is an intermediate opt pass introduced in the future we
could simplify these rules by delaying the magic division rewrite to "late opt"
and matching directly on (x/c) in the intermediate opt pass.

Additional rules to lower the generic RotateLeft* ops were also applied.

On amd64, the divisibility check is 25-50% faster.

name                     old time/op  new time/op  delta
DivconstI64-4            2.08ns ± 0%  2.08ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.881 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstI64-4      2.67ns ± 0%  2.67ns ± 1%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstI64-4  2.67ns ± 0%  2.67ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.683 n=5+5)
DivconstU64-4            2.08ns ± 1%  2.08ns ± 1%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstU64-4      2.77ns ± 1%  1.55ns ± 2%  -43.90%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstU64-4  2.99ns ± 1%  2.99ns ± 1%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivconstI32-4            1.53ns ± 2%  1.53ns ± 0%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstI32-4      2.23ns ± 0%  2.25ns ± 3%     ~     (p=0.167 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstI32-4  2.27ns ± 1%  2.27ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.429 n=5+5)
DivconstU32-4            1.78ns ± 0%  1.78ns ± 1%     ~     (p=1.000 n=4+5)
DivisibleconstU32-4      2.52ns ± 2%  1.26ns ± 0%  -49.96%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
DivisibleWDivconstU32-4  2.63ns ± 0%  2.85ns ±10%   +8.29%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
DivconstI16-4            1.54ns ± 0%  1.54ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.333 n=4+5)
DivisibleconstI16-4      2.10ns ± 0%  2.10ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.571 n=4+5)
DivisibleWDivconstI16-4  2.22ns ± 0%  2.23ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.556 n=4+5)
DivconstU16-4            1.09ns ± 0%  1.01ns ± 1%   -7.74%  (p=0.000 n=4+5)
DivisibleconstU16-4      1.83ns ± 0%  1.26ns ± 0%  -31.52%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstU16-4  1.88ns ± 0%  1.89ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.365 n=5+5)
DivconstI8-4             1.54ns ± 1%  1.54ns ± 1%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstI8-4       2.10ns ± 0%  2.11ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.238 n=5+4)
DivisibleWDivconstI8-4   2.22ns ± 0%  2.23ns ± 2%     ~     (p=0.762 n=5+5)
DivconstU8-4             0.92ns ± 1%  0.94ns ± 1%   +2.65%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstU8-4       1.66ns ± 0%  1.26ns ± 1%  -24.28%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstU8-4   1.79ns ± 0%  1.80ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.079 n=4+5)

A follow-up change will address the signed division case.

Updates #30282

Change-Id: I7e995f167179aa5c76bb10fbcbeb49c520943403
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/168037
Run-TryBot: Brian Kessler <brian.m.kessler@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/link/internal/ld: consolidate macho platform setup

Determine the macho platform once and use that the two places that
need it. This makes it easier to add a third platform check for a
follow-up change.

Updates #31447

Change-Id: I522a5fface647ab8e608f816c5832d531534df7a
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174198
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/link/internal/ld,syscall: drop $INODE64 suffixes on simulators

Some libc functions are suffixed with "$INODE64" on macOS.
Unfortunately, the iOS simulator doesn't have the suffixes, so we can't
use GOARCH to distinguish the two platform.

Add linker support for adding the suffix, using the macho platform
to determine whether it is needed.

While here, add the correct suffix for fdopendir on 386. It's
"$INODE64$UNIX2003", believe it or not. Without the suffix,

GOARCH=386 go test -short syscall

crashes on my Mojave machine.

Fixes #31447

Change-Id: I9bd3de40ece7df62f744bc24cd00909e56b00b78
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174199
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/link/internal/ld,syscall: replace getfsstat64 with getfsstat

getfsstat64 is deprecated but not yet caught by the App Store checks.
Use the supported getfsstat$INODE64 form instead to ensure forward
compatibility.

Change-Id: I0d97e8a8b254debb3de1cfcb3778dbed3702c249
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174200
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/go/internal/renameio: use ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED to check for errors

CL 172418 added code to check for "Access is denied" error.
But "Access is denied" error will be spelled differently on
non-English version of Windows.

Check if error is ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED instead.

Updates #31247

Change-Id: I7b1633013d563f7c06c1f12a9be75122106834f9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174123
Reviewed-by: Emmanuel Odeke <emm.odeke@gmail.com>

* syscall: allow setting security attributes on processes

This allows creating processes that can only be debugged/accessed by
certain tokens, according to a particular security descriptor. We
already had everything ready for this but just neglected to pass through
the value from the user-accessible SysProcAttr.

Change-Id: I4a3fcc9f5078aa0058b26c103355c984093ae03f
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174197
Run-TryBot: Jason Donenfeld <Jason@zx2c4.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Alex Brainman <alex.brainman@gmail.com>

* runtime: remove spurious register loads for openbsd/amd64 kqueue

The kqueue system call takes no arguments, hence there should be no need
to zero the registers used for the first syscall arguments.

Change-Id: Ia79b2d4f4d568bb6795cb885e1464cf1fc2bf7c7
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174128
Run-TryBot: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>

* cmd/compile: intrinsify math/bits.Add64 for ppc64x

This change creates an intrinsic for Add64 for ppc64x and adds a
testcase for it.

name               old time/op  new time/op  delta
Add64-160          1.90ns ±40%  2.29ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.119 n=5+5)
Add64multiple-160  6.69ns ± 2%  2.45ns ± 4%  -63.47%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)

Change-Id: I9abe6fb023fdf62eea3c9b46a1820f60bb0a7f97
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173758
Reviewed-by: Lynn Boger <laboger@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
Run-TryBot: Carlos Eduardo Seo <cseo@linux.vnet.ibm.com>

* runtime: whitelist debugCall32..debugCall65536 in debugCallCheck

Whitelists functions debugCall32 through debugCall65536 in
runtime.debugCallCheck so that any instruction inside those functions
is considered a safe point.
This is useful for implementing nested function calls.

For example when evaluating:

	f(g(x))

The debugger should:

1. initiate the call to 'f' until the entry point of 'f',
2. complete the call to 'g(x)'
3. copy the return value of 'g(x)' in the arguments of 'f'
4. complete the call to 'f'

Similarly for:

	f().amethod()

The debugger should initiate the call to '.amethod()', then initiate
and complete the call to f(), copy the return value to the arguments
of '.amethod()' and finish its call.
However in this example, unlike the other example, it may be
impossible to determine the entry point of '.amethod()' until after
'f()' is evaluated, which means that the call to 'f()' needs to be
initiated while stopped inside a debugCall... function.

Change-Id: I575c23542709cedb1a171d63576f7e11069c7674
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/161137
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Heschi Kreinick <heschi@google.com>

* strconv: Document ParseFloat's special cases

Updates #30990

Change-Id: I968fb13251ab3796328089046a3f0fc5c7eb9df9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174204
Reviewed-by: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>
Run-TryBot: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/go: implement Go checksum database support

This CL adds support for consulting the Go checksum database
when downloading a module that is not already listed in go.sum.
The overall system is described at golang.org/design/25530-sumdb,
and this CL implements the functionality described specifically in
golang.org/design/25530-sumdb#command-client.

Although the eventual plan is to set GOPROXY and GOSUMDB to
default to a Google-run proxy serving the public Go ecosystem,
this CL leaves them off by default.

Fixes #30601.

Change-Id: Ie46140f93c6cc2d85573fbce0878a258819ff44d
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173951
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Emmanuel Odeke <emm.odeke@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* encoding/json: add a Fuzz function

Adds a sample Fuzz test function to package encoding/json following the
guidelines defined in #31309, based on
https://github.com/dvyukov/go-fuzz-corpus/blob/master/json/json.go

Fixes #31309
Updates #19109

Change-Id: I5fe04d9a5f41c0de339f8518dae30896ec14e356
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174058
Reviewed-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* all: remove a few unused parameters

I recently modified tabwriter to reduce the number of defers due to
flush calls. However, I forgot to notice that the new function
flushNoDefers can no longer return an error, due to the lack of the
defer.

In crypto/tls, hashForServerKeyExchange never returned a non-nil error,
so simplify the code.

Finally, in go/types and net we can find a few trivially unused
parameters, so remove them.

Change-Id: I54c8de83fbc944df432453b55c93008d7e810e61
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174131
Run-TryBot: Daniel Martí <mvdan@mvdan.cc>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>

* net/http: remove "number:" from Response.Status string

The behavior of Value.String method on non-string JavaScript types has
changed after CL 169757.

Update the implementation of Transport.RoundTrip method to construct the
Response.Status string without relying on result.Get("status").String(),
since that now returns strings like "<number: 200>" instead of "200".

Fixes #31736

Change-Id: I27b3e6cc95aa65fd1918b1400e88478a154aad12
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174218
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Richard Musiol <neelance@gmail.com>

* cmd/link/internal/s390x: fix s390x build

Fix breakage from CL 173437

Change-Id: If218ffaa1259fbdee641143ffbe4b38030c373b9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174278
Reviewed-by: Michael Munday <mike.munday@ibm.com>
Reviewed-by: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>

* net: correct docs of KeepAlive field in Dialer type

KeepAlive field used to report the wording "keep-alive period"
which may be misleading. This field does not represent the whole
TCP keepalive time, that is the inactivity period upon which one
endpoint starts probing the other end. But it acctually specifies
the keepalive interval, that is the time between two keepalive
probes.

Fixes #29089

Change-Id: If99b38ba108830d0e5fe527171a2f5c96a3bcde7
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/155960
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* misc/wasm: fix command line arguments containing multi-byte characters

Command line arguments containing multi-byte characters were causing
go_js_wasm_exec to crash (RangeError: Source is too large), because
their byte length was not handled correctly. This change fixes the bug.

Fixes #31645.

Change-Id: I7860ebf5b12da37d9d0f43d4b6a22d326a90edaf
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173877
Run-TryBot: Richard Musiol <neelance@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Emmanuel Odeke <emm.odeke@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* runtime: initialise cpu.HWCap on openbsd/arm64

OpenBSD does not provide auxv, however we still need to initialise cpu.HWCap.
For now initialise it to the bare minimum, until some form of CPU capability
detection is implemented or becomes available - see issue #31746.

Updates #31656

Change-Id: I68c3c069319fe60dc873f46def2a67c9f3d937d5
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174129
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* runtime: support all as parameter in gdb goroutine commands.

For example, can use `goroutine all bt` to dump all goroutines'
information.

Change-Id: I51b547c2b837913e4bdabf0f45b28f09250a3e34
GitHub-Last-Rev: d04dcd4f581f97e35ee45969a864f1270d79e49b
GitHub-Pull-Request: golang/go#26283
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/122589
Run-TryBot: Emmanuel Odeke <emm.odeke@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Emmanuel Odeke <emm.odeke@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: David Chase <drchase@google.com>

* os/exec: always set SYSTEMROOT on Windows if not listed in Cmd.Env

Fixes #25210

Change-Id: If27b61776154dae9b9b67bf4e4f5faa785d98105
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174318
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>

* runtime/cgo: ignore missing Info.plist files on iOS

When running Go programs on Corellium virtual iPhones, the Info.plist
files might not exist. Ignore the error.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: Id2e315c09346b69dda9e10cf29fb5dba6743aac4
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174202
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* syscall: don't return EINVAL on zero Chmod mode on Windows

Fixes #20858

Change-Id: I45c397795426aaa276b20f5cbeb80270c95b920c
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174320
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* testing: delay flag registration; move to an Init function

Any code that imports the testing package forces the testing flags to be
defined, even in non-test binaries. People work around this today by
defining a copy of the testing.TB interface just to avoid importing
testing.

Fix this by moving flag registration into a new function, testing.Init.
Delay calling Init until the testing binary begins to run, in
testing.MainStart.

Init is exported for cases where users need the testing flags to be
defined outside of a "go test" context. In particular, this may be
needed where testing.Benchmark is called outside of a test.

Fixes #21051

Change-Id: Ib7e02459e693c26ae1ba71bbae7d455a91118ee3
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173722
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* runtime: make mmap return 0 instead of -1 on aix/ppc64

Most of the platforms are returning 0 instead of -1 when mmap syscalls
is failing. This patch corrects it for AIX in order to fix
TestMmapErrorSign and to improve AIX compatibility.

Change-Id: I1dad88d0e69163ad55c504b2b4a997892fd876cd
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174297
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>

* cmd/go: add XCOFF format handler for go version

Change-Id: Ib102ae95acfd89fc3c9942a4ec82c74362f62045
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174299
Run-TryBot: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>

* runtime: account for callbacks in checkdead on Windows

When a callback runs on a different thread in Windows, as in the
runtime package test TestCallbackInAnotherThread, it will use the
extra M. That can cause the test in checkdead to fail incorrectly.
Check whether there actually is an extra M before expecting it.

I think this is a general problem unrelated to timers. I think the test
was passing previously because the timer goroutine was using an M.
But I haven't proved that. This change seems correct, and it avoids
the test failure when using the new timers on Windows.

Updates #27707

Change-Id: Ieb31c04ff0354d6fae7e173b59bcfadb8b0464cd
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174037
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd,runtime: enable cgo for openbsd/arm64

Updates #31656.

Change-Id: Ide6f829282fcdf20c67998b766a201a6a92c3035
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174132
Run-TryBot: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: evaluate map initializers incrementally

For the code:

m := map[int]int {
  a(): b(),
  c(): d(),
  e(): f(),
}

We used to do:

t1 := a()
t2 := b()
t3 := c()
t4 := d()
t5 := e()
t6 := f()
m := map[int]int{}
m[t1] = t2
m[t3] = t4
m[t5] = t6

After this CL we do:

m := map[int]int{}
t1 := a()
t2 := b()
m[t1] = t2
t3 := c()
t4 := d()
m[t3] = t4
t5 := e()
t6 := f()
m[t5] = t6

Ordering the initialization this way limits the lifetime of the
temporaries involved.  In particular, for large maps the number of
simultaneously live temporaries goes from ~2*len(m) to ~2. This change
makes the compiler (regalloc, mostly) a lot happier. The compiler runs
faster and uses a lot less memory.

For #26546, changes compile time of a big map from 8 sec to 0.5 sec.

Fixes #26552

Update #26546

Change-Id: Ib7d202dead3feaf493a464779fd9611c63fcc25f
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174417
Run-TryBot: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Matthew Dempsky <mdempsky@google.com>

* cmd/go: add test of $GONOPROXY, $GONOSUMDB behavior

Change-Id: I8a4917ce14ea22d5991226e485d43a9c9312950e
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174219
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* encoding/json: fix Unmarshal hang on recursive pointers

indirect walks down v until it gets to a non-pointer. But it does not
handle the case when v is a pointer to itself, like in:

	var v interface{}
	v = &v
	Unmarshal(b, v)

So just stop immediately if we see v is a pointer to itself.

Fixes #31740

Change-Id: Ie396264119e24d70284cd9bf76dcb2050babb069
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174337
Run-TryBot: Daniel Martí <mvdan@mvdan.cc>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Daniel Martí <mvdan@mvdan.cc>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* runtime: do not use heap arena hints on wasm

The address space of WebAssembly's linear memory is contiguous, so
requesting specific addresses is not supported. Do not use heap arena
hints so we do not have unused memory ranges.

This fixes go1 benchmarks on wasm which ran out of memory since
https://golang.org/cl/170950.

Change-Id: I70115b18dbe43abe16dd5f57996343d97bf94760
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174203
Run-TryBot: Richard Musiol <neelance@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>

* cmd/internal/obj/wasm: cache SP in a local

We use Wasm global variables extensively for simulating
registers, especially SP. V8 does not handle global variables
efficiently.

This CL reduces global variable accesses by caching the global SP
in a local variable in each function. The local cache is set on
function entry and updated after each call (where the stack could
have moved). Within a function, the SP access will use the local
variable.

Supersedes https://golang.org/cl/173979.

Running on Chrome Version 73.0.3683.103 on darwin/amd64:

name                   old time/op    new time/op     delta
BinaryTree17              15.3s ± 2%      14.5s ± 3%   -5.20%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
Fannkuch11                8.91s ± 2%      9.48s ± 2%   +6.41%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
FmtFprintfEmpty           197ns ± 5%      165ns ± 3%  -16.09%  (p=0.000 n=9+8)
FmtFprintfString          354ns ± 8%      325ns ± 7%   -8.33%  (p=0.001 n=10+10)
FmtFprintfInt             400ns ± 4%      368ns ± 6%   -8.01%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
FmtFprintfIntInt          618ns ± 3%      587ns ± 6%   -4.97%  (p=0.001 n=10+10)
FmtFprintfPrefixedInt     637ns ± 4%      606ns ± 4%   -4.88%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
FmtFprintfFloat           965ns ± 7%      898ns ± 4%   -6.97%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
FmtManyArgs              2.34µs ± 1%     2.24µs ± 3%   -4.40%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
GobDecode                29.8ms ± 3%     28.8ms ± 6%   -3.60%  (p=0.006 n=9+10)
GobEncode                20.5ms ± 8%     17.6ms ± 3%  -14.32%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
Gzip                      714ms ± 3%      718ms ± 8%     ~     (p=0.971 n=10+10)
Gunzip                    148ms ± 3%      136ms ± 3%   -7.99%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
HTTPClientServer          219µs ± 3%      215µs ± 4%     ~     (p=0.190 n=10+10)
JSONEncode               35.1ms ± 2%     31.8ms ±13%   -9.52%  (p=0.002 n=10+10)
JSONDecode                220ms ± 3%      207ms ± 5%   -5.87%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
Mandelbrot200            5.22ms ± 1%     5.11ms ± 4%   -2.11%  (p=0.027 n=8+10)
GoParse                  17.2ms ± 6%     16.1ms ± 5%   -6.63%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
RegexpMatchEasy0_32       375ns ± 3%      340ns ± 3%   -9.25%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchEasy0_1K      2.70µs ± 3%     2.65µs ± 4%     ~     (p=0.118 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchEasy1_32       341ns ± 2%      305ns ± 4%  -10.62%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchEasy1_1K      3.20µs ± 3%     2.99µs ± 3%   -6.35%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchMedium_32      520ns ± 3%      501ns ± 4%   -3.64%  (p=0.002 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchMedium_1K      145µs ± 7%      128µs ± 3%  -11.57%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchHard_32       7.88µs ± 3%     7.01µs ± 5%  -10.97%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchHard_1K        237µs ± 5%      207µs ± 4%  -12.71%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
Revcomp                   2.34s ± 1%      2.31s ± 5%     ~     (p=0.230 n=7+10)
Template                  261ms ± 7%      246ms ± 5%   -5.93%  (p=0.007 n=10+10)
TimeParse                1.47µs ± 3%     1.39µs ± 5%   -5.75%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
TimeFormat               1.52µs ± 3%     1.43µs ± 4%   -6.42%  (p=0.000 n=8+10)

name                   old speed      new speed       delta
GobDecode              25.7MB/s ± 3%   26.7MB/s ± 5%   +3.77%  (p=0.006 n=9+10)
GobEncode              37.5MB/s ± 8%   43.7MB/s ± 3%  +16.61%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
Gzip                   27.2MB/s ± 3%   27.0MB/s ± 7%     ~     (p=0.971 n=10+10)
Gunzip                  131MB/s ± 3%    142MB/s ± 5%   +8.07%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
JSONEncode             55.2MB/s ± 2%   61.2MB/s ±12%  +10.80%  (p=0.002 n=10+10)
JSONDecode             8.84MB/s ± 3%   9.39MB/s ± 5%   +6.28%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
GoParse                3.37MB/s ± 6%   3.61MB/s ± 5%   +7.09%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
RegexpMatchEasy0_32    85.3MB/s ± 3%   94.0MB/s ± 3%  +10.20%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchEasy0_1K     379MB/s ± 3%    387MB/s ± 4%     ~     (p=0.123 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchEasy1_32    93.9MB/s ± 2%  105.1MB/s ± 4%  +11.96%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchEasy1_1K     320MB/s ± 3%    342MB/s ± 3%   +6.79%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchMedium_32   1.92MB/s ± 2%   2.00MB/s ± 3%   +3.94%  (p=0.001 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchMedium_1K   7.09MB/s ± 6%   8.01MB/s ± 3%  +13.00%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
RegexpMatchHard_32     4.06MB/s ± 3%   4.56MB/s ± 5%  +12.38%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
RegexpMatchHard_1K     4.32MB/s ± 4%   4.96MB/s ± 4%  +14.60%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
Revcomp                 109MB/s ± 1%    110MB/s ± 5%     ~     (p=0.219 n=7+10)
Template               7.44MB/s ± 8%   7.91MB/s ± 5%   +6.30%  (p=0.007 n=10+10)

Change-Id: I5828cf6b23ce104c02addc2642aba48dd6c48aab
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174062
Run-TryBot: Richard Musiol <neelance@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>

* cmd/go/internal/modfetch: fix concurrent read/write race in modfetch

On Windows systems, the failure rate for cmd/go's TestScript/mod_concurrent
is somewhere around 3-10% without this change. With the change, I have yet
to see a failure.

Fixes #31744.

Change-Id: Ib321ebb9556dd8438086cf329dfa083a9e051732
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174439
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* encoding/csv: add a Fuzz function

Adds a sample Fuzz test function to package encoding/csv based on
https://github.com/dvyukov/go-fuzz-corpus/blob/master/csv/main.go

Updates #19109
Updates #31309

Change-Id: Ieb0cb6caa1df72dbb7e29df4bdeed0bfa91187d3
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174302
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/go: say to confirm import path when it's not found

Fixes #31366.

Change-Id: Ief26f53e7fe94bedb7db79d3d7130c4cdcec4281
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174179
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* html: add a Fuzz function

Adds a sample Fuzz test function to package html based on
https://github.com/dvyukov/go-fuzz-corpus/blob/master/stdhtml/main.go

Updates #19109
Updates #31309

Change-Id: I8c49fff8f70fc8a8813daf1abf0044752003adbb
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174301
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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* cmd/dist: disable cgo for darwin/386

Fixes #31751

Change-Id: Id002f14557a34accc3597cb1b9a42e838a027da4
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174497
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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* runtime: implement pthread functions for darwin/arm64

They were not needed when Go only produced binaries with cgo suppport.
Now that Go is about to run self-hosted on iOS we do need these.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: If233aa2b31edc7b1c2dcac68974f9fba0604f9a3
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174300
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
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Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/link: add .go.buildinfo in XCOFF symbol table

.go.buildinfo must be added to the symbol table on AIX. Otherwise, ld
won't be able to handle its relocations.

This patch also make ".data" the default section for all symbols inside
the data segment.

Change-Id: I83ac2bf1050e0ef6ef9c96ff793efd4ddc8e98d7
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174298
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* all: add new GOOS=illumos, split out of GOOS=solaris

Like GOOS=android which implies the "linux" build tag, GOOS=illumos
implies the "solaris" build tag. This lets the existing ecosystem of
packages still work on illumos, but still permits packages to start
differentiating between solaris and illumos.

Fixes #20603

Change-Id: I8f4eabf1a66060538dca15d7658c1fbc6c826622
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174457
Run-TryBot: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Benny Siegert <bsiegert@gmail.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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* runtime: fix data sizes for res_search results

The return values are 32 bit, not 64 bit.

I don't think this would be the cause of any problems, but
it can't hurt to fix it.

Change-Id: Icdd50606360ab9d74070271f9d1721d5fe640bc7
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174518
Run-TryBot: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/go/internal/modcmd: allow mod download without go.mod

Fixes #29522

Change-Id: I48f3a945d24c23c7c7ef5c7f1fe5046b6b2898e9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/157937
Run-TryBot: Bryan C. Mills <bcmills@google.com>
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Reviewed-by: Bryan C. Mills <bcmills@google.com>

* all: refer to map elements as elements instead of values

The spec carefully and consistently uses "key" and "element"
as map terminology. The implementation, not so much.

This change attempts to make the implementation consistently
hew to the spec's terminology. Beyond consistency, this has
the advantage of avoid some confusion and naming collisions,
since v and value are very generic and commonly used terms.

I believe that I found all everything, but there are a lot of
non-obvious places for these to hide, and grepping for them is hard.
Hopefully this change changes enough of them that we will start using
elem going forward. Any remaining hidden cases can be removed ad hoc
as they are discovered.

The only externally-facing part of this change is in package reflect,
where there is a minor doc change and a function parameter name change.

Updates #27167

Change-Id: I2f2d78f16c360dc39007b9966d5c2046a29d3701
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174523
Run-TryBot: Josh Bleecher Snyder <josharian@gmail.com>
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Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* encoding/gob: adding missing fuzz skip to one of the fuzz tests

It's slow & often times out randomly on longtest builders. Not useful.

Fixes #31517

Change-Id: Icedbb0c94fbe43d04e8b47d5785ac61c5e2d8750
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174522
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Bryan C. Mills <bcmills@google.com>
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* cmd/dist: set the default external linker on platforms without gcc

The go tool already sets -extld to the appropriate compiler. This
CL changes cmd/dist to do the same, to fix bootstrapping on platforms
that only have clang (Android and iOS).

Updates #31722

Change-Id: I8a4fd227f85a768053a8946198eab68bbbdf9ae5
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174305
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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* cmd/dist: detect GOHOSTARCH on iOS

cmd/dist defaults to GOHOSTARCH=amd64 on darwin because no other
darwin host could build Go. With the upcoming self-hosted iOS
builders, GOHOSTARCH=arm64 is also possible.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: I9af47d9f8c57ea45475ce498acefbfe6bf4815b9
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174306
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
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* cmd/go: derive executable name from package path in 'go run'

Change name of temporary executable on go run . to directory name.
Fixes #31571

Change-Id: I0a0ce74154e76205bb43805c95bd7fb8fd2dfd01
GitHub-Last-Rev: e0964983e18a1d45b55f7098c7489059708c7e5e
GitHub-Pull-Request: golang/go#31614
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173297
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
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Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* time: look for zoneinfo.zip in GOROOT

The zoneinfo.zip file will be in the $GOROOT in self-hsoted builds
on iOS.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: I991fae92e3dc50581b099a2d8901aed36ecc7cef
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174310
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/go: query modules in parallel

Refactor modload.QueryPackage and modload.QueryPattern to share code.

Fine-tune error reporting and make it consistent between QueryPackage and QueryPattern.

Expand tests for pattern errors.

Update a TODO in modget/get.go and add a test case that demonstrates it.

Updates #26232

Change-Id: I900ca8de338ef9a51b7f85ed93d8bcf837621646
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173017
Run-TryBot: Bryan C. Mills <bcmills@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* net/http: make Server return 501 for unsupported transfer-encodings

Ensures that our HTTP/1.X Server properly responds
with a 501 Unimplemented as mandated by the spec at
RFC 7230 Section 3.3.1, which says:
    A server that receives a request message with a
    transfer coding it does not understand SHOULD
    respond with 501 (Unimplemented).

Fixes #30710

Change-Id: I096904e6df053cd1e4b551774cc27523ff3d09f6
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/167017
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/go,cmd/internal/sys,cmd/link: skip Go build ids for externally linked tools

cmd/go already skips build ids on Android where buildmode=pie is
forced. Expand the check to all externally linked tools.

Necessary for self-hosted iOS builds where PIE is not forced but
external linking is.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: Iad796a9411a37eb0c44d365b70a3c5907537e461
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174307
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>

* cmd/go/internal/modfetch/codehost: disable fetch of server-resolved commit hash

We cannot rely on the server to filter out the refs we don't want
(we only want refs/heads/* and refs/tags/*), so do not give it
the full hash.

Fixes #31191.

Change-Id: If1208c35954228aa6e8734f8d5f1725d0ec79c87
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174517
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Bryan C. Mills <bcmills@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: remove dynamic entry handling from sinit/maplit

The order pass now handles all the dynamic entries.

Update #26552

Followup to CL 174417

Change-Id: Ie924cadb0e0ba36c423868f654f13040100b44c6
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174498
Run-TryBot: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Matthew Dempsky <mdempsky@google.com>

* os: fix tests on self-hosted Go builds

Updates #31722

Change-Id: I467bb2539f993fad642abf96388a58a263fbe007
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174311
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/asm: reject BSWAPW on amd64

Since BSWAP operation on 16-bit registers is undefined,
forbid the usage of BSWAPW. Users should rely on XCHGB instead.

This behavior is consistent with what GAS does.

Fixes #29167

Change-Id: I3b31e3dd2acfd039f7564a1c17e6068617bcde8d
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174312
Run-TryBot: Iskander Sharipov <quasilyte@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: fix line numbers for index panics

In the statement x = a[i], the index panic should appear to come from
the line number of the '['. Previous to this CL we sometimes used the
line number of the '=' instead.

Fixes #29504

Change-Id: Ie718fd303c1ac2aee33e88d52c9ba9bcf220dea1
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174617
Run-TryBot: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: add signed divisibility rules

"Division by invariant integers using multiplication" paper
by Granlund and Montgomery contains a method for directly computing
divisibility (x%c == 0 for c constant) by means of the modular inverse.
The method is further elaborated in "Hacker's Delight" by Warren Section 10-17

This general rule can compute divisibilty by one multiplication, and add
and a compare for odd divisors and an additional rotate for even divisors.

To apply the divisibility rule, we must take into account
the rules to rewrite x%c = x-((x/c)*c) and (x/c) for c constant on the first
optimization pass "opt".  This complicates the matching as we want to match
only in the cases where the result of (x/c) is not also needed.
So, we must match on the expanded form of (x/c) in the expression x == c*(x/c)
in the "late opt" pass after common subexpresion elimination.

Note, that if there is an intermediate opt pass introduced in the future we
could simplify these rules by delaying the magic division rewrite to "late opt"
and matching directly on (x/c) in the intermediate opt pass.

On amd64, the divisibility check is 30-45% faster.

name                     old time/op  new time/op  delta`
DivisiblePow2constI64-4  0.83ns ± 1%  0.82ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.079 n=5+4)
DivisibleconstI64-4      2.68ns ± 1%  1.87ns ± 0%  -30.33%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
DivisibleWDivconstI64-4  2.69ns ± 1%  2.71ns ± 3%     ~     (p=1.000 n=5+5)
DivisiblePow2constI32-4  1.15ns ± 1%  1.15ns ± 0%     ~     (p=0.238 n=5+4)
DivisibleconstI32-4      2.24ns ± 1%  1.20ns ± 0%  -46.48%  (p=0.016 n=5+4)
DivisibleWDivconstI32-4  2.27ns ± 1%  2.27ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.683 n=5+5)
DivisiblePow2constI16-4  0.81ns ± 1%  0.82ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.135 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstI16-4      2.11ns ± 2%  1.20ns ± 1%  -42.99%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstI16-4  2.23ns ± 0%  2.27ns ± 2%   +1.79%  (p=0.029 n=4+4)
DivisiblePow2constI8-4   0.81ns ± 1%  0.81ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.286 n=5+5)
DivisibleconstI8-4       2.13ns ± 3%  1.19ns ± 1%  -43.84%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
DivisibleWDivconstI8-4   2.23ns ± 1%  2.25ns ± 1%     ~     (p=0.183 n=5+5)

Fixes #30282
Fixes #15806

Change-Id: Id20d78263a4fdfe0509229ae4dfa2fede83fc1d0
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/173998
Run-TryBot: Brian Kessler <brian.m.kessler@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* cmd/go: make get -u upgrade only modules providing packages

Currently, 'go get -u' upgrades modules matching command line
arguments and any modules they transitively require. 'go get -u' with
no positional arguments upgrades all modules transitively required by
the main module. This usually adds a large number of indirect
requirements, which is surprising to users.

With this change, 'go get' will load packages specified by
its arguments using a similar process to other commands
('go build', etc). Only modules providing packages will be upgraded.

'go get -u' now upgrades modules providing packages transitively
imported by the command-line arguments. 'go get -u' without arguments
will only upgrade modules needed by the package in the current
directory.

'go get -m' will load all packages within a module. 'go get -m -u'
without arguments will upgrade modules needed by the main module. It
is equivalent to 'go get -u all'. Neither command will upgrade modules
that are required but not used.

Note that 'go get -m' and 'go get -d' both download modules in order
to load packages.

Fixes #26902

Change-Id: I2bad686b3ca8c9de985a81fb42b16a36bb4cc3ea
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174099
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>

* syscall: on wasm, do not use typed array asynchronously

The underlying buffer of a typed array becomes invalid as soon as we
grow the WebAssembly memory, which can happen at any time while Go code
runs. This is a known limitation, see https://golang.org/cl/155778.

As a consequence, using a typed array with one of the asynchronous
read/write operations of Node.js' fs module is dangerous, since it may
become invalid while the asynchronous operation has not finished yet.
The result of this situation is most likely undefined.

I am not aware of any nice solution to this issue, so this change adds
a workaround of using an additional typed array which is not backed by
WebAssembly memory and copying the bytes between the two typed arrays.

Maybe WebAssembly will come up with a better solution in the future.

Fixes #31702.

Change-Id: Iafc2a0fa03c81db414520bd45a1a17c00080b61e
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174304
Run-TryBot: Richard Musiol <neelance@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>

* net/http: add Transport.ReadBufferSize and WriteBufferSize

Previously transport was using the hardcoded bufio.defaultBufSize
(4096), limiting throughput and increasing cpu usage when uploading or
downloading large files.

Add options to allow users to configure the buffer sizes as needed.

I tested the maximum benefit of this change by uploading data from
/dev/zero to a server discarding the bytes. Here is an example upload
using the default buffer size:

$ time ./upload 10 https://localhost:8000/
Uploaded 10.00g in 25.13 seconds (407.49m/s)

real	0m25.135s
user	0m5.167s
sys	0m11.643s

With this change, using 128k buffer size:

$ time ./upload 10 https://localhost:8000/
Uploaded 10.00g in 7.93 seconds (1291.51m/s)

real	0m7.935s
user	0m4.517s
sys	0m2.603s

In real world usage the difference will be smaller, depending on the
local and remote storage and the network.

See https://github.com/nirs/http-bench for more info.

Fixes #22618

Change-Id: Iac99ed839c7b95d6dc66602ba8fe1fc5b500c47c
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/76410
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* net/http: make Transport.MaxConnsPerHost work for HTTP/2

Treat HTTP/2 connections as an ongoing persistent connection. When we
are told there is no cached connections, cleanup the associated
connection and host connection count.

Fixes #27753

Change-Id: I6b7bd915fc7819617cb5d3b35e46e225c75eda29
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/140357
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* internal/cpu: add detection for the new ECDSA and EDDSA capabilities on s390x

This CL will check for the Message-Security-Assist Extension 9 facility
which enables the KDSA instruction.

Change-Id: I659aac09726e0999ec652ef1f5983072c8131a48
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174529
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* net: set DNSError.IsTemporary from addrinfoErrno errors

Today it is not possible (AFAICT) to detect if a DNSError if of type EAI_AGAIN, i.e. if it is something temporary that should be retried. This information is available inside addrinfoErrno but when the DNSError is created this information is lost.

This PR fixes this so that the addinfoErrno.Temporary information is added to DNSError as well. With that a user who gets a DNSError can check now is its a temporary error (for errors that resulted from a addrinfoErrno this is EAI_AGAIN).

Change-Id: I64badb2ebd904e41fc2e0755416f7f32560534d8
GitHub-Last-Rev: ced7238a6597039fb23f36f372bd1cf33d60d4a6
GitHub-Pull-Request: golang/go#31676
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174557
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* os,time: fix tests on iOS

When fixing tests for for self-hosted iOS builds, I
broke hosted builds.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: Id4e7d234fbd86cb2d29d320d75f4441efd663d12
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174698
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* test: enable more memcombine tests for ppc64le

This enables more of the testcases in memcombine for ppc64le,
and adds more detail to some existing.

Change-Id: Ic522a1175bed682b546909c96f9ea758f8db247c
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174737
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* runtime: change the span allocation policy to first-fit

This change modifies the treap implementation to be address-ordered
instead of size-ordered, and further augments it so it may be used for
allocation. It then modifies the find method to implement a first-fit
allocation policy.

This change to the treap implementation consequently makes it so that
spans are scavenged in highest-address-first order without any
additional changes to the scavenging code. Because the treap itself is
now address ordered, and the scavenging code iterates over it in
reverse, the highest address is now chosen instead of the largest span.

This change also renames the now wrongly-named "scavengeLargest" method
on mheap to just "scavengeLocked" and also fixes up logic in that method
which made assumptions about size.

For #30333.

Change-Id: I94b6f3209211cc1bfdc8cdaea04152a232cfbbb4
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/164101
Run-TryBot: Michael Knyszek <mknyszek@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>

* go/internal/gccgoimporter: skip new test with aliases with old gccgo

Add the issue31540 test to the list of tests that needs to be skipped
with old copies of gccgo. Along the way, add an explicit field to the
importer test struct that can be used to tag the test (as opposed to
having special cases by name in the test routine), so as to make it
easier to remember to tag testcases correctly.

Fixes #31764.

Change-Id: Ib9d98fea2df8ce0b51e5a886fb2c4acd6db490ff
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174738
Reviewed-by: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
Run-TryBot: Ian Lance Taylor <iant@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/compile/internal/ppc64: improve naming for ginsnop2

This is a follow up from a review comment at the end of the last
Go release, to provide a more meaningful name for ginsnop2.

Updates #30475

Change-Id: Ice9efd763bf2204a9e8c55ae230d3e8a80210108
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174757
Run-TryBot: Lynn Boger <laboger@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>

* index/suffixarray: add 32-bit implementation

The original index/suffixarray used 32-bit ints on 64-bit machines,
because that's what 'int' meant in Go at the time. When we changed
the meaning of int, that doubled the space overhead of suffix arrays
for all uses, even though the vast majority of them describe less
than 2 GB of text.

The space overhead of a suffix array compared to the text is not
insignificant: there's a big difference for many uses between 4X and 8X.

This CL adjusts names in qsufsort.go so that a global search and
replace s/32/64/g produces a working 64-bit implementation,
and then it modifies suffixarray.go to choose between the 32-bit
and 64-bit implementation as appropriate depending on the input size.
The 64-bit implementation is generated by 'go generate'.

This CL also restructures the benchmarks, to test different
input sizes, different input texts, and 32-bit vs 64-bit.

The serialized form uses varint-encoded numbers and is unchanged,
so on-disk suffix arrays written by older versions of Go will be
readable by this version, and vice versa.

The 32-bit version runs a up to 17% faster than the 64-bit version
on real inputs, but more importantly it uses 50% less memory.

I have a followup CL that also implements a faster algorithm
on top of these improvements, but these are a good first step.

name                                  64-bit speed   32-bit speed    delta
New/text=opticks/size=100K/bits=*-12  4.44MB/s ± 0%  4.64MB/s ± 0%   +4.41%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=opticks/size=500K/bits=*-12  3.70MB/s ± 1%  3.82MB/s ± 0%   +3.30%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=100K/bits=*-12       4.40MB/s ± 0%  4.61MB/s ± 0%   +4.82%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=500K/bits=*-12       3.66MB/s ± 0%  3.77MB/s ± 0%   +3.01%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
New/text=go/size=1M/bits=*-12         3.29MB/s ± 0%  3.55MB/s ± 0%   +7.90%  (p=0.016 n=5+4)
New/text=go/size=5M/bits=*-12         2.25MB/s ± 1%  2.65MB/s ± 0%  +17.81%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=10M/bits=*-12        1.82MB/s ± 0%  2.09MB/s ± 1%  +14.36%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=50M/bits=*-12        1.35MB/s ± 0%  1.51MB/s ± 1%  +12.33%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=zero/size=100K/bits=*-12     3.42MB/s ± 0%  3.32MB/s ± 0%   -2.74%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=zero/size=500K/bits=*-12     3.00MB/s ± 1%  2.97MB/s ± 0%   -1.13%  (p=0.016 n=5+4)
New/text=zero/size=1M/bits=*-12       2.81MB/s ± 0%  2.78MB/s ± 2%     ~     (p=0.167 n=5+5)
New/text=zero/size=5M/bits=*-12       2.46MB/s ± 0%  2.53MB/s ± 0%   +3.18%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=zero/size=10M/bits=*-12      2.35MB/s ± 0%  2.42MB/s ± 0%   +2.98%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
New/text=zero/size=50M/bits=*-12      2.12MB/s ± 0%  2.18MB/s ± 0%   +3.02%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=100K/bits=*-12     6.98MB/s ± 0%  7.22MB/s ± 0%   +3.38%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
New/text=rand/size=500K/bits=*-12     5.53MB/s ± 0%  5.64MB/s ± 0%   +1.92%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=1M/bits=*-12       4.62MB/s ± 1%  5.06MB/s ± 0%   +9.61%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=5M/bits=*-12       3.09MB/s ± 0%  3.43MB/s ± 0%  +10.94%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
New/text=rand/size=10M/bits=*-12      2.68MB/s ± 0%  2.95MB/s ± 0%  +10.39%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=50M/bits=*-12      1.92MB/s ± 0%  2.06MB/s ± 1%   +7.41%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
SaveRestore/bits=*-12                  243MB/s ± 1%   259MB/s ± 0%   +6.68%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)

name                               64-bit alloc/op  32-bit alloc/op  delta
New/text=opticks/size=100K/bits=*-12    1.62MB ± 0%    0.81MB ± 0%  -50.00%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=opticks/size=500K/bits=*-12    8.07MB ± 0%    4.04MB ± 0%  -49.89%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=100K/bits=*-12         1.62MB ± 0%    0.81MB ± 0%  -50.00%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=500K/bits=*-12         8.07MB ± 0%    4.04MB ± 0%  -49.89%  (p=0.029 n=4+4)
New/text=go/size=1M/bits=*-12           16.1MB ± 0%     8.1MB ± 0%  -49.95%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=5M/bits=*-12           80.3MB ± 0%    40.2MB ± 0%     ~     (p=0.079 n=4+5)
New/text=go/size=10M/bits=*-12           160MB ± 0%      80MB ± 0%  -50.00%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=go/size=50M/bits=*-12           805MB ± 0%     402MB ± 0%  -50.06%  (p=0.029 n=4+4)
New/text=zero/size=100K/bits=*-12       3.02MB ± 0%    1.46MB ± 0%     ~     (p=0.079 n=4+5)
New/text=zero/size=500K/bits=*-12       19.7MB ± 0%     8.7MB ± 0%  -55.98%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=zero/size=1M/bits=*-12         39.0MB ± 0%    19.7MB ± 0%  -49.60%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=zero/size=5M/bits=*-12          169MB ± 0%      85MB ± 0%  -49.46%  (p=0.029 n=4+4)
New/text=zero/size=10M/bits=*-12         333MB ± 0%     169MB ± 0%  -49.43%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=zero/size=50M/bits=*-12        1.63GB ± 0%    0.74GB ± 0%  -54.61%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=100K/bits=*-12       1.61MB ± 0%    0.81MB ± 0%  -50.00%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=rand/size=500K/bits=*-12       8.07MB ± 0%    4.04MB ± 0%  -49.89%  (p=0.000 n=5+4)
New/text=rand/size=1M/bits=*-12         16.1MB ± 0%     8.1MB ± 0%  -49.95%  (p=0.029 n=4+4)
New/text=rand/size=5M/bits=*-12         80.7MB ± 0%    40.3MB ± 0%  -50.06%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=10M/bits=*-12         161MB ± 0%      81MB ± 0%  -50.03%  (p=0.008 n=5+5)
New/text=rand/size=50M/bits=*-12         806MB ± 0%     403MB ± 0%  -50.00%  (p=0.016 n=4+5)
SaveRestore/bits=*-12                   9.47MB ± 0%    5.28MB ± 0%  -44.29%  (p=0.000 n=9+8)

https://perf.golang.org/search?q=upload:20190126.1+|+bits:64+vs+bits:32

Fixes #6816.

Change-Id: Ied2fbea519a202ecc43719debcd233344ce38847
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174097
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* runtime: look for idle p to run current goroutine when switching to GC or traceReader

This repairs one of the several causes of pauses uncovered
by a GC microbenchmark.  A pause can occur when a goroutine's
quantum expires "at the same time" a GC is needed.  The
current M switches to running a GC worker, which means that
the amount of available work has expanded by one.  The GC
worker, however, does not call ready, and does not itself
conditionally wake a P (a "normal" thread would do this).

This is also true if M switches to a traceReader.

This is problem 4 in this list:
https://github.com/golang/go/issues/27732#issuecomment-423301252

Updates #27732.

Change-Id: I6905365cac8504cde6faab2420f4421536551f0b
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/146817
Run-TryBot: David Chase <drchase@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Austin Clements <austin@google.com>

* cmd/go/internal/modfetch/codehost: fix pseudoversions for non-semver tags and tags on other branches

Pseudoversion determination depends in part on the results from gitRepo.RecentTag, which currently invokes:

git describe --first-parent --always --abbrev=0 --match <prefix>v[0-9]*.[0-9]*.[0-9]* --tags <rev>

The comment at https://github.com/golang/go/issues/27171#issuecomment-470134255 describes some problems with the current approach.

One problem is Docker and other repos can have tags that are not valid semver tags but that still match a glob pattern of v[0-9]*.[0-9]*.[0-9]* which are found by 'git describe' but then rejected by cmd/go, and hence those repos currently can end up with v0.0.0 pseudoversions instead of finding a proper semver tag to use as input to building a pseudoversion  (when then causes problems when the v0.0.0 pseudoversion is fed into MVS). An example problematic tag is a date-based tag such as 'v18.06.16', which matches the glob pattern, but is not a valid semver tag (due to the leading 0 in '06').

Issues #31673, #31287, and #27171 also describe problems where the '--first-parent' argument to 'git describe' cause the current approach to miss relevant semver tags that were created on a separate branch and then subsequently merged to master.

In #27171, Bryan described the base tag that is supposed to be used for pseudoversions as:

"It is intended to be the semantically-latest tag that appears on any commit that is a (transitive) parent of the commit with the given hash, regardless of branches. (The pseudo-version is supposed to sort after every version — tagged or otherwise — that came before it, but before the next tag that a human might plausibly want to apply to the branch.)"

This CL solves the glob problem and tags-on-other-branches problem more directly than the current approach: this CL gets the full list of tags that have been merged into the specific revision of interest, and then sorts and filters the results in cmd/go to select the semantically-latest valid semver tag.

Fixes #31673
Fixes #31287
Updates #27171

Change-Id: I7c3e6b46b2b21dd60562cf2893b6bd2afaae61d5
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174061
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* cmd/go/internal/get: fix strayed verbose output on stdout

Fixes #31768

Change-Id: I3cc0ebc4be34d7c2d2d4fd655bfd0c2515ff3021
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174739
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/dist: only build exec wrappers when cross compiling

Updates #31722

Change-Id: Ib44b46e628e364fff6eacda2b26541db2f0a4261
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174701
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* misc/cgo/testcarchive: skip TestExtar on self-hosted iOS

iOS cannot (directly) run shell scripts.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: I69473e9339c50a77338d391c73b4e146bce3fa89
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174700
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* strings, bytes: add ToValidUTF8

The newly added functions create a copy of their input with all bytes in
invalid UTF-8 byte sequences mapped to the UTF-8 byte sequence
given as replacement parameter.

Fixes #25805

Change-Id: Iaf65f65b40c0581c6bb000f1590408d6628321d0
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/142003
Run-TryBot: Martin Möhrmann <moehrmann@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/go: sort vendor/modules.txt package lists

Right now they are in a deterministic order
but one that depends on the shape of the import graph.
Sort them instead.

Change-Id: Ia0c076a0d6677a511e52acf01f38353e9895dec2
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174527
Run-TryBot: Russ Cox <rsc@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: fix maplit init panics for dynamic entry

golang.org/cl/174498 removes dynamic map entry handling in maplit, by
filtering the static entry only. It panics if it see a dynamic entry.
It relies on order to remove all dynamic entries.

But after recursively call order on the statics, some static entries
become dynamic, e.g OCONVIFACE node:

	type i interface {
		j()
	}
	type s struct{}

	func (s) j() {}

	type foo map[string]i

	var f = foo{
		"1": s{},
	}

To fix it, we recursively call order on each static entry, if it changed
to dynamic, put entry to dynamic then.

Fixes #31777

Change-Id: I1004190ac8f2d1eaa4beb6beab989db74099b025
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174777
Run-TryBot: Matthew Dempsky <mdempsky@google.com>
Reviewed-by: Keith Randall <khr@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>

* cmd/go/internal/web: fix log message

The web package is now used for proxy fetches, so its logs shouldn't
start with "Parsing meta tags".

Change-Id: I22a7dce09e3a681544ee4b860f93c63336e547ca
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174740
Run-TryBot: Heschi Kreinick <heschi@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: disable Go1.13 language features for -lang=go1.12 and below

Fixes   #31747.
Updates #19308.
Updates #12711.
Updates #29008.
Updates #28493.
Updates #19113.

Change-Id: I76d2fdbc7698cc4e0f31b7ae24cbb4d28afbb6a3
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174897
Run-TryBot: Robert Griesemer <gri@golang.org>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Matthew Dempsky <mdempsky@google.com>

* errors: fix comment referencing the Wrapper interface

The Unwrap function performs a type assertion looking for the Wrapper
interface. The method of that interface is called Unwrap but the
interface itself is called Wrapper.

Change-Id: Ie3bf296f93b773d36015bcab2a0e6585d39783c7
GitHub-Last-Rev: 32b1a0c2f8bf8f3eaebf6de252571d82313e86e0
GitHub-Pull-Request: golang/go#31794
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174917
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* doc/go1.13: start doc, note macOS, FreeBSD deprecations

For #23011.
For #27619.

Change-Id: Id1f280993ecdfb07a7420926ca1c0f5b7872afbb
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174521
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/compile: remove outdate TODO in inl.go

Mid-stack inlining is enable now, see #19348, but we still can not
remove the special case for runtime.heapBits.nextArena, because
runtime.heapBits.next is too complex to be inlined
(cost 96 exceeds budget 80).

Change-Id: I04ea86509074afdc83a3f70d68b8a1a8829763d1
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174839
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/go: make modconv test more robust

Change-Id: I3e75201c56779eda1bcd725691c72d384da56f73
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174840
Run-TryBot: Baokun Lee <nototon@gmail.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* cmd/go/internal/modload: make 'list -u' consider current pseudoversion

As pointed out by thepudds in #30634, the 'list -u' documentation states that the current version should be considered for upgrade:
The -u flag adds information about available upgrades. When the latest version of a given module is newer than the current one, list -u sets the Module's Update field to information about the newer module.

In go 1.12.4 (and current tip), an older version will be suggested as upgrade to a newer pseudo version.

Updates: #30634

Change-Id: If2c8887198884b8e7ccb3a604908065aa1f1878a
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174206
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>

* cmd/dist: don't generate exec wrappers for compatible cross compiles

This change will allow android/arm64 hosts to build for android/arm,
and likewise for iOS.

Updates #31722

Change-Id: Id410bd112abbab585ebb13b61fe4d3a38a1a81fb
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/174705
Run-TryBot: Elias Naur <mail@eliasnaur.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Brad Fitzpatrick <bradfitz@golang.org>

* cmd/link: support PIE mode with internal link on linux arm64

This CL improves internal link to provide basic support for cgo and PIE:
1, add support for GOT, PLT and GOTPLT.
2, add support for following ELF relocation types which have been used by std
   packages:
     R_AARCH64_ADR_GOT_PAGE
     R_AARCH64_LD64_GOT_LO12_NC
     R_AARCH64_ADR_PREL_PG_HI21
     R_AARCH64_ADD_ABS_LO12_NC
     R_AARCH64_LDST8_ABS_LO12_NC
     R_AARCH64_LDST32_ABS_LO12_NC
     R_AARCH64_LDST64_ABS_LO12_NC
     R_AARCH64_JUMP26
     R_AARCH64_ABS64
     R_AARCH64_PREL32
     R_AARCH64_PREL64

With this change, Go toolchain can be built in internal linking mode, and
pure Go programs can be built with PIE mode in internal linking mode on arm64.

Updates #10373
The prototype of this CL is contributed by Wei Xiao <wei.xiao@arm.com>

Change-Id: I2253923c69e855fd1524d54def309a961dce6247
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/go/+/163579
Reviewed-by: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>
Run-TryBot: Cherry Zhang <cherryyz@google.com>

* sort: simplify bootstrap

We compile package sort as part of the compiler bootstrap,
to make sure the compiler uses a consistent sort algorithm
no matter what version of Go it is compiled against.
(This matters for elements that compare "equal" but are distinguishab…
@changkun changkun referenced this issue Jun 13, 2019
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