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Automatic static site generation on git push using AWS Lambda and markdown-styles using a Gulp-style API.


  • automatically rebuilds your markdown files stored on Github repos in response to a git push using AWS Lambda.
  • includes a full tutorial on how to set up the rebuild, assuming you are already using S3 for static site hosting
  • you can use a single AWS Lambda function to process all of your Github repos; tasks are matched against a repo + branch + filename glob expression and are easily extensible via the API
  • features an API inspired by the the Gulp build system: tasks, input streams and stream transformations are used to express the tasks to be done on each repo + branch
  • efficient: only downloads files matching a specific glob pattern on a specific branch rather than cloning the whole repo on each rebuild


The installation guide is pretty detailed, and sadly involves a lot of clicking around in the AWS UI. Before we get started, here's what we'll have at end:

              Github webhook        SNS event triggers
              sends event to SNS    lambda invocation
git push -> [Github] -> [Amazon SNS] -> [Amazon Lambda] -> [S3 bucket]
                  ^                           |      lambda function
                  \-- .md file(s) downloaded -/      regenerates & uploads
                      via the Github API             HTML files to S3

Basically, whenever you push to your Github repo, we'll trigger a rebuild of the markdown files on your Github repo on AWS Lambda. The markdown-styles-lambda:

  • responds to SNS events from Github
  • uses the Github API to query for files that match a specific glob
  • downloads those specific files via the Github API (more efficient than cloning a full repo every time)
  • rebuilds those markdown files using a specific layout and
  • uploads the resulting HTML to S3

Once you've set up this pipeline, you can connect it to multiple Github repos! The same markdown-styles-lambda can process events from multiple Github repos - you can configure the layouts and target buckets to use for each repo separately.

I am assuming that you are already using S3 for static site hosting. If you haven't set that up, you'll probably want to take a look at this Amazon tutorial first. Now, let's set this up!

Create an SNS Topic

  1. Go to the Amazon SNS console.
  2. Click “Create topic”.
  3. Fill in the name and display name fields with whatever you’d like, then click “Create topic”.

Copy the topic ARN for later use.

Create an IAM User to Publish As

  1. Go to the Amazon IAM console.
  2. Click “Users” then “Create New Users”.
  3. Enter a name for the GitHub publisher user. Make sure “Generate an access key for each user” is checked.

  1. Click “Create”.
  2. Click “Show User Security Credentials”, then copy or download the access and secret keys for later use.

Add permissions

  1. Return to the main IAM console page.
  2. Click “Users”, then click the name of your newly created user to edit its properties.
  3. Scroll down to “Permissions” and ensure that section is open and that the “Inline Policies” section is expanded. Click the link (“click here”) to create a new inline policy.

  1. Select the “Custom Policy” radio button, then press “Select”.

  1. Type a name for your policy, then paste the following statements that authorize publication to the SNS topic you created in Step 1 (here’s where you use the topic ARN you were saving). Then click “Apply Policy”.
  "Version": "2012-10-17",
  "Statement": [
      "Action": [
      "Resource": [
        <SNS topic ARN goes here>
      "Effect": "Allow"

Set up the GitHub Webhook

  1. Navigate to your GitHub repo.
  2. Click on “Settings” in the sidebar.
  3. Click on “Webhooks & Services”.
  4. Click the “Add service” dropdown, then click “AmazonSNS”.
  5. Fill out the form (supplying the IAM user credentials you created in Step 2), then click “Add service”. (Note that the label says “topic”, but it requires the entire ARN, not just the topic name.)

Create GitHub Credentials

  1. Go to Personal access tokens in Github settings.
  2. Click “Generate a personal access token”.
  3. Add a token description, leaving everything else as is, then click “Generate token”.
  4. Copy the token for later use.

Set up the code

To write your tasks, you should create new folder and npm install markdown-styles-lambda.

Next, create a file called index.js. You can get started by using the example below:

var lambda = require('markdown-styles-lambda').create();

lambda.config('s3', {
  region: 'YOUR S3 REGION HERE'

lambda.config('github', {
  type: 'oauth',

lambda.task('mixu/cssbook - generate markdown', function(task) {
  // generate markdown from /input/*.md to /
  return task.github('/input/*.md')
        layout: 'github'

lambda.task('mixu/cssbook - copy assets', function(task) {
  // copy /layout/assets/**/* to /assets
  return task.github('/layout/assets/**/*', { buffer: false })

lambda.task('mixu/cssbook - copy non-markdown files', function(task) {
  // copy /input/**/*.!(md) to /
  return task.github('/input/**/*.!(md)', { buffer: false })

exports.handler = lambda.snsHandler('PushEvent');

As you can see in the example above, markdown-styles-lambda uses a Gulp-style API, which means it is configured by writing short tasks using code. I considered a JSON-based format, but it would never be as flexible as code.

Each task is defined using lambda.task(target, fn).

  • target is a string that specifies a target repo and a task name string separated by -, e.g. user/repo#branch - taskname. The target repo and branch is parsed out and used to match against incoming SNS events.
  • fn is a function(task) { ... } that is called when an event arrives from the repo specified in target

Each task receives a task object instance. The actual work is defined using the Task API. Tasks have three kinds of functions:

  • input stream functions (task.github(glob) and task.fromFs(glob)): these return readable streams that can be .pipe()d into other streams
  • transform stream functions (task.generateMarkdown(opts)): these modify the objects returned from input streams, then pass the modified objects along and can be pipe()d into other streams
  • output stream functions (task.s3(target), task.toFs(path)): these functions take the .path value, and write it to S3 or to the filesystem

At the end of the file we are assigning lambda.snsHandler('PushEvent') to exports.handler. AWS will invoke this function when a Github SNS event arrives; it is a simple wrapper that calls lambda.exec to run the relevant tasks when a Github PushEvent is received.

The built-in functions stream files directly from Github without writing them to disk. Each file is represented by an object with a couple of keys (path, contents, stat). See the full API docs below for more information.

You can easily write your own tasks operations; they just need to be object mode streams that take a single object with the aforementioned keys and that change the keys in some way (convert the content to markdown, change the output path etc.). pipe-iterators provides a bunch of shortcuts for writing object mode streams.

Testing your lambda locally

The easiest way to test your lambda locally is to add the following line at the end of the file:


This allows you to use node index.js <target> to run your lambda tasks. If you run node index.js with no additional arguments, you will get a list of targets:

$ node index.js
[markdown-styles-lambda] No tasks matched []
[markdown-styles-lambda] Known targets:
[markdown-styles-lambda] Known tasks:
  mixu/cssbook - single page
  mixu/nodebook - single page

You can specify either the name of a repo, e.g. node index.js mixu/cssbook to run all tasks specified on that repo, or you can run a specific task e.g. node index.js 'mixu/cssbook - single page'.

Setting your AWS profile from the CLI. By default, markdown-styles-lambda will read your AWS default config since it uses aws-sdk to access S3. To quickly set your AWS profile, you can use AWS_PROFILE=user2 node index.js <args>.

Setting your AWS profile programmatically. You can also programmatically set your AWS profile (after installing aws-sdk on your local machine).

var AWS = require('aws-sdk');
var credentials = new AWS.SharedIniFileCredentials({profile: 'user2'});
lambda.config('s3', {
  credentials: credentials

Create a zip file to upload

Now, prepare a zip file for Lambda:

zip -r . -x "*.git*" "node_modules/aws-sdk/**"

If you are on Windows, just make a zip file from the root of the git repo. Remember that AWS Lambda function zip files should include your node_modules folder!

Create a Lambda Function

  1. Open the AWS Lambda console.
  2. Click on “Create a Lambda function”.
  3. Click on "Upload a .ZIP file".

  1. Set the Role to lambda_s3_exec_role (this adds the permission for S3)

  1. Set the Advanced settings. 192 MB, 30 seconds recommended just in case, but typically I'm seeing about ~44MB used, and ~8 seconds; but this is network I/O and your files may be different).
  2. Click “Create Lambda function”.
  3. On the Lambda function list page, click the “Actions” dropdown then pick “Add event source”.

  1. Select “SNS” as the event source type.
  2. Choose the SNS topic you created in Step 1, then click “Submit”. (Lambda will fill in the ARN for you.)

Testing your setup

Since there are three systems involved in invoking the lambda, there are three different places where you can trigger an event: the lambda console, the SNS console and the Github webhook UI.

Testing from the Lambda console

  1. In the Lambda console functions list, make sure your lambda function is selected, then
  2. choose “Edit/Test” from the Actions dropdown.
  3. Choose “SNS” as the sample event type, then
  4. click “Invoke” to test your function.

Testing from the SNS console

  1. In the AWS SNS console, open the *“Topics” tab,
  2. select your GitHub publication topic, then
  3. use the “Other topic actions” to select “Delivery status”.
  4. Complete the wizard to set up CloudWatch Logs delivery confirmations, then press the “Publish to topic” button to send a test message to your topic (and from there to your Lambda function).

You can then go to the CloudWatch Log console to view a confirmation of the delivery and (if everything is working correctly) also see it reflected in the CloudWatch events for your Lambda function and you Lambda function’s logs as well.

Testing from Github

  1. In the “Webhooks & Services” panel in your GitHub repository, click the “Test service” button.
  2. Open the AWS Lambda console.
  3. In the function list, under “CloudWatch metrics at a glance” for your function, click on any one of the “logs” links.
  4. Click on the timestamp column header to sort the log streams by time of last entry.
  5. Open the most recent log stream.
  6. Verify that the event was received from GitHub.


API - Lambda


An easier-to-type equivalent to new (require('markdown-styles-lambda'))(). Start your app by running lambda = require('markdown-styles-lambda').create();

lambda.config(key, hash)

Sets configuration for a specific key. The supported keys are:

  • s3: the set of parameters passed to new AWS.S3(). You'll want to set the region property to match the region of your S3 bucket; the credentials are already set correctly when running a Lambda.
  • github: the set of parameters passed to github.authenticate(). Set the token to the oAuth token you obtained earlier.

lambda.config can also be called with one or zero parameters:

  • lambda.config(hash): sets the configuration hash; the hash should have keys like s3: {} and github: {}
  • lambda.config(): returns the configuration hash

lambda.task(target, [deps], fn)

Define a new task to be run against target.

  • target can be:
    • a string like user/repo#branch-or-sha - task name
    • an array of target name strings
  • deps is an optional array of task names to be executed and completed before your task will run.
  • fn can be:
    • a synchronous function like function(task) { ... }
      • that returns a stream function(task) { return stream })
      • that returns a promise function(task) { return promise })
    • an asynchronous function that takes a onDone callback (e.g. function(err)) like function(task, onDone) { onDone(err); }

lambda.exec(event, [onDone])

Given a specific event, executes all tasks that match the event

  • event can be:
    • a Github event. The event repo name, username and branch are parsed with identify-github-event which should be able to handle any github event that has the necessary fields.
    • a string
      • which matches a Github repo in the form user/repo#branch; all tasks that are defined against that repo are run
      • which matches a specific target string to run
    • an array of strings that are repos or targets
  • onDone is an optional function to call after execution has been completed. It can be a AWS context object or a function function(err) { ... } that is called on completion


Returns the canonical, CamelCased name of a Github event given a JSON hash that is a Github event. The actual work is done by identify-github-event.

API - Task

Each lambda task receives an instance of Task. There is nothing particularly special about the task object: it is just a placeholder for some additional configuration properties and a convenient place to put a couple of methods; feel free to use it or just do your own thing when writing your own lambdas.

task properties

Each task instance has several properties that may be useful:

  • task.user: the username part of the current repo
  • task.repo: the repo name part of the current repo
  • task.branch: the current branch

These are kind of smuggled into the builtin functions so that you don't need to repeat the username/repo/branch info when calling task.* functions.

task.github(glob, [opts])

Emits downloaded Github files matching the provided glob on the current repository. Returns a readable stream of file objects that can be piped to plugins.

The file objects have the following keys:

  • path: a path from the base of the glob expression to the matched file
  • stat: (the fs.stat object associated with the input file),
  • contents: (a string with the content of the input file).

The opts hash can have the following properties:

  • base: file.path is set to a path relative to the base of the glob expression. You can set base explicitly to / or some other path to get file paths that are relative to the root of the repo (/) or some other path. For example, given the glob /input/**/*.md, the automatically detected base would be /input; e.g. /input/ gets file.path = '/' and /input/foo/ becomes /foo/
  • buffer: If true (the default), file.contents is set to a string. If false, file.contents is set to a readable stream. This is useful for working with large files and/or binary files which should not be decoded as strings.
  • read: Setting this to false will return the Github file metadata object as file.contents and skip reading the file over HTTPS.

You can safely start multiple task.github() calls at the same time against the same repo. They all share the same in-memory-cache and request deduplicator logic, so concurrent tasks that fetch the same API endpoint will share the same response (rather than making extra calls against the API).

To limit the number of directory traversal API calls needed, make sure you use a fairly specific glob expression. For example input/*.md is better than **/*.md because it only requires reading the input/ directory's contents whereas **/*.md will require loading traversing all folders within the Github repository.

Remember to set { buffer: false } when copying (binary) files, e.g:

lambda.task('mixu/cssbook - copy assets', function(task) {
  // copy /layout/assets/**/* to /assets
  return task.github('/layout/assets/**/*', { buffer: false })

task.fromFs(glob, [opts])

Emits files matching provided glob or an array of globs from the file system.

The file objects have the following keys:

  • path: a path from the base of the glob expression to the matched file
  • stat (the fs.stat object associated with the input file),
  • contents (a string with the content of the input file).

opts are the same as in task.github.


Calls markdown-styles to generate HTML from markdown. Also changes the file path extension to .html. Accepts the following options (see markdown-styles for more info):

  • layout: a name of a builtin layout or a path relative to the root of the repo to use for the markdown-styles tasks
  • asset-path: the path to the assets folder, relative to the output URL
  • meta: a JSON hash that has the contents of the meta.json file to merge in
  • layout: name of a builtin layout or an absolute path to a layout
  • highlight-extension: a string that specifies the name of a highlighter module or an absolute path to a highlighter module for extension, e.g. --highlight-csv /foo/highlight-csv.

Generally speaking you want to fully specified paths, such as:

      layout: __dirname + '/layout'
Renaming files and using an alternative asset path

If you want to change the path of the files, you can change the path property on the file objects. Rule #1: always rename files before converting them to markdown so that any asset paths are resolved correctly.

markdown-styles assumes that your /assets folder is in the same folder as your markdown files. If you want to have your assets folder somewhere else, make sure you set asset-path to the asset folder location relative to the root of the output domain.

In the example below, I am renaming to index.html, and writing the readme from / in the Github repo to /nwm/index.html (e.g., with relative asset paths that go to /assets (

lambda.task('mixu/nwm', function(task) {
  return task.github('/*.md')
      .pipe( {
        // from /*.md -> /nwm/*.md
        file.path = '/' + task.repo + file.path;
        return file;
        layout: __dirname + '/layouts/readme',
        // E.g. assets are located in /assets
        'asset-path': '/assets',
      // prepends s3://bucket/ to every incoming path
      // e.g. output goes to s3://bucket/nwm/*.html


Returns a writable stream that can be piped to and it will write files to S3.

target should be a string in the format s3://bucket/path, where bucket is the name of the S3 bucket and path is some path within the bucket.

Since .github() / .fromFs() produce relative file paths, the final file path is produced by taking the value in file.path and prepending target to it.


Returns a writable stream that can be piped to and it will write files to the file system. outdir is the output folder to write files to.

Since .github() / .fromFs() produce relative file paths, the final file path is produced by taking the value in file.path and prepending outdir to it.


Automatic static site generation on `git push` using AWS Lambda and markdown-styles using a Gulp-style API.






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