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A github clone of the rubypython sources. The canonical source is on Bitbucket, but changes will be mirrored between these repositories.

branch: master
README.rdoc

rubypython

Description

RubyPython is a bridge between the Ruby and Python interpreters. It embeds a running Python interpreter in the Ruby application's process using FFI and provides a means for wrapping, converting, and calling Python objects and methods.

RubyPython uses FFI to marshal the data between the Ruby and Python VMs and make Python calls. You can:

  • Inherit from Python classes.

  • Configure callbacks from Python.

  • Run Python generators (on Ruby 1.9.2 or later).

Where

The RubyPython homepage, project description, and main downloads can be found on RubyForge.

Source is kept in sync between Bitbucket and GitHub, but the Bitbucket repository is the canonical repository and where the issue tracker resides. We use Hg-Git to keep the two repositories in sync.

Synopsis

RubyPython is fairly easy to start using; there are three phases to its use:

  1. Start the Python interpreter (RubyPython.start).

  2. Import and use Python code (RubyPython.import).

  3. Stop the Python interpreter (RubyPython.stop).

There are also two methods, RubyPython.session and RubyPython.run that will start before running the code provided in the block and stop it afterwards.

Basic Usage

require "rubypython"

RubyPython.start # start the Python interpreter

cPickle = RubyPython.import("cPickle")
p cPickle.dumps("Testing RubyPython.").rubify

RubyPython.stop # stop the Python interpreter

Specific Python Version

require "rubypython"

RubyPython.start(:python_exe => "python2.7") # Can also be a full path

cPickle = RubyPython.import("cPickle")
p cPickle.dumps("Testing RubyPython.").rubify

RubyPython.stop # stop the Python interpreter

VirtualEnv

# Easy
RubyPython.start_from_virtualenv("/path/to/virtualenv")

# Or verbose
RubyPython.start(:python_exe => "/path/to/virtualenv/bin/python")
RubyPython.activate

Iterator support

# Python
def readfile():
  for line in open("/some/file"):
    yield line

# Ruby
readfile.to_enum.each do |line|
  puts line
end

# Python
def iterate_list():
  for item in [ 1, 2, 3 ]:
    yield item

# Ruby
items = []
iterate_list.to_enum.each { |item| items << item }
puts items == [ 1, 2, 3 ] # => true

Python to Ruby callbacks

# Python
def simple_callback(callback, value):
  return callback(value)

# Ruby
simple_callback(lambda { |v| v * v }, 4) # => 16

def triple(v)
  v * 3
end

simple_callback(method(:triple), 4) # => 12

Python-style Generators

# Python
def test_generator(callback):
  for i in callback():
    print "Got %d" % i

# Ruby 1.9.2 or later
test_generator(RubyPython.generator do
  (0..10).each { |i| RubyPython.yield i }
end)

Python named arguments (Experimental)

This format is experimental and may be changed.

# Python
def foo(arg1, arg2):
  pass

# Ruby
foo!(:arg2 => "bar2", :arg1 => "bar1")

# with Ruby 1.9
foo!(arg2: "bar2", arg1: "bar1")

Features / Problems

Features

  • Simple two-way conversion of built-in types between Ruby and Python.

  • Python module import and arbitrary method execution.

  • Python objects can be treated as Ruby objects.

  • Python's standard library available from within Ruby.

  • Pass Ruby methods and procs as callbacks and call them from within Python code.

  • Specify the Python executable to be loaded, including using virtualenv.

Experimental Features

  • Calling Python methods or functions that expect keyword arguments, or call any Python method or function with named parameters.

    # Python
    def func(a, b, c):
      pass
    
    # Ruby
    func!(:b => 2, :c => 3, :a => 1) # => [ 1, 2, 3 ]

    While we are committed to keeping this feature in place, we have not yet determined that the form (method!) is the best way to achieve this functionality.

    This mechanism is experimental because the use of the bang at the end of the method to indicate the use of keyword arguments may not be the best use of that feature of Ruby naming.

  • Changing Python interpreters in a single Ruby program. Under some circumstances, this will partially work. If a native Python extension has been imported (such as cPickle), there is a very high likelihood that there will be a segmentation fault because the newly loaded DLL will still refer to the other version's loaded extension. This is not a recommended workflow.

Known Problems

  • Built-in Python methods requiring a top-level frame object (such as eval(), dir(), and the like) do not work properly at present.

  • There is no support for passing complicated (non-basic) Ruby types to Python.

What's planned

There are features that are not currently supported in RubyPython that may be considered for future releases, dependent on need, interest, and solutions.

Python 3

We do plan on working this, but as none of the projects any of us are working on require Python 3 as of yet, this is not yet started.

Simpler Imports

It might be nice to have some nice import helpers provided by RubyPython to make the interface more seamless and provide advanced import features:

Import Aliasing

# Python
from mod2.mod1 import sym as mysym

# Ruby
py :from => "mod2.mod1", :import => "sym", :as => "mysym"
py :from => "mod2.mod1", :import => :sym, :as => :mysym
py :from => [ :mod2, :mod1 ], :import => :sym, :as => :mysym

# Python
import mod1 as mymod

# Ruby
py :import => "mod1", :as => "mymod"
py :import => :mod1, :as => :mymod

# Python
from mod2.mod1 import *

# Ruby
py :from => "mod2.mod1", :import => :*
pyrequire "mod2/mod1" # ruby style imports

Catch Exceptions from Ruby

# Python
class MyFirstException(Exception):
  pass

class MySecondException(MyFirstException):
  pass

def test():
  raise MySecondException

# Ruby
begin
  test
rescue MyFirstException => e
  # We may need to work out name collisions
  puts e.message
end

Requirements

  • Python >= 2.4, < 3.0

  • Ruby >= 1.8.6, or JRuby >= 1.6.0

  • You must either have the ability to build the Ruby FFI gem, version 1.0.7 or better in your environment or have a pre-built one that you can install.

Python Support

RubyPython has been tested with the C-based Python interpreter (cpython), versions 2.4 through 2.7. Work is planned to enable Python 3 support, but has not yet been started. If you're interested in helping us enable Python 3 support, please let us know.

Ruby Support

  • Ruby 1.8.7 and 1.9.2 (MRI)

  • JRuby 1.6.0

It should work with other implementations that support the Ruby FFI gem with no modification.

OS Support

RubyPython has been extensively tested on Mac OS 10.5 and 10.6, and Ubuntu 10.10 (64-bit Intel). If your platform has a DLL or shared object version of Python and supports the FFI gem, it should work. Feedback on other platforms is always welcome.

Install

gem install rubypython

:include: Contributors.rdoc

:include: License.rdoc

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