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Kubernetes-commit: e6df935fd30c56a8ece0da6152c60fc725d942b7
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@caesarxuchao @dims @yttan @yastij @astraw99 @rmohr @supereagle
Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
package main
import (
v1 ""
meta_v1 ""
// Controller demonstrates how to implement a controller with client-go.
type Controller struct {
indexer cache.Indexer
queue workqueue.RateLimitingInterface
informer cache.Controller
// NewController creates a new Controller.
func NewController(queue workqueue.RateLimitingInterface, indexer cache.Indexer, informer cache.Controller) *Controller {
return &Controller{
informer: informer,
indexer: indexer,
queue: queue,
func (c *Controller) processNextItem() bool {
// Wait until there is a new item in the working queue
key, quit := c.queue.Get()
if quit {
return false
// Tell the queue that we are done with processing this key. This unblocks the key for other workers
// This allows safe parallel processing because two pods with the same key are never processed in
// parallel.
defer c.queue.Done(key)
// Invoke the method containing the business logic
err := c.syncToStdout(key.(string))
// Handle the error if something went wrong during the execution of the business logic
c.handleErr(err, key)
return true
// syncToStdout is the business logic of the controller. In this controller it simply prints
// information about the pod to stdout. In case an error happened, it has to simply return the error.
// The retry logic should not be part of the business logic.
func (c *Controller) syncToStdout(key string) error {
obj, exists, err := c.indexer.GetByKey(key)
if err != nil {
klog.Errorf("Fetching object with key %s from store failed with %v", key, err)
return err
if !exists {
// Below we will warm up our cache with a Pod, so that we will see a delete for one pod
fmt.Printf("Pod %s does not exist anymore\n", key)
} else {
// Note that you also have to check the uid if you have a local controlled resource, which
// is dependent on the actual instance, to detect that a Pod was recreated with the same name
fmt.Printf("Sync/Add/Update for Pod %s\n", obj.(*v1.Pod).GetName())
return nil
// handleErr checks if an error happened and makes sure we will retry later.
func (c *Controller) handleErr(err error, key interface{}) {
if err == nil {
// Forget about the #AddRateLimited history of the key on every successful synchronization.
// This ensures that future processing of updates for this key is not delayed because of
// an outdated error history.
// This controller retries 5 times if something goes wrong. After that, it stops trying.
if c.queue.NumRequeues(key) < 5 {
klog.Infof("Error syncing pod %v: %v", key, err)
// Re-enqueue the key rate limited. Based on the rate limiter on the
// queue and the re-enqueue history, the key will be processed later again.
// Report to an external entity that, even after several retries, we could not successfully process this key
klog.Infof("Dropping pod %q out of the queue: %v", key, err)
// Run begins watching and syncing.
func (c *Controller) Run(workers int, stopCh chan struct{}) {
defer runtime.HandleCrash()
// Let the workers stop when we are done
defer c.queue.ShutDown()
klog.Info("Starting Pod controller")
go c.informer.Run(stopCh)
// Wait for all involved caches to be synced, before processing items from the queue is started
if !cache.WaitForCacheSync(stopCh, c.informer.HasSynced) {
runtime.HandleError(fmt.Errorf("Timed out waiting for caches to sync"))
for i := 0; i < workers; i++ {
go wait.Until(c.runWorker, time.Second, stopCh)
klog.Info("Stopping Pod controller")
func (c *Controller) runWorker() {
for c.processNextItem() {
func main() {
var kubeconfig string
var master string
flag.StringVar(&kubeconfig, "kubeconfig", "", "absolute path to the kubeconfig file")
flag.StringVar(&master, "master", "", "master url")
// creates the connection
config, err := clientcmd.BuildConfigFromFlags(master, kubeconfig)
if err != nil {
// creates the clientset
clientset, err := kubernetes.NewForConfig(config)
if err != nil {
// create the pod watcher
podListWatcher := cache.NewListWatchFromClient(clientset.CoreV1().RESTClient(), "pods", v1.NamespaceDefault, fields.Everything())
// create the workqueue
queue := workqueue.NewRateLimitingQueue(workqueue.DefaultControllerRateLimiter())
// Bind the workqueue to a cache with the help of an informer. This way we make sure that
// whenever the cache is updated, the pod key is added to the workqueue.
// Note that when we finally process the item from the workqueue, we might see a newer version
// of the Pod than the version which was responsible for triggering the update.
indexer, informer := cache.NewIndexerInformer(podListWatcher, &v1.Pod{}, 0, cache.ResourceEventHandlerFuncs{
AddFunc: func(obj interface{}) {
key, err := cache.MetaNamespaceKeyFunc(obj)
if err == nil {
UpdateFunc: func(old interface{}, new interface{}) {
key, err := cache.MetaNamespaceKeyFunc(new)
if err == nil {
DeleteFunc: func(obj interface{}) {
// IndexerInformer uses a delta queue, therefore for deletes we have to use this
// key function.
key, err := cache.DeletionHandlingMetaNamespaceKeyFunc(obj)
if err == nil {
}, cache.Indexers{})
controller := NewController(queue, indexer, informer)
// We can now warm up the cache for initial synchronization.
// Let's suppose that we knew about a pod "mypod" on our last run, therefore add it to the cache.
// If this pod is not there anymore, the controller will be notified about the removal after the
// cache has synchronized.
ObjectMeta: meta_v1.ObjectMeta{
Name: "mypod",
Namespace: v1.NamespaceDefault,
// Now let's start the controller
stop := make(chan struct{})
defer close(stop)
go controller.Run(1, stop)
// Wait forever
select {}