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1,767 bottle.py
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+# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
+"""
+Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
+offers request dispatching (Routes) with url parameter support, templates,
+a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
+template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
+Python Standard Library.
+
+Homepage and documentation: http://bottle.paws.de/
+
+Licence (MIT)
+-------------
+
+ Copyright (c) 2009, Marcel Hellkamp.
+
+ Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
+ of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
+ in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
+ to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
+ copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
+ furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
+
+ The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
+ all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+
+ THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
+ IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
+ FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
+ AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
+ LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
+ OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
+ THE SOFTWARE.
+
+
+Example
+-------
+
+This is an example::
+
+ from bottle import route, run, request, response, static_file, abort
+
+ @route('/')
+ def hello_world():
+ return 'Hello World!'
+
+ @route('/hello/:name')
+ def hello_name(name):
+ return 'Hello %s!' % name
+
+ @route('/hello', method='POST')
+ def hello_post():
+ name = request.POST['name']
+ return 'Hello %s!' % name
+
+ @route('/static/:filename#.*#')
+ def static(filename):
+ return static_file(filename, root='/path/to/static/files/')
+
+ run(host='localhost', port=8080)
+"""
+
+from __future__ import with_statement
+
+__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
+__version__ = '0.8.0'
+__license__ = 'MIT'
+
+import base64
+import cgi
+import email.utils
+import functools
+import hmac
+import inspect
+import itertools
+import mimetypes
+import os
+import re
+import subprocess
+import sys
+import thread
+import threading
+import time
+
+from Cookie import SimpleCookie
+from tempfile import TemporaryFile
+from traceback import format_exc
+from urllib import quote as urlquote
+from urlparse import urlunsplit, urljoin
+
+try:
+ from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ from UserDict import DictMixin
+
+try:
+ from urlparse import parse_qs
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ from cgi import parse_qs
+
+try:
+ import cPickle as pickle
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ import pickle
+
+try:
+ try:
+ from json import dumps as json_dumps
+ except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ from simplejson import dumps as json_dumps
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+ json_dumps = None
+
+if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0): # pragma: no cover
+ # See Request.POST
+ from io import BytesIO
+ from io import TextIOWrapper
+ StringType = bytes
+ def touni(x, enc='utf8'): # Convert anything to unicode (py3)
+ return str(x, encoding=enc) if isinstance(x, bytes) else str(x)
+else:
+ from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
+ from types import StringType
+ TextIOWrapper = None
+ def touni(x, enc='utf8'): # Convert anything to unicode (py2)
+ return x if isinstance(x, unicode) else unicode(str(x), encoding=enc)
+
+def tob(data, enc='utf8'): # Convert strings to bytes (py2 and py3)
+ return data.encode(enc) if isinstance(data, unicode) else data
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Exceptions and Events
+
+class BottleException(Exception):
+ """ A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
+ pass
+
+
+class HTTPResponse(BottleException):
+ """ Used to break execution and imediately finish the response """
+ def __init__(self, output='', status=200, header=None):
+ super(BottleException, self).__init__("HTTP Response %d" % status)
+ self.status = int(status)
+ self.output = output
+ self.headers = HeaderDict(header) if header else None
+
+ def apply(self, response):
+ if self.headers:
+ for key, value in self.headers.iterallitems():
+ response.headers[key] = value
+ response.status = self.status
+
+
+class HTTPError(HTTPResponse):
+ """ Used to generate an error page """
+ def __init__(self, code=500, output='Unknown Error', exception=None, traceback=None, header=None):
+ super(HTTPError, self).__init__(output, code, header)
+ self.exception = exception
+ self.traceback = traceback
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ return ''.join(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE.render(e=self))
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Routing
+
+class RouteError(BottleException):
+ """ This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
+
+
+class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
+ """ The route parser found something not supported by this router """
+
+
+class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
+ """ The route could not been build """
+
+
+class Route(object):
+ ''' Represents a single route and can parse the dynamic route syntax '''
+ syntax = re.compile(r'(.*?)(?<!\\):([a-zA-Z_]+)?(?:#(.*?)#)?')
+ default = '[^/]+'
+
+ def __init__(self, route, target, name=None, static=False):
+ """ Create a Route. The route string may contain `:key`,
+ `:key#regexp#` or `:#regexp#` tokens for each dynamic part of the
+ route. These can be escaped with a backslash infront of the `:`
+ and are compleately ignored if static is true. A name may be used
+ to refer to this route later (depends on Router)
+ """
+ self.route = route
+ self.target = target
+ self.name = name
+ self._static = static
+ self._tokens = None
+
+ def tokens(self):
+ """ Return a list of (type, value) tokens. """
+ if not self._tokens:
+ self._tokens = list(self.tokenise(self.route))
+ return self._tokens
+
+ @classmethod
+ def tokenise(cls, route):
+ ''' Split a string into an iterator of (type, value) tokens. '''
+ match = None
+ for match in cls.syntax.finditer(route):
+ pre, name, rex = match.groups()
+ if pre: yield ('TXT', pre.replace('\\:',':'))
+ if rex and name: yield ('VAR', (rex, name))
+ elif name: yield ('VAR', (cls.default, name))
+ elif rex: yield ('ANON', rex)
+ if not match:
+ yield ('TXT', route.replace('\\:',':'))
+ elif match.end() < len(route):
+ yield ('TXT', route[match.end():].replace('\\:',':'))
+
+ def group_re(self):
+ ''' Return a regexp pattern with named groups '''
+ out = ''
+ for token, data in self.tokens():
+ if token == 'TXT': out += re.escape(data)
+ elif token == 'VAR': out += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (data[1], data[0])
+ elif token == 'ANON': out += '(?:%s)' % data
+ return out
+
+ def flat_re(self):
+ ''' Return a regexp pattern with non-grouping parentheses '''
+ rf = lambda m: m.group(0) if len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:'
+ return re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]*>|\((?!\?))', rf, self.group_re())
+
+ def format_str(self):
+ ''' Return a format string with named fields. '''
+ if self.static:
+ return self.route.replace('%','%%')
+ out, i = '', 0
+ for token, value in self.tokens():
+ if token == 'TXT': out += value.replace('%','%%')
+ elif token == 'ANON': out += '%%(anon%d)s' % i; i+=1
+ elif token == 'VAR': out += '%%(%s)s' % value[1]
+ return out
+
+ @property
+ def static(self):
+ return not self.is_dynamic()
+
+ def is_dynamic(self):
+ ''' Return true if the route contains dynamic parts '''
+ if not self._static:
+ for token, value in self.tokens():
+ if token != 'TXT':
+ return True
+ self._static = True
+ return False
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ return self.route
+
+ def __eq__(self, other):
+ return self.route == other.route\
+ and self.static == other.static\
+ and self.name == other.name\
+ and self.target == other.target
+
+
+class Router(object):
+ ''' A route associates a string (e.g. URL) with an object (e.g. function)
+ Some dynamic routes may extract parts of the string and provide them as
+ a dictionary. This router matches a string against multiple routes and
+ returns the associated object along with the extracted data.
+ '''
+
+ def __init__(self):
+ self.routes = [] # List of all installed routes
+ self.static = dict() # Cache for static routes
+ self.dynamic = [] # Cache structure for dynamic routes
+ self.named = dict() # Cache for named routes and their format strings
+
+ def add(self, *a, **ka):
+ """ Adds a route->target pair or a Route object to the Router.
+ See Route() for details.
+ """
+ route = a[0] if a and isinstance(a[0], Route) else Route(*a, **ka)
+ self.routes.append(route)
+ if route.name:
+ self.named[route.name] = route.format_str()
+ if route.static:
+ self.static[route.route] = route.target
+ return
+ gpatt = route.group_re()
+ fpatt = route.flat_re()
+ try:
+ gregexp = re.compile('^(%s)$' % gpatt) if '(?P' in gpatt else None
+ combined = '%s|(^%s$)' % (self.dynamic[-1][0].pattern, fpatt)
+ self.dynamic[-1] = (re.compile(combined), self.dynamic[-1][1])
+ self.dynamic[-1][1].append((route.target, gregexp))
+ except (AssertionError, IndexError), e: # AssertionError: Too many groups
+ self.dynamic.append((re.compile('(^%s$)'%fpatt),[(route.target, gregexp)]))
+ except re.error, e:
+ raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (route, e))
+
+ def match(self, uri):
+ ''' Matches an URL and returns a (handler, target) tuple '''
+ if uri in self.static:
+ return self.static[uri], {}
+ for combined, subroutes in self.dynamic:
+ match = combined.match(uri)
+ if not match: continue
+ target, groups = subroutes[match.lastindex - 1]
+ groups = groups.match(uri).groupdict() if groups else {}
+ return target, groups
+ return None, {}
+
+ def build(self, route_name, **args):
+ ''' Builds an URL out of a named route and some parameters.'''
+ try:
+ return self.named[route_name] % args
+ except KeyError:
+ raise RouteBuildError("No route found with name '%s'." % route_name)
+
+ def __eq__(self, other):
+ return self.routes == other.routes
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# WSGI abstraction: Application, Request and Response objects
+
+class Bottle(object):
+ """ WSGI application """
+
+ def __init__(self, catchall=True, autojson=True, config=None):
+ """ Create a new bottle instance.
+ You usually don't do that. Use `bottle.app.push()` instead.
+ """
+ self.routes = Router()
+ self.mounts = {}
+ self.error_handler = {}
+ self.catchall = catchall
+ self.config = config or {}
+ self.serve = True
+ self.castfilter = []
+ if autojson and json_dumps:
+ self.add_filter(dict, dict2json)
+
+ def mount(self, app, script_path):
+ ''' Mount a Bottle application to a specific URL prefix '''
+ if not isinstance(app, Bottle):
+ raise TypeError('Only Bottle instances are supported for now.')
+ script_path = '/'.join(filter(None, script_path.split('/')))
+ path_depth = script_path.count('/') + 1
+ if not script_path:
+ raise TypeError('Empty script_path. Perhaps you want a merge()?')
+ for other in self.mounts:
+ if other.startswith(script_path):
+ raise TypeError('Conflict with existing mount: %s' % other)
+ @self.route('/%s/:#.*#' % script_path, method="ANY")
+ def mountpoint():
+ request.path_shift(path_depth)
+ return app.handle(request.path, request.method)
+ self.mounts[script_path] = app
+
+ def add_filter(self, ftype, func):
+ ''' Register a new output filter. Whenever bottle hits a handler output
+ matching `ftype`, `func` is applyed to it. '''
+ if not isinstance(ftype, type):
+ raise TypeError("Expected type object, got %s" % type(ftype))
+ self.castfilter = [(t, f) for (t, f) in self.castfilter if t != ftype]
+ self.castfilter.append((ftype, func))
+ self.castfilter.sort()
+
+ def match_url(self, path, method='GET'):
+ """ Find a callback bound to a path and a specific HTTP method.
+ Return (callback, param) tuple or (None, {}).
+ method: HEAD falls back to GET. All methods fall back to ANY.
+ """
+ path = path.strip().lstrip('/')
+ handler, param = self.routes.match(method + ';' + path)
+ if handler: return handler, param
+ if method == 'HEAD':
+ handler, param = self.routes.match('GET;' + path)
+ if handler: return handler, param
+ handler, param = self.routes.match('ANY;' + path)
+ if handler: return handler, param
+ return None, {}
+
+ def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
+ """ Return a string that matches a named route """
+ return '/' + self.routes.build(routename, **kargs).split(';', 1)[1]
+
+ def route(self, path=None, method='GET', **kargs):
+ """ Decorator: Bind a function to a GET request path.
+
+ If the path parameter is None, the signature of the decorated
+ function is used to generate the path. See yieldroutes()
+ for details.
+
+ The method parameter (default: GET) specifies the HTTP request
+ method to listen to. You can specify a list of methods.
+ """
+ if isinstance(method, str): #TODO: Test this
+ method = method.split(';')
+ def wrapper(callback):
+ paths = [] if path is None else [path.strip().lstrip('/')]
+ if not paths: # Lets generate the path automatically
+ paths = yieldroutes(callback)
+ for p in paths:
+ for m in method:
+ route = m.upper() + ';' + p
+ self.routes.add(route, callback, **kargs)
+ return callback
+ return wrapper
+
+ def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **kargs):
+ """ Decorator: Bind a function to a GET request path.
+ See :meth:'route' for details. """
+ return self.route(path=path, method=method, **kargs)
+
+ def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **kargs):
+ """ Decorator: Bind a function to a POST request path.
+ See :meth:'route' for details. """
+ return self.route(path=path, method=method, **kargs)
+
+ def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **kargs):
+ """ Decorator: Bind a function to a PUT request path.
+ See :meth:'route' for details. """
+ return self.route(path=path, method=method, **kargs)
+
+ def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **kargs):
+ """ Decorator: Bind a function to a DELETE request path.
+ See :meth:'route' for details. """
+ return self.route(path=path, method=method, **kargs)
+
+ def error(self, code=500):
+ """ Decorator: Registrer an output handler for a HTTP error code"""
+ def wrapper(handler):
+ self.error_handler[int(code)] = handler
+ return handler
+ return wrapper
+
+ def handle(self, url, method):
+ """ Execute the handler bound to the specified url and method and return
+ its output. If catchall is true, exceptions are catched and returned as
+ HTTPError(500) objects. """
+ if not self.serve:
+ return HTTPError(503, "Server stopped")
+
+ handler, args = self.match_url(url, method)
+ if not handler:
+ return HTTPError(404, "Not found:" + url)
+
+ try:
+ return handler(**args)
+ except HTTPResponse, e:
+ return e
+ except Exception, e:
+ if isinstance(e, (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError))\
+ or not self.catchall:
+ raise
+ return HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', e, format_exc(10))
+
+ def _cast(self, out, request, response, peek=None):
+ """ Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
+ correct HTTP headers when possible.
+ Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
+ iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
+ """
+ # Filtered types (recursive, because they may return anything)
+ for testtype, filterfunc in self.castfilter:
+ if isinstance(out, testtype):
+ return self._cast(filterfunc(out), request, response)
+
+ # Empty output is done here
+ if not out:
+ response.headers['Content-Length'] = 0
+ return []
+ # Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
+ if isinstance(out, list) and isinstance(out[0], (StringType, unicode)):
+ out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
+ # Encode unicode strings
+ if isinstance(out, unicode):
+ out = out.encode(response.charset)
+ # Byte Strings are just returned
+ if isinstance(out, StringType):
+ response.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(out))
+ return [out]
+ # HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
+ if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
+ out.apply(response)
+ return self._cast(self.error_handler.get(out.status, repr)(out), request, response)
+ if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
+ out.apply(response)
+ return self._cast(out.output, request, response)
+
+ # Cast Files into iterables
+ if hasattr(out, 'read') and 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
+ out = request.environ.get('wsgi.file_wrapper',
+ lambda x, y: iter(lambda: x.read(y), ''))(out, 1024*64)
+
+ # Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
+ try:
+ out = iter(out)
+ first = out.next()
+ while not first:
+ first = out.next()
+ except StopIteration:
+ return self._cast('', request, response)
+ except HTTPResponse, e:
+ first = e
+ except Exception, e:
+ first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', e, format_exc(10))
+ if isinstance(e, (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError))\
+ or not self.catchall:
+ raise
+ # These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
+ if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
+ return self._cast(first, request, response)
+ if isinstance(first, StringType):
+ return itertools.chain([first], out)
+ if isinstance(first, unicode):
+ return itertools.imap(lambda x: x.encode(response.charset),
+ itertools.chain([first], out))
+ return self._cast(HTTPError(500, 'Unsupported response type: %s'\
+ % type(first)), request, response)
+
+ def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
+ """ The bottle WSGI-interface. """
+ try:
+ environ['bottle.app'] = self
+ request.bind(environ)
+ response.bind(self)
+ out = self.handle(request.path, request.method)
+ out = self._cast(out, request, response)
+ if response.status in (100, 101, 204, 304) or request.method == 'HEAD':
+ out = [] # rfc2616 section 4.3
+ status = '%d %s' % (response.status, HTTP_CODES[response.status])
+ start_response(status, response.headerlist)
+ return out
+ except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+ raise
+ except Exception, e:
+ if not self.catchall:
+ raise
+ err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
+ % environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/')
+ if DEBUG:
+ err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % repr(e)
+ err += '<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % format_exc(10)
+ environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err) #TODO: wsgi.error should not get html
+ start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
+ return [tob(err)]
+
+
+class Request(threading.local, DictMixin):
+ """ Represents a single HTTP request using thread-local attributes.
+ The Request object wrapps a WSGI environment and can be used as such.
+ """
+ def __init__(self, environ=None, config=None):
+ """ Create a new Request instance.
+
+ You usually don't do this but use the global `bottle.request`
+ instance instead.
+ """
+ self.bind(environ or {}, config)
+
+ def bind(self, environ, config=None):
+ """ Bind a new WSGI enviroment.
+
+ This is done automatically for the global `bottle.request`
+ instance on every request.
+ """
+ self.environ = environ
+ self.config = config or {}
+ # These attributes are used anyway, so it is ok to compute them here
+ self.path = '/' + environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/').lstrip('/')
+ self.method = environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
+
+ def copy(self):
+ ''' Returns a copy of self '''
+ return Request(self.environ.copy(), self.config)
+
+ def path_shift(self, shift=1):
+ ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
+
+ :param shift: The number of path fragemts to shift. May be negative to
+ change ths shift direction. (default: 1)
+ '''
+ script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','/')
+ self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self.path = path_shift(script_name, self.path, shift)
+ self['PATH_INFO'] = self.path
+
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return self.environ[key]
+ def __delitem__(self, key): self[key] = ""; del(self.environ[key])
+ def __iter__(self): return iter(self.environ)
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.environ)
+ def keys(self): return self.environ.keys()
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+ """ Shortcut for Request.environ.__setitem__ """
+ self.environ[key] = value
+ todelete = []
+ if key in ('PATH_INFO','REQUEST_METHOD'):
+ self.bind(self.environ, self.config)
+ elif key == 'wsgi.input': todelete = ('body','forms','files','params')
+ elif key == 'QUERY_STRING': todelete = ('get','params')
+ elif key.startswith('HTTP_'): todelete = ('headers', 'cookies')
+ for key in todelete:
+ if 'bottle.' + key in self.environ:
+ del self.environ['bottle.' + key]
+
+ @property
+ def query_string(self):
+ """ The content of the QUERY_STRING environment variable. """
+ return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
+
+ @property
+ def fullpath(self):
+ """ Request path including SCRIPT_NAME (if present) """
+ return self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').rstrip('/') + self.path
+
+ @property
+ def url(self):
+ """ Full URL as requested by the client (computed).
+
+ This value is constructed out of different environment variables
+ and includes scheme, host, port, scriptname, path and query string.
+ """
+ scheme = self.environ.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
+ host = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST', self.environ.get('HTTP_HOST', None))
+ if not host:
+ host = self.environ.get('SERVER_NAME')
+ port = self.environ.get('SERVER_PORT', '80')
+ if scheme + port not in ('https443', 'http80'):
+ host += ':' + port
+ parts = (scheme, host, urlquote(self.fullpath), self.query_string, '')
+ return urlunsplit(parts)
+
+ @property
+ def content_length(self):
+ """ Content-Length header as an integer, -1 if not specified """
+ return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH','') or -1)
+
+ @property
+ def header(self):
+ ''' :class:`HeaderDict` filled with request headers.
+
+ HeaderDict keys are case insensitive str.title()d
+ '''
+ if 'bottle.headers' not in self.environ:
+ header = self.environ['bottle.headers'] = HeaderDict()
+ for key, value in self.environ.iteritems():
+ if key.startswith('HTTP_'):
+ key = key[5:].replace('_','-').title()
+ header[key] = value
+ return self.environ['bottle.headers']
+
+ @property
+ def GET(self):
+ """ The QUERY_STRING parsed into a MultiDict.
+
+ Keys and values are strings. Multiple values per key are possible.
+ See MultiDict for details.
+ """
+ if 'bottle.get' not in self.environ:
+ data = parse_qs(self.query_string, keep_blank_values=True)
+ get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = MultiDict()
+ for key, values in data.iteritems():
+ for value in values:
+ get[key] = value
+ return self.environ['bottle.get']
+
+ @property
+ def POST(self):
+ """ Property: The HTTP POST body parsed into a MultiDict.
+
+ This supports urlencoded and multipart POST requests. Multipart
+ is commonly used for file uploads and may result in some of the
+ values beeing cgi.FieldStorage objects instead of strings.
+
+ Multiple values per key are possible. See MultiDict for details.
+ """
+ if 'bottle.post' not in self.environ:
+ self.environ['bottle.post'] = MultiDict()
+ self.environ['bottle.forms'] = MultiDict()
+ self.environ['bottle.files'] = MultiDict()
+ safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING':''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
+ for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'):
+ if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
+ if TextIOWrapper:
+ fb = TextIOWrapper(self.body, encoding='ISO-8859-1')
+ else:
+ fb = self.body
+ data = cgi.FieldStorage(fp=fb, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
+ for item in data.list or []:
+ if item.filename:
+ self.environ['bottle.post'][item.name] = item
+ self.environ['bottle.files'][item.name] = item
+ else:
+ self.environ['bottle.post'][item.name] = item.value
+ self.environ['bottle.forms'][item.name] = item.value
+ return self.environ['bottle.post']
+
+ @property
+ def forms(self):
+ """ Property: HTTP POST form data parsed into a MultiDict. """
+ if 'bottle.forms' not in self.environ: self.POST
+ return self.environ['bottle.forms']
+
+ @property
+ def files(self):
+ """ Property: HTTP POST file uploads parsed into a MultiDict. """
+ if 'bottle.files' not in self.environ: self.POST
+ return self.environ['bottle.files']
+
+ @property
+ def params(self):
+ """ A combined MultiDict with POST and GET parameters. """
+ if 'bottle.params' not in self.environ:
+ self.environ['bottle.params'] = MultiDict(self.GET)
+ self.environ['bottle.params'].update(dict(self.forms))
+ return self.environ['bottle.params']
+
+ @property
+ def body(self):
+ """ The HTTP request body as a seekable buffer object.
+
+ This property returns a copy of the `wsgi.input` stream and should
+ be used instead of `environ['wsgi.input']`.
+ """
+ if 'bottle.body' not in self.environ:
+ maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
+ stream = self.environ['wsgi.input']
+ body = BytesIO() if maxread < MEMFILE_MAX else TemporaryFile(mode='w+b')
+ while maxread > 0:
+ part = stream.read(min(maxread, MEMFILE_MAX))
+ if not part: #TODO: Wrong content_length. Error? Do nothing?
+ break
+ body.write(part)
+ maxread -= len(part)
+ self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
+ self.environ['bottle.body'] = body
+ self.environ['bottle.body'].seek(0)
+ return self.environ['bottle.body']
+
+ @property
+ def auth(self): #TODO: Tests and docs. Add support for digest. namedtuple?
+ """ HTTP authorisation data as a (user, passwd) tuple. (experimental)
+
+ This implementation currently only supports basic auth and returns
+ None on errors.
+ """
+ return parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION',''))
+
+ @property
+ def COOKIES(self):
+ """ Cookie information parsed into a dictionary.
+
+ Secure cookies are NOT decoded automatically. See
+ Request.get_cookie() for details.
+ """
+ if 'bottle.cookies' not in self.environ:
+ raw_dict = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE',''))
+ self.environ['bottle.cookies'] = {}
+ for cookie in raw_dict.itervalues():
+ self.environ['bottle.cookies'][cookie.key] = cookie.value
+ return self.environ['bottle.cookies']
+
+ def get_cookie(self, name, secret=None):
+ """ Return the (decoded) value of a cookie. """
+ value = self.COOKIES.get(name)
+ dec = cookie_decode(value, secret) if secret else None
+ return dec or value
+
+ @property
+ def is_ajax(self):
+ ''' True if the request was generated using XMLHttpRequest '''
+ #TODO: write tests
+ return self.header.get('X-Requested-With') == 'XMLHttpRequest'
+
+
+
+class Response(threading.local):
+ """ Represents a single HTTP response using thread-local attributes.
+ """
+
+ def __init__(self, config=None):
+ self.bind(config)
+
+ def bind(self, config=None):
+ """ Resets the Response object to its factory defaults. """
+ self._COOKIES = None
+ self.status = 200
+ self.headers = HeaderDict()
+ self.content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
+ self.config = config or {}
+
+ def copy(self):
+ ''' Returns a copy of self '''
+ copy = Response(self.config)
+ copy.status = self.status
+ copy.headers = self.headers.copy()
+ copy.content_type = self.content_type
+ return copy
+
+ def wsgiheader(self):
+ ''' Returns a wsgi conform list of header/value pairs. '''
+ for c in self.COOKIES.values():
+ if c.OutputString() not in self.headers.getall('Set-Cookie'):
+ self.headers.append('Set-Cookie', c.OutputString())
+ return list(self.headers.iterallitems())
+ headerlist = property(wsgiheader)
+
+ @property
+ def charset(self):
+ """ Return the charset specified in the content-type header.
+
+ This defaults to `UTF-8`.
+ """
+ if 'charset=' in self.content_type:
+ return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip()
+ return 'UTF-8'
+
+ @property
+ def COOKIES(self):
+ """ A dict-like SimpleCookie instance. Use Response.set_cookie() instead. """
+ if not self._COOKIES:
+ self._COOKIES = SimpleCookie()
+ return self._COOKIES
+
+ def set_cookie(self, key, value, secret=None, **kargs):
+ """ Add a new cookie with various options.
+
+ If the cookie value is not a string, a secure cookie is created.
+
+ Possible options are:
+ expires, path, comment, domain, max_age, secure, version, httponly
+ See http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP-Cookie#Aufbau for details
+ """
+ if not isinstance(value, basestring):
+ if not secret:
+ raise TypeError('Cookies must be strings when secret is not set')
+ value = cookie_encode(value, secret).decode('ascii') #2to3 hack
+ self.COOKIES[key] = value
+ for k, v in kargs.iteritems():
+ self.COOKIES[key][k.replace('_', '-')] = v
+
+ def get_content_type(self):
+ """ Current 'Content-Type' header. """
+ return self.headers['Content-Type']
+
+ def set_content_type(self, value):
+ self.headers['Content-Type'] = value
+
+ content_type = property(get_content_type, set_content_type, None,
+ get_content_type.__doc__)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Data Structures
+
+class MultiDict(DictMixin):
+ """ A dict that remembers old values for each key """
+ # collections.MutableMapping would be better for Python >= 2.6
+ def __init__(self, *a, **k):
+ self.dict = dict()
+ for k, v in dict(*a, **k).iteritems():
+ self[k] = v
+
+ def __len__(self): return len(self.dict)
+ def __iter__(self): return iter(self.dict)
+ def __contains__(self, key): return key in self.dict
+ def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[key]
+ def keys(self): return self.dict.keys()
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return self.get(key, KeyError, -1)
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.append(key, value)
+
+ def append(self, key, value): self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
+ def replace(self, key, value): self.dict[key] = [value]
+ def getall(self, key): return self.dict.get(key) or []
+
+ def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
+ if key not in self.dict and default != KeyError:
+ return [default][index]
+ return self.dict[key][index]
+
+ def iterallitems(self):
+ for key, values in self.dict.iteritems():
+ for value in values:
+ yield key, value
+
+
+class HeaderDict(MultiDict):
+ """ Same as :class:`MultiDict`, but title()s the keys and overwrites by default. """
+ def __contains__(self, key): return MultiDict.__contains__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+ def __getitem__(self, key): return MultiDict.__getitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+ def __delitem__(self, key): return MultiDict.__delitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+ def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.replace(key, value)
+ def append(self, key, value): return MultiDict.append(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
+ def replace(self, key, value): return MultiDict.replace(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
+ def getall(self, key): return MultiDict.getall(self, self.httpkey(key))
+ def httpkey(self, key): return str(key).replace('_','-').title()
+
+
+class AppStack(list):
+ """ A stack implementation. """
+
+ def __call__(self):
+ """ Return the current default app. """
+ return self[-1]
+
+ def push(self, value=None):
+ """ Add a new Bottle instance to the stack """
+ if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
+ value = Bottle()
+ self.append(value)
+ return value
+
+
+
+
+# Module level functions
+
+# Output filter
+
+def dict2json(d):
+ response.content_type = 'application/json'
+ return json_dumps(d)
+
+
+def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error: Appliction stopped.'):
+ """ Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """
+ raise HTTPError(code, text)
+
+
+def redirect(url, code=303):
+ """ Aborts execution and causes a 303 redirect """
+ scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').rstrip('/') + '/'
+ location = urljoin(request.url, urljoin(scriptname, url))
+ raise HTTPResponse("", status=code, header=dict(Location=location))
+
+
+def send_file(*a, **k): #BC 0.6.4
+ """ Raises the output of static_file() """
+ raise static_file(*a, **k)
+
+
+def static_file(filename, root, guessmime=True, mimetype=None, download=False):
+ """ Opens a file in a safe way and returns a HTTPError object with status
+ code 200, 305, 401 or 404. Sets Content-Type, Content-Length and
+ Last-Modified header. Obeys If-Modified-Since header and HEAD requests.
+ """
+ root = os.path.abspath(root) + os.sep
+ filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\')))
+ header = dict()
+
+ if not filename.startswith(root):
+ return HTTPError(401, "Access denied.")
+ if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename):
+ return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.")
+ if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK):
+ return HTTPError(401, "You do not have permission to access this file.")
+
+ if not mimetype and guessmime:
+ header['Content-Type'] = mimetypes.guess_type(filename)[0]
+ else:
+ header['Content-Type'] = mimetype if mimetype else 'text/plain'
+
+ if download == True:
+ download = os.path.basename(filename)
+ if download:
+ header['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download
+
+ stats = os.stat(filename)
+ lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime))
+ header['Last-Modified'] = lm
+ ims = request.environ.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE')
+ if ims:
+ ims = ims.split(";")[0].strip() # IE sends "<date>; length=146"
+ ims = parse_date(ims)
+ if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime):
+ return HTTPResponse(status=304, header=header)
+ header['Content-Length'] = stats.st_size
+ if request.method == 'HEAD':
+ return HTTPResponse('', header=header)
+ else:
+ return HTTPResponse(open(filename, 'rb'), header=header)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Utilities
+
+def debug(mode=True):
+ """ Change the debug level.
+ There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
+ global DEBUG
+ DEBUG = bool(mode)
+
+
+def parse_date(ims):
+ """ Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """
+ try:
+ ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims)
+ return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0,)) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone
+ except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError):
+ return None
+
+
+def parse_auth(header):
+ """ Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None"""
+ try:
+ method, data = header.split(None, 1)
+ if method.lower() == 'basic':
+ name, pwd = base64.b64decode(data).split(':', 1)
+ return name, pwd
+ except (KeyError, ValueError, TypeError):
+ return None
+
+
+def cookie_encode(data, key):
+ ''' Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a string '''
+ msg = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(data, -1))
+ sig = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(key, msg).digest())
+ return u'!'.encode('ascii') + sig + u'?'.encode('ascii') + msg #2to3 hack
+
+
+def cookie_decode(data, key):
+ ''' Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None'''
+ if isinstance(data, unicode): data = data.encode('ascii') #2to3 hack
+ if cookie_is_encoded(data):
+ sig, msg = data.split(u'?'.encode('ascii'),1) #2to3 hack
+ if sig[1:] == base64.b64encode(hmac.new(key, msg).digest()):
+ return pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
+ return None
+
+
+def cookie_is_encoded(data):
+ ''' Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.'''
+ return bool(data.startswith(u'!'.encode('ascii')) and u'?'.encode('ascii') in data) #2to3 hack
+
+
+def tonativefunc(enc='utf-8'):
+ ''' Returns a function that turns everything into 'native' strings using enc '''
+ if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0):
+ return lambda x: x.decode(enc) if isinstance(x, bytes) else str(x)
+ return lambda x: x.encode(enc) if isinstance(x, unicode) else str(x)
+
+
+def yieldroutes(func):
+ """ Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args)
+ of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function
+ takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example:
+ a() -> '/a'
+ b(x, y) -> '/b/:x/:y'
+ c(x, y=5) -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y'
+ d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y'
+ """
+ path = func.__name__.replace('__','/').lstrip('/')
+ spec = inspect.getargspec(func)
+ argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or [])
+ path += ('/:%s' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc])
+ yield path
+ for arg in spec[0][argc:]:
+ path += '/:%s' % arg
+ yield path
+
+def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1):
+ ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
+
+ :return: The modified paths.
+ :param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path.
+ :param script_name: The PATH_INFO path.
+ :param shift: The number of path fragemts to shift. May be negative to
+ change ths shift direction. (default: 1)
+ '''
+ if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info
+ pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/')
+ scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/')
+ if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = []
+ if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = []
+ if shift > 0 and shift <= len(pathlist):
+ moved = pathlist[:shift]
+ scriptlist = scriptlist + moved
+ pathlist = pathlist[shift:]
+ elif shift < 0 and shift >= -len(scriptlist):
+ moved = scriptlist[shift:]
+ pathlist = moved + pathlist
+ scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift]
+ else:
+ empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO'
+ raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty)
+ new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist)
+ new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist)
+ if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/'
+ return new_script_name, new_path_info
+
+
+
+
+# Decorators
+#TODO: Replace default_app() with app()
+
+def validate(**vkargs):
+ """
+ Validates and manipulates keyword arguments by user defined callables.
+ Handles ValueError and missing arguments by raising HTTPError(403).
+ """
+ def decorator(func):
+ def wrapper(**kargs):
+ for key, value in vkargs.iteritems():
+ if key not in kargs:
+ abort(403, 'Missing parameter: %s' % key)
+ try:
+ kargs[key] = value(kargs[key])
+ except ValueError:
+ abort(403, 'Wrong parameter format for: %s' % key)
+ return func(**kargs)
+ return wrapper
+ return decorator
+
+
+route = functools.wraps(Bottle.route)(lambda *a, **ka: app().route(*a, **ka))
+get = functools.wraps(Bottle.get)(lambda *a, **ka: app().get(*a, **ka))
+post = functools.wraps(Bottle.post)(lambda *a, **ka: app().post(*a, **ka))
+put = functools.wraps(Bottle.put)(lambda *a, **ka: app().put(*a, **ka))
+delete = functools.wraps(Bottle.delete)(lambda *a, **ka: app().delete(*a, **ka))
+error = functools.wraps(Bottle.error)(lambda *a, **ka: app().error(*a, **ka))
+url = functools.wraps(Bottle.get_url)(lambda *a, **ka: app().get_url(*a, **ka))
+mount = functools.wraps(Bottle.get_url)(lambda *a, **ka: app().mount(*a, **ka))
+
+def default():
+ raise DeprecationWarning("Use @error(404) instead.")
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Server adapter
+
+class ServerAdapter(object):
+ def __init__(self, host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, **kargs):
+ self.options = kargs
+ self.host = host
+ self.port = int(port)
+
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ pass
+
+ def __repr__(self):
+ args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()])
+ return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)
+
+
+class CGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from wsgiref.handlers import CGIHandler
+ CGIHandler().run(handler) # Just ignore host and port here
+
+
+class FlupFCGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import flup.server.fcgi
+ flup.server.fcgi.WSGIServer(handler, bindAddress=(self.host, self.port)).run()
+
+
+class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
+ srv = make_server(self.host, self.port, handler)
+ srv.serve_forever()
+
+
+class CherryPyServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from cherrypy import wsgiserver
+ server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer((self.host, self.port), handler)
+ server.start()
+
+
+class PasteServer(ServerAdapter):
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ from paste import httpserver
+ from paste.translogger import TransLogger
+ app = TransLogger(handler)
+ httpserver.serve(app, host=self.host, port=str(self.port), **self.options)
+
+
+class FapwsServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """
+ Extremly fast webserver using libev.
+ See http://william-os4y.livejournal.com/
+ """
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import fapws._evwsgi as evwsgi
+ from fapws import base
+ evwsgi.start(self.host, self.port)
+ evwsgi.set_base_module(base)
+ def app(environ, start_response):
+ environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = False
+ return handler(environ, start_response)
+ evwsgi.wsgi_cb(('',app))
+ evwsgi.run()
+
+
+class TornadoServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. As described here:
+ http://github.com/facebook/tornado/blob/master/tornado/wsgi.py#L187 """
+ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+ import tornado.wsgi
+ import tornado.httpserver
+ import tornado.ioloop
+ container = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(handler)
+ server = tornado.httpserver.HTTPServer(container)
+ server.listen(port=self.port)
+ tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()
+
+
+class AppEngineServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from google.appengine.ext.webapp import util
+ util.run_wsgi_app(handler)
+
+
+class TwistedServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from twisted.web import server, wsgi
+ from twisted.python.threadpool import ThreadPool
+ from twisted.internet import reactor
+ thread_pool = ThreadPool()
+ thread_pool.start()
+ reactor.addSystemEventTrigger('after', 'shutdown', thread_pool.stop)
+ factory = server.Site(wsgi.WSGIResource(reactor, thread_pool, handler))
+ reactor.listenTCP(self.port, factory, interface=self.host)
+ reactor.run()
+
+
+class DieselServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from diesel.protocols.wsgi import WSGIApplication
+ app = WSGIApplication(handler, port=self.port)
+ app.run()
+
+
+class GunicornServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ import gunicorn.arbiter
+ gunicorn.arbiter.Arbiter((self.host, self.port), 4, handler).run()
+
+
+class EventletServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested """
+ def run(self, handler):
+ from eventlet import wsgi, listen
+ wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler)
+
+
+class AutoServer(ServerAdapter):
+ """ Untested. """
+ adapters = [CherryPyServer, PasteServer, TwistedServer, WSGIRefServer]
+ def run(self, handler):
+ for sa in self.adapters:
+ try:
+ return sa(self.host, self.port, **self.options).run(handler)
+ except ImportError:
+ pass
+
+
+def run(app=None, server=WSGIRefServer, host='127.0.0.1', port=8080,
+ interval=1, reloader=False, **kargs):
+ """ Runs bottle as a web server. """
+ app = app if app else default_app()
+ quiet = bool(kargs.get('quiet', False))
+ # Instantiate server, if it is a class instead of an instance
+ if isinstance(server, type):
+ server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs)
+ if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter):
+ raise RuntimeError("Server must be a subclass of WSGIAdapter")
+ if not quiet and isinstance(server, ServerAdapter): # pragma: no cover
+ if not reloader or os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD') == 'true':
+ print "Bottle server starting up (using %s)..." % repr(server)
+ print "Listening on http://%s:%d/" % (server.host, server.port)
+ print "Use Ctrl-C to quit."
+ print
+ else:
+ print "Bottle auto reloader starting up..."
+ try:
+ if reloader and interval:
+ reloader_run(server, app, interval)
+ else:
+ server.run(app)
+ except KeyboardInterrupt:
+ if not quiet: # pragma: no cover
+ print "Shutting Down..."
+
+
+#TODO: If the parent process is killed (with SIGTERM) the childs survive...
+def reloader_run(server, app, interval):
+ if os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD') == 'true':
+ # We are a child process
+ files = dict()
+ for module in sys.modules.values():
+ file_path = getattr(module, '__file__', None)
+ if file_path and os.path.isfile(file_path):
+ file_split = os.path.splitext(file_path)
+ if file_split[1] in ('.py', '.pyc', '.pyo'):
+ file_path = file_split[0] + '.py'
+ files[file_path] = os.stat(file_path).st_mtime
+ thread.start_new_thread(server.run, (app,))
+ while True:
+ time.sleep(interval)
+ for file_path, file_mtime in files.iteritems():
+ if not os.path.exists(file_path):
+ print "File changed: %s (deleted)" % file_path
+ elif os.stat(file_path).st_mtime > file_mtime:
+ print "File changed: %s (modified)" % file_path
+ else: continue
+ print "Restarting..."
+ app.serve = False
+ time.sleep(interval) # be nice and wait for running requests
+ sys.exit(3)
+ while True:
+ args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv
+ environ = os.environ.copy()
+ environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true'
+ exit_status = subprocess.call(args, env=environ)
+ if exit_status != 3:
+ sys.exit(exit_status)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Templates
+
+class TemplateError(HTTPError):
+ def __init__(self, message):
+ HTTPError.__init__(self, 500, message)
+
+
+class BaseTemplate(object):
+ """ Base class and minimal API for template adapters """
+ extentions = ['tpl','html','thtml','stpl']
+ settings = {} #used in prepare()
+ defaults = {} #used in render()
+
+ def __init__(self, source=None, name=None, lookup=[], encoding='utf8', **settings):
+ """ Create a new template.
+ If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument
+ is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that
+ self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings.
+ The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance
+ variables.
+ The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths.
+ The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files.
+ The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.
+ """
+ self.name = name
+ self.source = source.read() if hasattr(source, 'read') else source
+ self.filename = source.filename if hasattr(source, 'filename') else None
+ self.lookup = map(os.path.abspath, lookup)
+ self.encoding = encoding
+ self.settings = self.settings.copy() # Copy from class variable
+ self.settings.update(settings) # Apply
+ if not self.source and self.name:
+ self.filename = self.search(self.name, self.lookup)
+ if not self.filename:
+ raise TemplateError('Template %s not found.' % repr(name))
+ if not self.source and not self.filename:
+ raise TemplateError('No template specified.')
+ self.prepare(**self.settings)
+
+ @classmethod
+ def search(cls, name, lookup=[]):
+ """ Search name in all directiries specified in lookup.
+ First without, then with common extentions. Return first hit. """
+ if os.path.isfile(name): return name
+ for spath in lookup:
+ fname = os.path.join(spath, name)
+ if os.path.isfile(fname):
+ return fname
+ for ext in cls.extentions:
+ if os.path.isfile('%s.%s' % (fname, ext)):
+ return '%s.%s' % (fname, ext)
+
+ @classmethod
+ def global_config(cls, key, *args):
+ ''' This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings. '''
+ if args:
+ cls.settings[key] = args[0]
+ else:
+ return cls.settings[key]
+
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ """ Run preparatios (parsing, caching, ...).
+ It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to
+ update settings.
+ """
+ raise NotImplementedError
+
+ def render(self, **args):
+ """ Render the template with the specified local variables and return
+ a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding
+ must match self.encoding. This method must be thread save!
+ """
+ raise NotImplementedError
+
+
+class MakoTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ from mako.template import Template
+ from mako.lookup import TemplateLookup
+ options.update({'input_encoding':self.encoding})
+ #TODO: This is a hack... http://github.com/defnull/bottle/issues#issue/8
+ mylookup = TemplateLookup(directories=['.']+self.lookup, **options)
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = Template(self.source, lookup=mylookup)
+ else: #mako cannot guess extentions. We can, but only at top level...
+ name = self.name
+ if not os.path.splitext(name)[1]:
+ name += os.path.splitext(self.filename)[1]
+ self.tpl = mylookup.get_template(name)
+
+ def render(self, **args):
+ _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+ _defaults.update(args)
+ return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
+
+
+class CheetahTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, **options):
+ from Cheetah.Template import Template
+ self.context = threading.local()
+ self.context.vars = {}
+ options['searchList'] = [self.context.vars]
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = Template(source=self.source, **options)
+ else:
+ self.tpl = Template(file=self.filename, **options)
+
+ def render(self, **args):
+ self.context.vars.update(self.defaults)
+ self.context.vars.update(args)
+ out = str(self.tpl)
+ self.context.vars.clear()
+ return [out]
+
+
+class Jinja2Template(BaseTemplate):
+ def prepare(self, prefix='#', filters=None, tests=None):
+ from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader
+ self.env = Environment(line_statement_prefix=prefix,
+ loader=FunctionLoader(self.loader))
+ if filters: self.env.filters.update(filters)
+ if tests: self.env.tests.update(tests)
+ if self.source:
+ self.tpl = self.env.from_string(self.source)
+ else:
+ self.tpl = self.env.get_template(self.filename)
+
+ def render(self, **args):
+ _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+ _defaults.update(args)
+ return self.tpl.render(**_defaults).encode("utf-8")
+
+ def loader(self, name):
+ fname = self.search(name, self.lookup)
+ if fname:
+ with open(fname) as f:
+ return f.read().decode(self.encoding)
+
+
+class SimpleTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+ blocks = ('if','elif','else','except','finally','for','while','with','def','class')
+ dedent_blocks = ('elif', 'else', 'except', 'finally')
+
+ def prepare(self, escape_func=cgi.escape, noescape=False):
+ self.cache = {}
+ if self.source:
+ self.code = self.translate(self.source)
+ self.co = compile(self.code, '<string>', 'exec')
+ else:
+ self.code = self.translate(open(self.filename).read())
+ self.co = compile(self.code, self.filename, 'exec')
+ enc = self.encoding
+ self._str = lambda x: touni(x, enc)
+ self._escape = lambda x: escape_func(touni(x, enc))
+ if noescape:
+ self._str, self._escape = self._escape, self._str
+
+ def translate(self, template):
+ stack = [] # Current Code indentation
+ lineno = 0 # Current line of code
+ ptrbuffer = [] # Buffer for printable strings and token tuple instances
+ codebuffer = [] # Buffer for generated python code
+ touni = functools.partial(unicode, encoding=self.encoding)
+
+ def tokenize(line):
+ for i, part in enumerate(re.split(r'\{\{(.*?)\}\}', line)):
+ if i % 2:
+ if part.startswith('!'): yield 'RAW', part[1:]
+ else: yield 'CMD', part
+ else: yield 'TXT', part
+
+ def flush(): # Flush the ptrbuffer
+ if not ptrbuffer: return
+ cline = ''
+ for line in ptrbuffer:
+ for token, value in line:
+ if token == 'TXT': cline += repr(value)
+ elif token == 'RAW': cline += '_str(%s)' % value
+ elif token == 'CMD': cline += '_escape(%s)' % value
+ cline += ', '
+ cline = cline[:-2] + '\\\n'
+ cline = cline[:-2]
+ if cline[:-1].endswith('\\\\\\\\\\n'):
+ cline = cline[:-7] + cline[-1] # 'nobr\\\\\n' --> 'nobr'
+ cline = '_printlist((' + cline + '))'
+ del ptrbuffer[:] # Do this before calling code() again
+ code(cline)
+
+ def code(stmt):
+ for line in stmt.splitlines():
+ codebuffer.append(' ' * len(stack) + line.strip())
+
+ for line in template.splitlines(True):
+ lineno += 1
+ line = line if isinstance(line, unicode)\
+ else unicode(line, encoding=self.encoding)
+ if lineno <= 2:
+ m = re.search(r"%.*coding[:=]\s*([-\w\.]+)", line)
+ if m: self.encoding = m.group(1)
+ if m: line = line.replace('coding','coding (removed)')
+ if line.strip()[:2].count('%') == 1:
+ line = line.split('%',1)[1].lstrip() # Full line following the %
+ cline = line.split('#')[0].strip() # Line without commends (TODO: fails for 'a="#"')
+ cmd = re.split(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9_]', line)[0]
+ flush() ##encodig (TODO: why?)
+ if cmd in self.blocks:
+ dedent = cmd in self.dedent_blocks # "else:"
+ oneline = not cline.endswith(':') # "if 1: pass"
+ if dedent and not oneline: cmd = stack.pop()
+ code(line)
+ if not oneline: stack.append(cmd)
+ elif cmd == 'end' and stack:
+ code('#end(%s) %s' % (stack.pop(), line.strip()[3:]))
+ elif cmd == 'include':
+ p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
+ if len(p) == 2:
+ code("_=_include(%s, _stdout, %s)" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
+ elif p:
+ code("_=_include(%s, _stdout)" % repr(p[0]))
+ else: # Empty %include -> reverse of %rebase
+ code("_printlist(_base)")
+ elif cmd == 'rebase':
+ p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
+ if len(p) == 2:
+ code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, dict(%s))" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
+ elif p:
+ code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, {})" % repr(p[0]))
+ else:
+ code(line)
+ else: # Line starting with text (not '%') or '%%' (escaped)
+ if line.strip().startswith('%%'):
+ line = line.replace('%%', '%', 1)
+ ptrbuffer.append(tokenize(line))
+ flush()
+ return '\n'.join(codebuffer) + '\n'
+
+ def subtemplate(self, _name, _stdout, **args):
+ if _name not in self.cache:
+ self.cache[_name] = self.__class__(name=_name, lookup=self.lookup)
+ return self.cache[_name].execute(_stdout, **args)
+
+ def execute(self, _stdout, **args):
+ env = self.defaults.copy()
+ env.update({'_stdout': _stdout, '_printlist': _stdout.extend,
+ '_include': self.subtemplate, '_str': self._str,
+ '_escape': self._escape})
+ env.update(args)
+ eval(self.co, env)
+ if '_rebase' in env:
+ subtpl, rargs = env['_rebase']
+ subtpl = self.__class__(name=subtpl, lookup=self.lookup)
+ rargs['_base'] = _stdout[:] #copy stdout
+ del _stdout[:] # clear stdout
+ return subtpl.execute(_stdout, **rargs)
+ return env
+
+ def render(self, **args):
+ """ Render the template using keyword arguments as local variables. """
+ stdout = []
+ self.execute(stdout, **args)
+ return stdout
+
+
+def template(tpl, template_adapter=SimpleTemplate, **kwargs):
+ '''
+ Get a rendered template as a string iterator.
+ You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter.
+ '''
+ if tpl not in TEMPLATES or DEBUG:
+ settings = kwargs.get('template_settings',{})
+ lookup = kwargs.get('template_lookup', TEMPLATE_PATH)
+ if isinstance(tpl, template_adapter):
+ TEMPLATES[tpl] = tpl
+ if settings: TEMPLATES[tpl].prepare(**settings)
+ elif "\n" in tpl or "{" in tpl or "%" in tpl or '$' in tpl:
+ TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(source=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+ else:
+ TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(name=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+ if not TEMPLATES[tpl]:
+ abort(500, 'Template (%s) not found' % tpl)
+ return TEMPLATES[tpl].render(**kwargs)
+
+mako_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
+cheetah_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
+jinja2_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
+
+def view(tpl_name, **defaults):
+ ''' Decorator: Renders a template for a handler.
+ The handler can control its behavior like that:
+
+ - return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
+ - return other than a dict and the view decorator will not
+ process the template, but return the handler result as is.
+ This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get,
+ for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters
+ '''
+ def decorator(func):
+ @functools.wraps(func)
+ def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
+ result = func(*args, **kwargs)
+ if isinstance(result, dict):
+ tplvars = defaults.copy()
+ tplvars.update(result)
+ return template(tpl_name, **tplvars)
+ return result
+ return wrapper
+ return decorator
+
+mako_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
+cheetah_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
+jinja2_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+# Modul initialization and configuration
+
+TEMPLATE_PATH = ['./', './views/']
+TEMPLATES = {}
+DEBUG = False
+MEMFILE_MAX = 1024*100
+HTTP_CODES = {
+ 100: 'CONTINUE',
+ 101: 'SWITCHING PROTOCOLS',
+ 200: 'OK',
+ 201: 'CREATED',
+ 202: 'ACCEPTED',
+ 203: 'NON-AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION',
+ 204: 'NO CONTENT',
+ 205: 'RESET CONTENT',
+ 206: 'PARTIAL CONTENT',
+ 300: 'MULTIPLE CHOICES',
+ 301: 'MOVED PERMANENTLY',
+ 302: 'FOUND',
+ 303: 'SEE OTHER',
+ 304: 'NOT MODIFIED',
+ 305: 'USE PROXY',
+ 306: 'RESERVED',
+ 307: 'TEMPORARY REDIRECT',
+ 400: 'BAD REQUEST',
+ 401: 'UNAUTHORIZED',
+ 402: 'PAYMENT REQUIRED',
+ 403: 'FORBIDDEN',
+ 404: 'NOT FOUND',
+ 405: 'METHOD NOT ALLOWED',
+ 406: 'NOT ACCEPTABLE',
+ 407: 'PROXY AUTHENTICATION REQUIRED',
+ 408: 'REQUEST TIMEOUT',
+ 409: 'CONFLICT',
+ 410: 'GONE',
+ 411: 'LENGTH REQUIRED',
+ 412: 'PRECONDITION FAILED',
+ 413: 'REQUEST ENTITY TOO LARGE',
+ 414: 'REQUEST-URI TOO LONG',
+ 415: 'UNSUPPORTED MEDIA TYPE',
+ 416: 'REQUESTED RANGE NOT SATISFIABLE',
+ 417: 'EXPECTATION FAILED',
+ 500: 'INTERNAL SERVER ERROR',
+ 501: 'NOT IMPLEMENTED',
+ 502: 'BAD GATEWAY',
+ 503: 'SERVICE UNAVAILABLE',
+ 504: 'GATEWAY TIMEOUT',
+ 505: 'HTTP VERSION NOT SUPPORTED',
+}
+""" A dict of known HTTP error and status codes """
+
+
+
+ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE = SimpleTemplate("""
+%from bottle import DEBUG, HTTP_CODES, request
+%status_name = HTTP_CODES.get(e.status, 'Unknown').title()
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
+<html>
+ <head>
+ <title>Error {{e.status}}: {{status_name}}</title>
+ <style type="text/css">
+ html {background-color: #eee; font-family: sans;}
+ body {background-color: #fff; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 15px; margin: 15px;}
+ pre {background-color: #eee; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 5px;}
+ </style>
+ </head>
+ <body>
+ <h1>Error {{e.status}}: {{status_name}}</h1>
+ <p>Sorry, the requested URL <tt>{{request.url}}</tt> caused an error:</p>
+ <pre>{{str(e.output)}}</pre>
+ %if DEBUG and e.exception:
+ <h2>Exception:</h2>
+ <pre>{{repr(e.exception)}}</pre>
+ %end
+ %if DEBUG and e.traceback:
+ <h2>Traceback:</h2>
+ <pre>{{e.traceback}}</pre>
+ %end
+ </body>
+</html>
+""")
+""" The HTML template used for error messages """
+
+request = Request()
+""" Whenever a page is requested, the :class:`Bottle` WSGI handler stores
+metadata about the current request into this instance of :class:`Request`.
+It is thread-safe and can be accessed from within handler functions. """
+
+response = Response()
+""" The :class:`Bottle` WSGI handler uses metasata assigned to this instance
+of :class:`Response` to generate the WSGI response. """
+
+local = threading.local()
+""" Thread-local namespace. Not used by Bottle, but could get handy """
+
+# Initialize app stack (create first empty Bottle app)
+# BC: 0.6.4 and needed for run()
+app = default_app = AppStack()
+app.push()
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