A script for creating GTK+ Mac application bundles
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README.md

GTK Mac Bundler

The script gtk-mac-bundler is a helper script that creates application bundles from GTK+ executables for Mac OS X. The resulting bundle contains a complete self-hosting GTK+ installation, ready to run on any computer running Mac OS X 10.4 or later.

GTK+ and its companion libraries are automatically put into the bundle, but the application packager must tell the script what other files and directories to copy.

Note: This tool is written to work with a jhbuild built GTK+, not Macports. If you build with Macports, make sure that the Pango atsui module is built in to the Pango library, by using the configure flag:

--with-included-modules=basic-atsui.

Setting up

Run make install; this installs the script into ~/bin folder. Make sure you have that directory in your PATH, or use the absolute path when starting the script.

Prerequisites

You need to have a GTK+ installation as done for example by using jhbuild as described on the GTK+ OS X project site

The gtk-mac-bundler command needs to be run inside an environment setup for running the GTK+, for example inside a jhbuild shell.

For the more in-depth parts described here, you are expected to be familiar with the layout of OS X bundles.

Quick introduction

You need to create a configuration file describing the application bundle. The very simple example, example.bundle:

<?xml version="1.0"?> <!--*- mode: xml -*-->
<app-bundle>
  <meta>
    <prefix>/opt/gtk</prefix>
  </meta>

  <plist>${project}/Info.plist</plist>

  <!-- Optionally specify a launcher script to use. Builtin script is used if not specified.  -->
  <!--launcher-script>${project}/launcher.sh</launcher-script-->

  <!-- The executable for the application -->
  <main-binary>${prefix}/bin/my-app</main-binary>

  <!-- Modules for GTK+ (image loaders, etc) -->
  <binary>${prefix}/lib/gtk-2.0</binary>

  <!-- Any additional data, like images, or Glade files -->
  <data>
    ${prefix}/share/my-app
  </data>

</app-bundle>

Put this file into a directory, together with the standard Info.plist file that all Mac OS X bundles need. Then run the script with the bundle configuration path as argument. This will create a bundle in the current directory.

In-depth look at file format

The simple example above works for small and simple applications, but often you will need to specify more data to copy in, or to have more detailed control over what is copied.

Here we go through in more depth how this can be acheived. Every file and directory to copy is specified with a source path, and an optional destination path. An example that copies an entire directory recursively, from the installation prefix:

<data>
  ${prefix}/share/my-data
</data>

Since no destination path is specified, the directory will be copied into the standard location. Note that the special value ${prefix} is used in the source path, which makes the default destination path be relative to the bundle prefix, which is the Contents/Resources directory inside the bundle. Applications that use the free desktop data dir specification to find their data will automatically find its data this way (applications can also use the Carbon or Cocoa bundle APIs to find data).

Another useful "special value" that can be used in source paths is ${project}, which refers to the directory where the XML file is located. An example:

<data dest="${bundle}/Contents/Resources/etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc">
  ${project}/gtkrc
</data>

Here you notice that a destination path is supplied. This must be done since there is no way to figure out where to put the file that doesn't come from a ${prefix} location. You can also see another variable used, this time in the destination path, ${bundle}. All destination paths must be either unset or start with ${bundle}.

The remaining variables are:

  • ${env:name} - evaluates to the environment variable name

  • ${pkg:module:name} - evaluates to the value of the pkg-config variable name in the module module

An example use case of the latter is for finding files that are located in a versioned directory without having to maintain the directory name manually. For example:

<binary>
  ${prefix}/lib/gtk-2.0/${pkg:gtk+-2.0:gtk_binary_version}/loaders
</binary>

Metadata

Now that we know how paths can be specified, let's back up and see the beginning of a more extensive example. The first thing to setup is some metadata:

<app-bundle>

  <meta>
    <prefix name="default">${env:PREFIX}</prefix>
    <destination overwrite="yes">${env:HOME}/Desktop</destination>
  </meta>

  [...]

</app-bundle>

We use the ${env} variable to get the installation prefix (which comes from the jhbuild build script). We also use it to set the destination of the app bundle on the current user's desktop.

You can set additional prefixes and refer to them in paths:

  <meta>
    <prefix name="default">${env:PREFIX}</prefix>
    <prefix name="gst">/opt/gstreamer</prefix>
    <prefix name="stuff">/opt/stuff</prefix>
  </meta>

The additional prefixes are referred to by using ${prefix:name}, where name is one of the names defined above.

Installed data

Next you need to list the data to install. Some is required for the app bundle to be complete:

<plist>${project}/../data/Info.plist</plist>

<launcher-script>${project}/launcher.sh</launcher-script>

<main-binary>${prefix}/bin/giggle</main-binary>

The file Info.plist is the standard Mac OS file for bundles. See documentation on those.

The launcher script is used to setup the necessary environment for the application to work. If your application does this itself, you can leave it out. Many applications will work out of the box with the launcher script though. If no script is specified in the tag, a default one is used, that sets up the needed environent for most GTK+ applications.

Unsurprisingly, the main-binary tag specifies the executable to launch when starting the application.

General application data

Next we handle any general data to copy into the bundle. A straight-forward example:

<data dest="${bundle}/Contents/Resources">
  ${project}/Giggle.icns
</data>

<data dest="${bundle}/Contents/Resources/etc/gtk-2.0/gtkrc">
  ${project}/gtkrc
</data>

Binaries

When it comes to binaries (executables and loadable modules), the tag binary should be used. The difference between binary and data is that all copied binaries are scanned for library dependencies, which are automatically copied into the bundle. This way, you only need to list your executables and plugins. Again, an example:

<binary>
  ${prefix}/lib/pango/${pkg:pango:pango_module_version}/modules/pango-basic-atsui.so
</binary>

This will copy the ATSUI font module for Pango. This in turn will pull in any needed libraries that it links to.

Note that you can use wildcards for all data and binary tags, but only in the last path component, for example:

<binary>
  ${prefix}/lib/gtk/2.10.0/loaders/*.so
</binary>

An intereseting twist is that some libraries that are built as dylibs are used as loadable modules. Dlopen doesn't have a problem with this, it will cheerfully open either. The problem comes because unlike Linux, Mac OS X uses different file extensions and formats, so libtool will set up dlopen to search for libfoo.so after it built libfoo.dylib. Libtool also makes libfoo.la which will tell dlopen where to look, but gtk-mac-bundler deletes those files from the application bundle. If you're bundling an app that needs libfoo.la, just put it in a data element and gtk-mac-integration (version 0.5.2 and later) will copy it in after doing the *.l?a cleanup: <data> ${prefix}/lib/libfoo*.la </data>

Code Signing

Until mid 2016 gtk-mac-bundler depended upon a launcher shell script to configure the environment. You can still do this, but it causes problems with code-signing. Apple recommends that one not install scripts into the Contents/MacOS folder of a bundle, nor should one attempt to sign scripts. Doing so will produce signatures that are incompatible across different versions of MacOS.

That means that for compiled-executable programs you need to launch first and then configure the environment before starting gettext, Gtk+, and any other libraries that read the environment for their configuration. There are a variety of ways to do this, including adding a module which reads configuration data from MacOS's 'defaults' preferences system or reading a YAML (a.k.a 'ini') file and exporting the results to the environment with setenv().

For script-based programs one must create a small executable program which prepares the interpreter, launches it, and points it at a startup script which configutres the environment. Such a program, written in C, is provided in examples/python-launcher.c; a companion startup script, gtk_launcher.py, does the environment configuration. python-launcher.c should work as-is for most python programs; gtk_launcher.py will require a bit of specializing to work, in particular the import statement and startup call at the end of the file.

To build python-launcher.c, start a jhbuild shell for your target and run:

gcc -L$PREFIX/lib `python-config --cflags --ldflags` -o $PREFIX/bin/your-launcher \path/to/gtk-mac-bundler/examples/python-launcher.c

Remove the <launcher-script> element from your bundle file and change the main-binary element to:

 <main-binary>
     ${prefix}/bin/your-launcher
 </main-binary>

In this case, leaving the name as your-launcher will actually work: The bundler will rename the file to the value of the CFBundleExecutable key in Info.plist.

Copy gtk_launcher.py to the folder where your bundle file is, rename it to your liking (your_launcher.py, from now on), and edit it as necessary.

Add a data element for your_launcher.py to your bundle file:

<data dest=${bundle}/Contents/Resources>
  ${project}/your_launcher.py
</data>

Add the following key to the top dict in Info.plist for your project:

<key>GtkOSXLaunchScriptFile</key>
<string>your_launcher.py</string>

Icon themes

GTK+ icon themes have their own tag, icon-theme. The name of the theme (which currently must reside in the default prefix) specifies which theme to copy, and the icons property specifies which icons to copy. The valid values are:

  • auto - tries to copy all icons names that match strings in all copied binaries; this will not always work perfectly but is good for getting started, and for simple applications

  • all - copies all icons

  • none - copies no icons, this can be used in combination with specifying icons manually with a regular data tag; the icon theme itself must be listed in order to get the index theme copied and an icon cache generated

Note that the base theme hicolor is always copied, since it is required by GTK+. An example:

<icon-theme icons="auto">
  Tango
</icon-theme>

Debugging the bundle

In order to debug the created app bundle (most notably the launcher script), you can set the environment variable GTK_DEBUG_LAUNCHER before starting the applications directly from a terminal. e.g.:

GTK_DEBUG_LAUNCHER=yes MyApp.app/Contents/MacOS/MyApp

This will print out the steps performed by the launcher script before the application executable is started.

Note also that the Console.app program that comes with OS X is very useful when debugging app bundle problems. You can use it to see any output from the application the console log window.

To run the application under gdb, do:

GTK_DEBUG_GDB=yes MyApp.app/Contents/MacOS/MyApp

License

The script is Copyright (C) 2007, 2008 Imendio AB, and licensed under the GNU General Public License version 2. Note that the resulting bundle created by the script is not covered by that, each invidiual library has its own license. See COPYING for more.