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README.rst

Description

Epackages are preformatted software packages for Emacs that provide easy way to install more features to Emacs. Similar to concept of Windows MSI or Linux *.rpm (Redhat) and *.deb (Debian) packages.

This directory contains template files for the Emacs packaging system called "Distributed Emacs Lisp Package System (DELPS), or in short "Epackage". The package format use Git Distributed Version Control System (DVCS) repositories for the original source code plus a separate epackage/ sub directory. These Git repositories can reside anywhere publicly available. The repository locations are recorded in a public Sources List file which is used as a master list to available Epackages. The person who wraps Emacs extension into these Git repositories is called Epackage maintainer. The person who is the author of the original Emacs extension developer is called upstream. These two can be the same or separate persons.

Utilities and template files available here for Epackage maintainers include:

  • info - The Epackage information file template
  • get.sh - Generic download script that reads "info" file
  • epackage.shellrc - Command line utilities to make Epackages

In a nutshell, Epackages have the following format

<Emacs extension root dir>
| *.el
| <and any other upstream files, directories>
|
+- .git/                    [Version control branches: master + upstream]
|
+-- epackage/               [Only the most important files listed]
    info                    required: The package control file
    PACKAGE-0loaddefs.el    optional: extracted ###autoload statements
    PACKAGE-autoloads.el    optional: manually written autoload statements (raw)
    PACKAGE-install.el      required: Code to make extension available
    PACKAGE-xactivate.el    optional: Code to activate extension

NOTE: This document is just a quick reference. Refer to specification below for details about the epackage/ directory structure and file formats.

Bookmarks for your browser (always up-to-date):

The Epackage Primer

Hands on example

Before the full script, here is outline of the packaging procedure:

#  Remember to clone the "engine" first from project page
#  https://github.com/jaalto/project--emacs-epackage
#
#  Tell where the epackage.el "engine" is located to that helper
#  functions can call it.

export EPACKAGE_ROOT=<path to>/project--emacs-epackage

#  read additional shell commands

. /path/to/this-repository/epackage.shellrc

#  Egit can download code from various sources.
#  If you already have source code in current directory, just call "Egit"
#  without parameters.

cd /path/to/place/where-sources-will-be-downloaded

Egit http://example.com/file.el

#  Follow then displayed instructions by the above command after it finishes.
#  After committing and tagging "upstream", continue in "master"
#  branch This command will instrument epackage/ directory

Edir

# Run QA tests and report findings to upstream

Elint *.el
Ecomp *.el

#  Done. Edit file epackage/info.
#  Delete unneeded files. Commit and push to Github
#  Notify "Sources List" about new package.

... edit epackage/ directory contents
git push <your Github account>

# ... Later, if upstream releases new code, run these

Ever
Edef

If you want to get your hands dirty immediately and read the documentation later, here is real example. Follow this exercise to create your first epackage:

# The helper shellrc needs epackage.el installed

mkdir -p $HOME/emacs.d/packages
cd $HOME/emacs.d/packages
git clone git://github.com/jaalto/project--emacs-epackage.git epackage
cd epackage
git checkout --track -b devel origin/devel

# Change to a directory for epackage development

mkdir -p $HOME/epackage
cd $HOME/epackage
git clone git://github.com/jaalto/project--emacs-epackage-template.git template

# Type dot(.) POSIX source command to read utilities

. template/epackage.shellrc

# Import Emacs Lisp package from URL

mkdir -p $HOME/epackage/toggle
cd $HOME/epackage/toggle
Egit [-h] http://www.emacswiki.org/emacs/download/toggle.el

# Follow the instructions at end of output....

    Initialized empty Git repository in /home/jaalto/vc/epackage/xxx/.git/
    ;; Copyright (C) 2006-2015 by Ryan Davis
    ;; Author: Ryan Davis <ryand-ruby@zenspider.com>
    ;; Version 1.3.1
    ;; Created: 2006-03-22
    ;; URL(en): http://seattlerb.rubyforge.org/
    ;; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_License
    ;; There are 4 different mapping styles in this version: zentest,
    ;; 1.3.1 2008-09-25 Fixed doco & typo in rspec patterns.
    ;; 1.3.0 2007-05-10 Added tab completion to toggle-style. Suggested by TingWang.
    ;; 1.2.0 2007-04-06 Interleave bidirectional mappings. Fixed interactive setter.
    ;; 1.1.0 2007-03-30 Initial release to emacswiki.org. Added named styles and bidi.
    ;; 1.0.0 2006-03-22 Birfday.
    (require 'cl)
    # WHAT YOU NEED TO DO NEXT:
    # Examine dates, version and correct information to commands below.
    git tag upstream/2011-12-29--VERSION
    git checkout -b master


# (1) Tag, according to displayed information. We were lucky. Not
# all Lisp Files present date and version information this
# clearly. Notice, the date is LAST MODIFIED date of code by the
# original author. If not shown, you could check "ls -l *.el"

git tag upstream/2008-09-25--1.3.1

# (2) Upstream code is now archived. Start "epackaging"

git checkout -b master

# (3) Select PACKAGE NAME. If this were a library, you would use
# "lib-*" prefix. If this were a minor or major mode, you would
# have added "*-mode" suffix.
#
# Here we simply call it epackage "toggle":

Edir toggle .

    Loading vc-git...
    Wrote toggle-epackage-autoloads.el
    Wrote toggle-epackage-install.el
    Generating autoloads for toggle.el...
    Generating autoloads for toggle.el...done
    Wrote toggle-epackage-compile.el
    Wrote toggle-epackage-examples.el
    Wrote toggle-epackage-uninstall.el

# (4) Templates are ready. Clean up as needed.

cd epackage/
ls -1

    info                            # required
    toggle-epackage-autoloads.el    # required
    toggle-epackage-compile.el
    toggle-epackage-examples.el
    toggle-epackage-install.el      # required
    toggle-epackage-uninstall.el

# We remove following files:
#
# - compile: this is a single file package, not needed
# - examples: None. The toogle.el docs have no examples.
# - uninstall: None. We don't need to undo hooks afterwards etc.

rm *-compile.el *-examples.el *-uninstall.el

# Edit epackage information control file:

$EDITOR info

# Finish the epackage.

git add .
git commit -m "epackage/: new"

# Run QA tests and report findings to upstream

Elint *.el
Ecomp *.el

After the exercise, continue reading this README to fill in questions you may have in mind.

Packaging Best Practises

FOREWORD

Things that live in a drop-in package repository bit-rot at an alarming rate. In contrast, the DELPS is based on personal care of packages, just like the Debian which has package maintainers. Someone is doing the packaging. Making sure package is taken care of, updated, released, removed if it no longer works. That someone is taking care of things for the benefit of others who make use of the service.

That means, if there is no nobody interested in some file.el, it probably won't get packaged. There are lot of old and dead code e.g. in Emacs Wiki. Such code might be best left in the place it was found dusting.

EXAMING FILES

For the package maintainer, it is desirable to keep close contact with the upstream to get QA issues solved as soon as possible. Well cared code also has better chance to work in later Emacs versions. It may also improve changes to be included in core Emacs someday. The best practises for package maintainer are:

  • Is the code alive? If the code was last updated years ago, consider labeling package unmaintained while it also may be labeled stable in epackage/info::Status.
  • Examine require commands. Does package depend on other than standard Emacs features? If it does, package those dependencies first.
  • Examine require commands closer. How many are there? Perhaps the author didn't consider library requirements carefully. It may be possible to arrange code to load faster and consume less memory by utilizing autoload instead of require for features that are not immediately used. Talk to upstream about this.
  • Does every variable and function start with a common package-* prefix? If not, label package as unsafe in epackage/info::Status . Explain the reason for the unsafe status the end of epackage/info::Description field. Use e.g. quick egrep -ri '^\(def' . to see if multiple name spaces are used in the code.
  • Are there defgroup and defcustom definitions according to 14 Writing Customization Definitions in GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual? If not, talk to upstream.
  • Are there ;;;###autoload stanzas? These are placed above suitable interactive functions and variables that help in generating autoload definitions'. If not, consider adding and sending path to maintainer.
  • Does the code contain global-set-key commands? Contact upstream and suggest him to move all non-controllable setup code to a separate function like PACKAGE-install-default-key-bindings.
  • Does the code unconditionally set hooks like find-file-hooks? Not good. Package should not change user's settings on load. You need to fix this by removing offending code and moving it into epackage/-*install and undo the effect in epackage/-*uninstall. Make all your edits in a separate Git patches branch; see the pictures at the end of this document. Contact upstream and suggest him to move all setup code to a separate functions like *-install-{default-key-bindings,hooks}.
  • Is the package well structured and behaving? Run all code quality checks. Try also byte compiling. You can use e.g. epackage.el and M-x epackage-lint-file which uses standard Emacs features lisp-mnt, checkdoc etc. Report problems to upstream issue tracker.
  • Does the code refer to a known license in License Database? If not, contact upstream and suggest him to change (or add missing one). The recommended license is GPL, because that is the license of Emacs. If someday the extension finds its way to Emacs, the road is clear with GPL. NOTE: Public Domain is not an internationally viable license.
  • Does the code include Emacs Lisp files (*.el) that do not belong to the project? Sometimes other projects are included along with the package. This is a problem because then Emacs load-path would contains duplicate copies of the files. There would be no guarantee that the latest version from the original author, or standard Emacs, were used. In Git patches branch, just git rm any such files and merge your deletion to master branch. If there is not yet a package for those removed files, you need to package them separately from the original package and make the current package depend on them.

CONTACTING UPSTREAM

Is upstream still there? Find out his email from files, Emacs Wiki or Google and send a mail to notify that his software is being packaged. Ask what email address he prefers to use for contact. Ask where he keeps latest code. Ask if he uses public Version Control and possibly direct him to use Github. You can point him to read the Github instructions at the end of this file. It's very important to try to reach upstream and build contact for future patches and improvement suggestions.

When you have made contact, record it to field epackage/info::X-Development. If there hasn't been updates for a year, you can ping to see if the email still exists and he is maintains the code. An example

...
X-Development:
 YYYY-MM-DD upstream email confirmed.
Description: test package with various functions
 Main command [C-u] M-x test-package runs various tests on
 the current lisp code. With a prefix argument, shows also
 notes and minor details.

If you hear nothing, consider twice packaging software which no longer is actively developed or whose maintainer has gone with the winds of time. The users will download the package and in many cases send bug reports. Do you have the time to deal with those? Especially, if there is no more upstream to forward requests to. Packaging dead code serves no one unless you are able to serve as the new upstream.

FINISHING

After you've dug into all the previous steps, open account at Github and push the package. Notify Sources List about your new epackage to make it available for others.

Making an epackage

  1. Prepare an empty directory. If extension more than one file, stay at extension's root directory ans skip (3)

    mkdir extension
    cd extension
    
  2. Initialize a Git repository. Start at upstream branch directly

    git init
    git symbolic-ref HEAD refs/heads/upstream
    
  3. Download Emacs extension code

    wget http://example.com/project/some-mode.el
    
  4. Determine version information and import code to Git repository. Use clear commit message

    git add *.el
    git commit -m "import upstream YYYY-MM-MM from http://example.com/path/file.el"
    
  5. Mark the commit with a tag that has format upstream/<UPSTREAM-DATE>[--<UPSTREAM-VERSION>][-<DVCSINFO>]. In case information about the release date is not available, use year only format YYYY-01-01. Leave out the --<UPSTREAM-VERSION>] if there is no information about release version. If the package is from a version control directory, it might be a good idea to add -git-abc1234 (7 chars for Git), hg-abcdef123456 or -svn-12234 DVCSINFO suffix. An example

    egrep 'version|[0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]' *.el
    
        Copyright (C) 2010 John Doe <jdoe@example.net>
        Last-Updated: 2010-05-10
        (defvar some-mode-version "1.0")
    
    git tag upstream/2010-05-10--1.0
    
  6. Create master branch on top of upstream branch

    git branch -b master upstream
    
  7. Copy the template files (which are available here, in this repository you're reading)

    mkdir epackage/
    cp <path>/info epackage/
    
  8. Edit the information file. You need to search http://emacswiki.org, Google and study the extension's comments to fill in the details

    $EDITOR epackage/info
    
  9. Last, write at least two files that will be used for installation. One is the autoload file and the other is the install file. You can also add optional xactivate file. Refer to <http://www.nongnu.org/emacs-epackage/manual>:

    # Generated from ##autoload tags with epackage.el command
    # M-x epackage-devel-generate-loaddefs
    
    epackage/PACKAGE-0loaddefs.el
    
    # If the original extension did not have ##autoload tags, these must
    # be extracted manually. Write '(autoload ....)' statements by hand, or
    # call epackage.el command M-x epackage-devel-generate-autoloads
    
    epackage/PACKAGE-autoloads.el
    
    # [optional] Figure out by reading the commentary how the
    # extension is activated for immediate use. Add autoloads and
    # write Emacs lisp code. Try not to load any other packages here
    # with 'require' (slows emacs start up).
    
    epackage/PACKAGE-install.el
    
  10. Commit files to master branch

    git status                  # Verify that you're in branch "master"
    git add epackage/
    git commit -m "epackage/: new"
    
  11. Upload the Git repository somewhere publicly available, e.g. to Github; see Addenum

    git remote add github <your URL>    # See section "Addenum"
    git push github upstream master
    git push github $(git tag -l "upstream/*")
    
  12. Add information about this new epackage to the Sources List so that others know how to find it. The information needed is

    PACKAGE-NAME (from epackage/info::Package field)
    GIT-URL      (the public git repository URL)
    DESCRIPTION  (from epackage/info::Description, the 1st line)
    

Fork the Sources List, clone it to your local disk, edit add new information, commit, and send a Pull request through github. See these page:

After your URL has been merged, update your copy of Sources List

git pull

When upstream uses Git repository too

It is possible that the upstream is also using Git. In that case, the steps 1-3 are as follows:

  1. Prepare an empty directory

    mkdir extension
    cd extension
    
  2. Instead of downloading, add a remote to track upstream code, pull, and merge

    git remote add upstream git://example.com/some-emacs-project
    git fetch upstream
    git checkout --track -b upstream upstream/master
    
  3. Tag the commit you intend to package

    git checkout upstream
    
    git tag upstream/$(date "+%Y-%m-%d")--git-$(git rev-parse HEAD | cut -c1-7)
    
  4. Switch to master and merge

    git checkout master
    git merge upstream/<tag name from previous step>
    

After that proceed as usual by adding epackage/ directory as outlined previously; see previous topic and number (7) onward.

To follow upstream development, from time to time pull and merge

git checkout upstream
git pull

# tag it
git tag upstream/$(date "+%Y-%m-%d")--git-$(git rev-parse HEAD | cut -c1-7)

# Merge it
git checkout master
git merge <the tag name below>

When upstream IS also the packager (Git)

Say you are the upstream. You would like to put your Emacs extensions available as epackages. All your code is in Git repositories. The setup is easy:

  • Create epackage/ directory with necessary info and other install files.
  • Create file epackage/format and add word "upstream" on its own line.

Essentially

cd /to/your/project/

# Install tools
. /path/to/this-repository/epackage.shellrc

# Install epackage/ directory
Edir <package name> .

# Mark this repository as "upstream"
echo upstream > epackage/format

# ... Now edit and remove files as needed in epackage/ directory
# ... commit, push to Github

Notify Sources List maintainer about your repository. More information can be found elsewhere in this document.

When upstream IS also the packager (Non-Git)

Say you are the upstream. You would like to put your Emacs extensions available as epackages. You use version control system other than Git to manage your code. No problem. Continue to use what you have. Only layer Git on top of it. This means that you initialize Git on top of your current sources. The Git and your existing VCS won't conflict. You switch to Git, when you commit your changes and make them available as an epackage.

An example. Say you use Mercurial, or "Hg" for short

cd /your/hg/project

# commit any changes
hg status

# initialize Git on top of Hg
git init
echo ".hg" > .gitignore

# Initial import, done only once
git add .
git commit -m "Initial import"

# Install tools
. /path/to/this-repository/epackage.shellrc

# Examine commit date and revision. Tag accordingly.
hg log --limit 1
git tag epackage/YYYY-MM-DD--hg-abcdef12345

# Install epackage/ directory
Edir <package name> .

# Mark this repository as "upstream"
echo upstream > epackage/format

# ... Now edit and remove files as needed in epackage/ directory
# ... commit, push to Github

That's it. Notify Sources List maintainer about your repository. More information can be found elsewhere in this document.

Keeping up to date with the upstream

Periodically follow new releases of upstream code. Once upstream releases new code, make an update.

  1. Verify that the repository is in a clean state. Commit any changes

    git status
    
  2. Download new upstream release

    /path/to/get.sh epackage/info       # utility from this template directory
    
    ... IF UPSTREAM USES VCS: the update will appear in directory
    ... epacakge/upstream and files are copied over the current sources. Be
    ... careful to note all removed or new files.
    ...
    ... IF UPSTREAM DOES NOT USE VCS: the new version of files are simply
    ... downloaded and old files are overwritten.
    
  3. Switch to upstream branch

    git checkout upstream
    
  4. Examine version and release date of upstream code. Commit and tag

    git add -A  # Import all changes since.
    git add ...
    git rm ...
    
    ... If upstream uses VCS: The date is the last commit date
    ... See e.g. "git log --max-count=1" or "{bzr,hg,svn] log --limit 1"
    
    git commit -m "import upstream YYYY-MM-DD <VCS revision if any> from http://example.com/path/file.el"
    
    ... Examine what are current dates and version
    egrep -i 'version|date|modified' *.el
    Ever
    
    ... If there is no VERSION announced in files, omit it and use the
    ... VCS details in the tag \"upstream/YYYY-MM-DD--svn-12345\".
    ... Notice the use of double dash to make it stand out from the date.
    
    git tag upstream/2010-06-10--1.13
    
  5. Merge to epackage

    git checkout master git merge upstream

  6. Update epackage/ directory information

    Edef                        # Regenerate epackage/*loaddef.el
    ... edit epackage/* files if needed
    ... commit
    ... test that all works
    
  7. Push updated epackage for others to download

    git push upstream master
    git push --tags
    

Epackage Git repository management

At the beginning the Git repository tree looks like

master:       o (the epackage/ added)
             /
upstream:   o
            1.0

After updating to the next upstream release, these two run in parallel. The upstream is periodically merged to master branch

              (merge: upstream)
master:       o -- o -- =>
             /    /
upstream:   o -- o
            1.0  1.1

If you need to fix upstream code, make changes in separate patches branch and merge those to master. Send patches to upstream so that you don't need to maintain different code base.

              (merge: upstream, patches)
master:       o -- o -- o =>
             /    /     ^
upstream:   o -- o      |
            1.0  1.1    |
                  \     |
patches:           o -- o

For big packages, use program called pristine-tar(1) to import original archives in a separate, disconnected, pristine-tar branch. This branch will be unrelated to the rest of the project history; it's sole purpose is to store archives. The Pristine Tar intelligently stores only deltas between the archives so it's very space efficient.

              (merge: upstream, patches)
master:       o -- o -- o =>
             /    /     ^
upstream:   o -- o      |
            1.0  1.1    |
                  \     |
patches:           o -- o

pristine-tar: package-1.0.tar.gz ...

The pristine-tar(1) workflow:

# Do work in branch "upstream"

git checkout upstream

# Unpack sources

tar -xf ../package-1.0.tar.gz
mv package-1.0/* .
rmdir package-1.0

# Import and tag. The YYYY-MM-DD is the date of the archive

git add [--all] ...    (but don't include archice; *.tar.gz)
git commit -m "import upstream YYYY-MM-DD 1.0 from <URL>"
git tag upstream/YYYY-MM-DD--1.0

# The utility will create the branch as needed. Output:
#
# pristine-tar: committed package-1.0.tar.gz.delta to branch pristine-tar

pristine-tar commit ../package-1.0.tar.gz

# List archives

pristine-tar list

# Retrive a archive

pristine-tar checkout package-1.0.tar.gz

For more reading about Git branching work flows, study:

Addendum

How to set up project at Github

If you use Windows, install <http://cygwin.com> environment which contains everything from Emacs, Git, SSH and so on. The instructions below work in any command line shell (Cygwin, Linux or Mac).

For more information about Git, see:

1. Generate the SSH keys

If you don't have SSH key pair (private, public) already, refer to generating SSH keys for Linux at https://help.github.com/articles/generating-ssh-keys

2. Register a Github account

Visit front page at https://github.com

3. After sign up, log in to your account

[top right] select icon account settings and from new page [left menu] SSH keys. Select [button] Add SSH key

4. Create a project repository

[top right icon, back to your main page] https://github.com/<login>. At top left, click icon Create a new Git repo. After finishing, Write down the shown``git://`` repository URL.

5. Import your project to Git

Type in command line:

# Tell who you are
git config --global user.name "FirstName LastName"
git config --global user.email "me@example.com"

cd ~/dir/project                    # Your source code
git init                            # Initialize
git add .                           # add ALL files
git commit -m "Initial import"      # Save into version control

# Let Git know about Github
# This the "git://" URL that you wrote down in step 4

git remote add github git@github.com:<your github>/project.git

# Push your changes to Github

git push github master

Copyright and License

Copyright (C) 2010-2015 Jari Aalto <jari.aalto@cante.net>

The material is free; you can redistribute and/or modify it under the terms of GNU General Public license either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

End of file

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