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A helper library full of URL-related heuristics.
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README.md

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Ural

A helper library full of URL-related heuristics.

Installation

You can install ural with pip with the following command:

pip install ural

Usage

Functions

Generic functions

Platform-specific functions

Classes


Functions

ensure_protocol

Function checking if the url has a protocol, and adding the given one if there is none.

from ural import ensure_protocol

ensure_protocol('www2.lemonde.fr', protocol='https')
>>> 'https://www2.lemonde.fr'

Arguments

  • url string: URL to format.
  • protocol string: protocol to use if there is none in url. Is 'http' by default.

get_domain_name

Function returning an url's domain name. This function is of course tld-aware and will return None if no valid domain name can be found.

from ural import get_domain_name

get_domain_name('https://facebook.com/path')
>>> 'facebook.com'

Arguments

  • url string: Target url.

force_protocol

Function force-replacing the protocol of the given url.

from ural import force_protocol

force_protocol('https://www2.lemonde.fr', protocol='ftp')
>>> 'ftp://www2.lemonde.fr'

Arguments

  • url string: URL to format.
  • protocol string: protocol wanted in the output url. Is 'http' by default.

is_url

Function returning True if its argument is a url.

from ural import is_url

is_url('https://www2.lemonde.fr')
>>> True

is_url('lemonde.fr/economie/article.php', require_protocol=False)
>>> True

is_url('lemonde.falsetld/whatever.html', tld_aware=True)
>>> False

Arguments

  • string string: string to test.
  • require_protocol bool [True]: whether the argument has to have a protocol to be considered a url.
  • tld_aware bool [False]: whether to check if the url's tld actually exists or not.
  • allow_spaces_in_path bool [False]: whether the allow spaces in URL paths.
  • only_http_https bool [True]: whether to only allow the http and https protocols.

lru_from_url

Function returning url parts in hierarchical order.

from ural import lru_from_url

lru_from_url('http://www.lemonde.fr:8000/article/1234/index.html?field=value#2')
>>> ['s:http', 't:8000', 'h:fr', 'h:lemonde', 'h:www', 'p:article', 'p:1234', 'p:index.html', 'q:field=value', 'f:2']

Arguments

  • url string: URL to parse.

normalize_url

Function normalizing the given url by stripping it of usually non-discriminant parts such as irrelevant query items or sub-domains etc.

This is a very useful utility when attempting to match similar urls written slightly differently when shared on social media etc.

from ural import normalize_url

normalize_url('https://www2.lemonde.fr/index.php?utm_source=google')
>>> 'lemonde.fr'

Arguments

  • url string: URL to normalize.
  • sort_query bool [True]: whether to sort query items.
  • strip_authentication bool [True]: whether to strip authentication.
  • strip_fragment bool|str ['except-routing']: whether to strip the url's fragment. If set to except-routing, will only strip the fragment if the fragment is not deemed to be js routing (i.e. if it contains a /).
  • strip_index bool [True]: whether to strip trailing index.
  • strip_lang_subdomains bool [False]: whether to strip language subdomains (ex: 'fr-FR.lemonde.fr' to only 'lemonde.fr' because 'fr-FR' isn't a relevant subdomain, it indicates the language and the country).
  • strip_trailing_slash bool [False]: whether to strip trailing slash.

normalized_lru_from_url

Function normalizing url and returning its parts in hierarchical order.

from ural import normalized_lru_from_url

normalized_lru_from_url('http://www.lemonde.fr:8000/article/1234/index.html?field=value#2')
>>> ['t:8000', 'h:fr', 'h:lemonde', 'h:www', 'p:article', 'p:1234', 'q:field=value']

Arguments

This function accepts the same arguments as normalize_url.


strip_protocol

Function removing the protocol from the url.

from ural import strip_protocol

strip_protocol('https://www2.lemonde.fr/index.php')
>>> 'www2.lemonde.fr/index.php'

Arguments

  • url string: URL to format.

urls_from_html

Function returning an iterator over the urls present in the links of given HTML text.

from ural import urls_from_html

html = """<p>Hey! Check this site: <a href="https://medialab.sciencespo.fr/">médialab</a></p>"""

for url in urls_from_html(html):
    print(url)
>>> 'https://medialab.sciencespo.fr/'

Arguments

  • string string: html string.

urls_from_text

Function returning an iterator over the urls present in the string argument. Extracts only the urls with a protocol.

from ural import urls_from_text

text = "Hey! Check this site: https://medialab.sciencespo.fr/, it looks really cool. They're developing many tools on https://github.com/"

for url in urls_from_text(text):
    print(url)
>>> 'https://medialab.sciencespo.fr/'
>>> 'https://github.com/'

Arguments

  • string string: source string.

Facebook

convert_facebook_url_to_mobile

Function returning the mobile version of the given Facebook url. Will raise an exception if a non-Facebook url is given.

from ural.facebook import convert_facebook_url_to_mobile

convert_facebook_url_to_mobile('http://www.facebook.com/post/974583586343')
>>> 'http://m.facebook.com/post/974583586343'

extract_user_from_url

Function extracting user information from a facebook user url.

from ural.facebook import extract_user_from_url

extract_user_from_url('https://www.facebook.com/people/Sophia-Aman/102016783928989')
>>> FacebookUser(id='102016783928989', handle=None, url='https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=102016783928989)

extract_user_from_url('/annelaure.rivolu?rc=p&__tn__=R')
>>> FacebookUser(id=None, handle='annelaure.rivolu', url='https://www.facebook.com/annelaure.rivolu)

Classes

LRUTrie

Class implementing a prefix tree (Trie) storing LRUs and their metadata, allowing to find the longest common prefix between two urls.

set

A function storing an url in a LRUTrie along with its metadata.

from ural import LRUTrie

trie = LRUTrie()
trie.set('http://www.lemonde.fr', {'type': 'general press'})

trie.match('http://www.lemonde.fr')
>>> {'type': 'general press'}

Arguments

  • url string: url to store in the LRUTrie.
  • metadata dict: metadata of the url.

match

Method returning the metadata of the given url as it is stored in the LRUTrie. If the exact given url doesn't exist in the LRUTrie, it returns the metadata of the longest common prefix, or None if there is no common prefix.

from ural import LRUTrie

trie = LRUTrie()
trie.set('http://www.lemonde.fr', {'media': 'lemonde'})

trie.match('http://www.lemonde.fr')
>>> {'media': 'lemonde'}
trie.match('http://www.lemonde.fr/politique')
>>> {'media': 'lemonde'}

Arguments

  • url string: url to match in the LRUTrie.

values

Method yielding the metadata of each url stored in the LRUTrie.

from ural import LRUTrie

trie = LRUTrie()
trie.set('http://www.lemonde.fr', {'media' : 'lemonde'})
trie.set('http://www.lefigaro.fr', {'media' : 'lefigaro'})
trie.set('https://www.liberation.fr', {'media' : 'liberation'})

for value in trie.values():
  print(value)
>>> {'media': 'lemonde'}
>>> {'media': 'liberation'}
>>> {'media': 'lefigaro'}
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