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Hipache: a distributed HTTP and websocket proxy
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README.md: Add contributing/running tests section
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README.md

Hipache: a Distributed HTTP and WebSocket Proxy

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WARNING

This is the documentation for master. If you are installing Hipache from NPM, you should look at the documentation on the 0.3.x branch.

What Is It?

Hipache (pronounce hɪ'pætʃɪ) is a fully-featured distributed proxy designed to route high volumes of HTTP and WebSocket traffic to unusually large numbers of virtual hosts, in a highly dynamic topology where backends are added and removed several times per second. It is particularly well-suited for PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) and other environments that are both business-critical and multi-tenant.

Hipache was originally developed at dotCloud, a popular platform-as-a-service, to replace its first-generation routing layer based on a heavily instrumented nginx deployment. It currently serves production traffic for tens of thousands of applications hosted on dotCloud. Hipache is based on the node-http-proxy library.

Run It!

1. Installation

From the shell:

$ npm install hipache -g

The '-g' option will make the 'hipache' bin-script available system-wide (usually linked from '/usr/local/bin').

2. Configuration File

Basic Hipache configuration is described in a config.json file. For example, this is the configuration file for the master version of Hipache (i.e. under development, you should rather look at the documentation of the latest stable version you installed):

{
    "server": {
        "debug": false,
        "workers": 10,
        "maxSockets": 100,
        "tcpTimeout": 30,
        "deadBackendTTL": 30,
        "retryOnError": 3,
        "accessLog": "/var/log/hipache/access.log",
        "httpKeepAlive": false,
        "deadBackendOn500": true,
        "staticDir": null
    },
    "http": {
        "port": 80,
        "bind": ["127.0.0.1"]
    },
    "https": {
        "bind": [],
        "port": 443,
        "ca": [],
        "secureProtocol": "SSLv23_method",
        "secureOptions": 50331648,
        "key": "/etc/ssl/ssl.key",
        "cert": "/etc/ssl/ssl.crt",
        "passphrase": undefined,
        "ciphers": "DH+ECDSA+AESGCM EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384 EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256 EECDH+a RSA+SHA384 EECDH+aRSA+SHA256 EECDH+aRSA+RC4 EECDH EDH+aRSA RC4 !aNULL !eNULL !LOW !3DES !MD5 !EXP !PSK !SRP !DSS !RC4",
        "honorCipherOrder": true
    },
    "driver": "redis:",
    "user": "www-data",
    "group": "www-data"
}
  • server: generic server settings, like accesslog location, or number of workers
    • server.debug: debug mode.
    • server.workers: number of workers to be spawned. You need to request to have at least 1 worker, as the master process does not serve any request. Defaults to 10 if not specified.
    • server.maxSockets: the maximum number of sockets which can be opened on each backend (per worker). Defaults to 100 if not specified.
    • server.tcpTimeout: the number of seconds of inactivity on the socket to wait before timeout-ing it. If sets to 0, then the existing idle timeout is disabled. Defaults to 30 seconds.
    • server.deadBackendTTL: the number of seconds a backend is flagged as 'dead' before retrying to proxy another request to it (doesn't apply if you are using a third-party health checker). Defaults to 30 seconds.
    • server.retryOnError: retries limit. Defaults to 3.
    • server.accessLog: location of the Access logs, the format is the same as nginx. Defaults to /var/log/hipache/access.log if not specified.
    • server.httpKeepAlive: enable/disable keep-alive functionality. Defaults to false (disabled).
    • server.deadBackendOn500: consider 500 HTTP status code as critical error if sets to true. Defaults to true.
    • server.staticDir: the absolute path of the directory containing your custom static error pages. Default value null means it uses Hipache's pages. Defaults to Hipache's static/ directory.
  • http: specifies on which ips/ports Hipache will listen for http traffic. By default, Hipache listens only on 127.0.0.1:80
    • http.port: port to listen to for http. Defaults to 80.
    • http.bind: IPv4 (or IPv6) address, or addresses to listen to. You can specify a single ip, an array of ips, or an array of objects {address: IP, port: PORT} if you want to use a specific port on a specific ip. Defaults to 127.0.0.1.
  • https: specifies on which ips/ports Hipache will listen for https traffic. By default, Hipache doesn't listens for https traffic.
    • https.port: port to listen to for https. Defaults to 443.
    • https.key: path to key file to use. No default.
    • https.passphrase: optional passphrase for the key file. No default.
    • https.cert: path to certificate file to use. No default.
    • https.ca: optional path to additional CA file to serve. Might be a string, or an array.
    • https.bind: similarly to http.bind, you can specific a single IP, an array of IP, or an array of objects to override the port, key/cert/ca files on a per-IP basis.
    • https.secureProtocol: SSL/TLS protocol to use. Defaults to SSLv23_method (auto-negotiation).
    • https.secureOptions: extra options to pass to the SSL/TLS layer. Raw values must be provided. For instance, defaults is 50331648, and stands for SSL_OP_NO_SSLv3 | SSL_OP_NO_SSLv2 (constants).
    • https.ciphers: cipher suites. See the default value above.
    • https.honorCipherOrder: when choosing a cipher, use the server's preferences instead of the client preferences. Defaults to true.
  • driver: driver URL to connect to for dynamic VHOST configurations. See drivers section for more information. Defaults to redis:.
  • user: if starting as root (which you might do if you want to use a privileged port), will drop root privileges as soon as it's bound. Defaults to www-data. Note that you MUST specify a user if you start Hipache as root. You can specify user: 'root' if you don't mind (strongly discouraged!). You can use either user names or identifiers.
  • group: if starting as root, will downgrade group to this. If left empty, will try to downgrade to a group named after the specified user. Defaults to www-data.

3. Spawning

From the shell (defaults to using the config/config.json file):

$ hipache

If you use a privileged port (e.g.: 80):

$ sudo hipache

If you want to use a specific configuration file:

$ hipache --config path/to/someConfig.json

If you want to just test a specific configuration file:

$ hipache --dry --config path/to/someConfig.json

Managing multiple configuration files:

The default configuration file is config/config.json. It's possible to have different configuration files named config_<suffix>.json, where the suffix is the value of an environment variable named SETTINGS_FLAVOR.

For instance, here is how to spawn the server with the config_test.json configuration file in order to run the tests.

$ SETTINGS_FLAVOR=test hipache

4. VHOST Configuration

All VHOST configuration is managed through a configuration backend (cf. drivers). This makes it possible to update the configuration dynamically and gracefully while the server is running, and have that state shared across workers and even across Hipache instances.

The recommended backend to use is Redis. It also makes it simple to write configuration adapters. It would be trivial to load a plain text configuration file into Redis (and update it at runtime).

Different configuration adapters will follow, but for the moment you have to provision the Redis manually.

Let's take an example to proxify requests to 2 backends for the hostname www.dotcloud.com. The 2 backends IP are 192.168.0.42 and 192.168.0.43 and they serve the HTTP traffic on the port 80.

redis-cli is the standard client tool to talk to Redis from the terminal.

Follow these steps:

  1. Create the frontend and associate an identifier:

    $ redis-cli rpush frontend:www.dotcloud.com mywebsite
    (integer) 1
    

The frontend identifer is mywebsite, it could be anything.

  1. Associate the 2 backends:

    $ redis-cli rpush frontend:www.dotcloud.com http://192.168.0.42:80
    (integer) 2
    $ redis-cli rpush frontend:www.dotcloud.com http://192.168.0.43:80
    (integer) 3
    
  2. Review the configuration:

    $ redis-cli lrange frontend:www.dotcloud.com 0 -1
    1) "mywebsite"
    2) "http://192.168.0.42:80"
    3) "http://192.168.0.43:80"
    

While the server is running, any of these steps can be re-run without messing up with the traffic.

5. OS Integration

Upstart

Copy upstart.conf to /etc/init/hipache.conf. Then you can use:

start hipache
stop hipache
restart hipache

The configuration file used is /etc/hipache.json.

Drivers

Hipache supports several drivers for dynamic VHOST configurations.

Redis

This is the default backend.

If you want a master/slave Redis, specify a second url for the master, e.g.: driver: ["redis://slave:port", "redis://master:port"]. More generally, the driver syntax is: redis://:password@host:port/database#prefix - all parameter are optional, hence just redis: is a valid driver URI. You can omit this entirely to use the local redis on the default port, which is the default.

Memcached

See the drivers documentation.

etcd

See the drivers documentation.

Zookeeper

See the drivers documentation.

Features

Load-Balancing Across Multiple Backends

As seen in the example above, multiple backends can be attached to a frontend.

All requests coming to the frontend are load-balanced across all healthy backends.

The backend to use for a specific request is determined randomly. Subsequent requests coming from the same client won't necessarily be routed to the same backend (since backend selection is purely random).

Dead Backend Detection

If a backend stops responding, it will be flagged as dead for a configurable amount of time. The dead backend will be temporarily removed from the load-balancing rotation.

Multi-Process Architecture

To optimize response times and make use of all your available cores, Hipache uses the cluster module (included in NodeJS), and spreads the load across multiple NodeJS processes. A master process is in charge of spawning workers and monitoring them. When a worker dies, the master spawns a new one.

Memory Monitoring

The memory footprint of Hipache tends to grow slowly over time, indicating a probable memory leak. A close examination did not turn up any memory leak in Hipache's code itself; but it doesn't prove that there is none. Also, we did not investigate (yet) thoroughly the code of Hipache's external dependencies, so the leaks could be creeping there.

While we profile Hipache's memory to further reduce its footprint, we implemented a memory monitoring system to make sure that memory use doesn't go out of bounds. Each worker monitors its memory usage. If it crosses a given threshold, the worker stops accepting new connections, it lets the current requests complete cleanly, and it stops itself; it is then replaced by a new copy by the master process.

Dynamic Configuration

You can alter the configuration stored in Redis at any time. There is no need to restart Hipache, or to signal it that the configuration has changed: Hipache will re-query Redis at each request. Worried about performance? We were, too! And we found out that accessing a local Redis is helluva fast. So fast, that it didn't increase measurably the HTTP request latency!

WebSocket

Hipache supports the WebSocket protocol. It doesn't do any fancy handling on its own and relies entirely on NodeJS and node-http-proxy.

SSL

Hipache supports SSL for "regular" requests as well as WebSocket upgrades. Hipache's default configuration matches latest recommandations for a secure and well-configured SSL/TLS layer.

Custom HTML Error Pages

When something wrong happens (e.g., a backend times out), or when a request for an undefined virtual host comes in, Hipache will display an error page. Those error pages can be customized, and a configuration parameter (server.staticDir) is available to specify where these custom pages are located.

Wildcard Domains Support

When adding virtual hosts in Hipache configuration, you can specify wildcards. E.g., instead (or in addition to) www.example.tld, you can insert *.example.tld. Hipache will look for an exact match first, and then for a wildcard one up to 5 subdomains deep, e.g. foo.bar.baz.qux.quux will attempt to match itself first, then *.bar.baz.qux.quux, then *.baz.qux.quux, etc.

Active Health-Check

Even though Hipache support passive health checks, it's also possible to run active health checks. This mechanism requires to run an external program (see third-party softwares below).

Contributing

See CONTRIBUTING.md

Third-Party Softwares of Interest

Health-checkers:

A web interface to manage VHOSTs:

PaaS

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