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Explainer: Tightening HTTP State Management

WIP specification: (or on the IETF's servers at, if you like pretending that web pages are paginated!)

Mike West, August 2018

©2018, Google, Inc. All rights reserved.

(Note: This isn't a proposal that's well thought out, and stamped solidly with the Google Seal of Approval. It's a collection of interesting ideas for discussion, nothing more, nothing less.)

A Problem

Cookies allow the nominally stateless HTTP protocol to support stateful sessions, enabling practically everything interesting on the web today. That said, cookies have some issues: they're hard to use securely, they waste users' resources, and they enable tracking users' activity across the web in potentially surprising ways.

Security: we've introduced a number of features over the years with the intent of providing reasonable security properties to developers who care, but adoption is low to non-existent:

  • Cookies are available to JavaScript by default (via document.cookie), which enables a smooth upgrade from one-time XSS to theft of persistent credentials (and also makes cookies available to Spectre-like attacks on memory). Though the HttpOnly attribute was introduced well over a decade ago, only ~8.31% of Set-Cookie operations use it today.

  • Cookies are sent to non-secure origins by default, which enables trivial credential theft when you visit your local Evil But Delicious Coffee Shoppe™. The Secure attribute locks the cookie to secure origins, which is good! Still, only ~7.85% of Set-Cookie operations use it today.

  • Cookies are often delivered without any indication of the request's initiator, meaning that a server's own requests look identical to requests initiated by your good friends at The SameSite attribute aims to mitigate the CSRF risk, but the fact that ~0.06% of Set-Cookie operations use it today is not inspiring.

Poorly-adopted mitigation attributes to the side, cookies simply don't match the security boundaries we've decided to enforce for other kinds of web-accessible data. They flow across origins within a given registrable domain (, they ignore ports and schemes (which means they can be trivially forged by network attackers), and they can be narrowed to specific paths (path=/a/specific/subdirectory). These characteristics make them difficult to reason about, and create incentives to weaken the same-origin policy for other pieces of the platform ("Cookies get away with being site-scoped! Why can't my feature?").

Inefficiency: Servers can (and do) store many cookies for a given registrable domain, and many of those cookies may be sent along with any given HTTP request. Different vendors have different limits, but they're all fairly high. Chrome, for example, allows ~180 cookies to be stored for each registrable domain, which equates to ~724kB on disk. Happily(?), servers generally explode if that much data is sent in a request header. Abuse to the side, the practical overhead is huge: the median (uncompressed) Cookie request header is 409 bytes, while the 90th percentile is 1,589 bytes, the 95th 2,549 bytes, and the 99th 4,601 bytes (~0.1% of Cookie headers are over 10kB, which is a lot of kB).

Privacy: Cookies enable pervasive monitoring on the one hand (which I'm hopeful we can address to some extent by deprecating them over HTTP via mechanisms like those sketched out in cookies-over-http-bad), and not-entirely-pervasive tracking by entities that users might not know about on the other.

Note: All the metrics noted above come from Chrome's telemetry data for July, 2018. I'd welcome similar measurements from other vendors, but I'm assuming they'll be within the same order of magnitude.

A Proposal

Let's address the above concerns by giving developers a well-lit path towards security boundaries we can defend. The user agent can take control of the HTTP state it represents on the users' behalf by generating a unique 256-bit value for each secure origin the user visits. This token can be delivered to the origin as a structured HTTP request header:

Sec-HTTP-State: token=*J6BRKagRIECKdpbDLxtlNzmjKo8MXTjyMomIwMFMonM*

This identifier acts more or less like a client-controlled cookie, with a few notable distinctions:

  1. The client controls the token's value, not the server.

  2. The token will only be available to the network layer, not to JavaScript (including network-like JavaScript, such as Service Workers).

  3. The user agent will generate only one token per origin, and will only expose the token to the origin for which it was generated.

  4. Tokens will not be generated for, or delivered to, non-secure origins.

  5. Tokens will be delivered only along with same-site requests by default, and can only be created from same-site contexts.

  6. Each token persists for one hour after generation by default. This default expiration time can be overwritten by servers, and tokens can be reset at any time by servers, users, or user agents.

These distinctions might not be appropriate for all use cases, but seem like a reasonable set of defaults. For folks for whom these defaults aren't good enough, we'll provide developers with a few control points that can be triggered via a Sec-HTTP-State-Options HTTP response header. The following options come to mind:

  1. Some servers will require cross-site access to their token. Other servers may wish to narrow the delivery scope to same-origin requests. Either option could be specified by the server:

    Sec-HTTP-State-Options: ..., delivery=cross-site, ...


    Sec-HTTP-State-Options: ..., delivery=same-origin, ...
  2. Some servers will wish to limit the token's lifetime. We can allow them to set a max-age (in seconds):

    Sec-HTTP-State-Options: ..., max-age=3600, ...

    After the time expires, the token's value will be automatically reset. Servers may also wish to explicitly trigger the token's reset (upon signout, for example). Setting a max-age of 0 will do the trick:

    Sec-HTTP-State-Options: ..., max-age=0, ...

    In either case, currently-running pages can be notified of the user's state change in order to perform cleanup actions. When a reset happens, the user agent can post a message to the origin's BroadcastChannel named http-state-reset (and perhaps wake up the origin's Service Worker to respond to user-driven resets):

    let resetChannel = new BroadcastChannel('http-state-reset'));
    resetChannel.onmessage = e => { /* Do exciting cleanup here. */ };
  3. For some servers, the client-generated token will be enough to maintain state. They can treat it as an opaque session identifier, and bind the user's state to it server-side. Other servers will require additional assurance that they can trust the token's provenance. To that end, servers can generate a unique key, associate it with the session identifier on the server, and deliver it to the client via an HTTP response header:

    Sec-HTTP-State-Options: ..., key=*ZH0GxtBMWA...nJudhZ8dtz*, ...

    Clients will store that key, and use it to generate a signature over some set of data that mitigates the risk of token capture:

    Sec-HTTP-State: token=*J6BRKa...MonM*, sig=*(HMAC-SHA256(key, token+metadata))*

    For instance, signing the entire request using the format that Signed Exchanges have defined could make it difficult indeed to use stolen tokens for anything but replay attacks. Including a timestamp in the request might reduce that capability even further by reducing the window for pure replay attacks.

    Note: This bit in particular is not baked. We need to review the work folks have done on things like Token Binding to determine what the right threat model ought to be. Look at it as an area to explore, not a solidly thought-out solution.

Coming back to the three prongs above, this proposal aims to create a state token whose configuration is hardened, maps to the same security primitive as the rest of the platform, reduces the client-side cost of transport, and isn't useful for cross-site tracking by default.

Pivot Points

The proposal described above seems pretty reasonable to me, but I see it as the start of a conversation. There are many variations that I hope we can explore together. In the hopes of kicking that off, here are some I've considered:

Server-controlled values?

An earlier version of this proposal put the server in charge of the token's value, allowing developers to come up with a storage and verification scheme that makes sense for their application. While I've since come around to the idea that baking this mechanism more deeply into the platform is probably a good direction to explore, there's real value in allowing the server to map their existing authentication cookies onto a new transport mechanism in a reasonably straightforward way, and to design a signing/verification scheme that meets their needs. For example, the server could set the token directly via an HTTP response header:

Sec-HTTP-State-Options: token=*h3PkR1BwTyfAq6UOr...n6LlOPGSWGT3iBEF5CKes*

That still might be a reasonable option to allow, but I'm less enthusiastic about it than I was previously.

Just one token? Really?

An early variant of the proposal was built around setting two tokens: one sent with all requests, and one which behaved like a cookie set with SameSite=Strict. Clever folks suggested adding another, which would be sent only for same-origin requests. More clever folks had more ideas about additional tokens which might be valuable to distinguish certain characteristics which might be useful for CSRF mitigation and other purposes.

At the moment, I believe that something like the separate Sec-Metadata proposal will give developers enough granularity in the HTTP request to deal with these kinds of attacks without adding the complexity of additional tokens. It also allows us to avoid the slippery slope from "Just one more token!" to "Just ten more tokens!" that seems somehow inevietable. One token is simple to explain, simple to use, and simple (theoretically, though I recognize not practically) to deploy.

One counterpoint, however, is that it could be very valuable to distinguish tokens for specific purposes. Users and user agents would likely treat an "authentication" token differently from an "advertising and measurement" token, giving them different lifetimes and etc. Perhaps it would make sense to specify a small set of use cases that we'd like user agents to explicitly support.

Mere reflection?

The current proposal follows in the footsteps of cookies, delivering the identifier unmodified to the server on every request. This seems like the most straightforward story to tell developers, and fits well with how folks think things work today.

That said, it might be interesting to explore more complicated relationships between the token's value, and the value that's delivered to servers in the HTTP request. You could imagine, for instance, incorporating some Cake- or Macaroon-like HMACing to indicate provenance or capability. Or shifting more radically to an OAuth style model where the server sets a long-lived token which the user agent exchanges on a regular basis for short-lived tokens.


The current proposal suggests that the user agent generate a token for newly visited origins by default, delivering it along with the initial request. It might be reasonable instead to send something like Sec-HTTP-State: ? to advertise the feature's presence, and allow the server to ask for a token by sending an appropriate options header (Sec-HTTP-State-Options: generate, or something similar).


Wait. What? Are you saying we should deprecate cookies?

No! Of course not! That would be silly! Ha! Who would propose such a thing?

You would, Mike. You would.

Ok, you got me. Cookies are bad and we should find a path towards deprecation. But that's going to take some time. This proposal aims to be an addition to the platform that will provide value even in the presence of cookies, giving us the ability to shift developers from one to the other incrementally.

Is this new thing fundamentally different than a cookie?

TL;DR: No. But yes!

Developers can get almost all of the above properties by setting a cookie like __Host-token=value1; Secure; HttpOnly; SameSite=Lax; path=/. That isn't a perfect analog (it continues to ignore ports, for instance), but it's pretty good. My concern with the status quo is that developers need to understand the impact of the various flags and naming convention in order to choose it over Set-Cookie: token=value. Defaults matter, deeply, and this seems like the simplest thing that could possibly work. It solidifies best practice into a thing-in-itself, rather than attempting to guide developers through the four attributes they must use, the one attribute they must not use, and the weird naming convention they need to adopt.

We also have the opportunity to reset the foundational assumption that server-side state is best maintained on the client. I'll blithly assert that it is both more elegant and more respectful of users' resources to migrate towards user-agent-controlled session identifiers, rather than oodles of key-value pairs set by the server (though I expect healthy debate on that topic).

How do you expect folks to migrate to this from cookies?

Slowly and gradually. User agents could begin by advertising support for the new hotness by appending a Sec-HTTP-State header to outgoing requests (either setting the value by default, or allowing developers to opt-in, as per the pivot point discussion above).

Developers could begin using the new mechanism for pieces of their authentication infrastructure that would most benefit from origin-scoping, side-by-side with the existing cookie infrastructure. Over time, they could build up a list of the client-side state they're relying on, and begin to construct a server-side mapping between session identifiers and state. Once that mechanism was in place, state could migrate to it in a piecemeal fashion.

Eventually, you could imagine giving developers the ability to migrate completely, turning cookies off for their sites entirely (via Origin Manifests, for instance). Even more eventually, we could ask developers to opt-into cookies rather than opting out.

At any point along that timeline, user agents can begin to encourage migration by placing restrictions on subsets of cookies, along the lines of proposals like cookies-over-http-bad.

Won't this migration be difficult for origins that host multiple apps?

Yes, it will. That seems like both a bug and a feature. It would be better for origins and applications to have more of a 1:1 relationship than they have today. There is no security boundary between applications on the same origin, and there doesn't seem to me to be much value in pretending that one exists (though perhaps we'll get there someday with a good story around Suborigins). It is good to encourage different applications to run on different origins, creating actual segregation between their capabilities.

Does this proposal constitute a material change in privacy properties?

Yes and no. Mostly no. That is, folks can still use these tokens to track users across origins, just as they can with cookies today. There's a trivial hurdle insofar as folks would need to declare that intent by setting the token's delivery member, and it's reasonable to expect user agents to react to that declaration in some interesting ways, but in itself, there's little change in technical capability.

Still, it has some advantages over the status quo. For example:

  1. These tokens can never be sent in plaintext, which mitigates some risk of pervasive monitoring.
  2. The user agent controls the token's value, which reduces the risk that the server could store sensitive information on the user's machine in a way that would be continually exposed on the local disk, as well as to all the TLS-terminating endpoints between you and the service you care about.
  3. The default delivery option would restrict tokens to same-site requests. Assuming we follow the SameSite cookie precedent by only accepting options to be changed on requests that would send the token, cross-site tokens would only be available to a given origin after the user visited that origin in a same-site context, and it explicitly declared its token as being deliverable cross-site (at which point the user agent could make some decisions about how to handle that declaration).

What kinds of user control would user agents provide?

Users must always have the ability to opt-out of sending this token to any entity, just as they do with cookies today. User agents should likely aim above that bar, but an opt-out seems like the bare minimum we could reasonably accept.


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