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Helpers for defining sequences of constants in Ruby using a Go-like syntax.

Go has quite a nice facility for defining constants derived from a sequential value using a simple and elegant syntax, so I thought I'd steal it for Ruby. Rubyists tend to group constants together in hashes rather than littering their programs with countless constants, so there's a mechanism for that, too.

Although there isn't as strong of a need for sequences of constants in Ruby as there is in other languages such as Go, they are still sometimes required when working with external systems such as databases and web APIs for which Ruby symbols don't map cleanly. For example, a database column might store users' privilege levels as 0, 1, or 2, and it would be useful to define constants that map to those values. Ruby doesn't have a native expression for this construct (other than simply defining them one at a time).

Here's a simple example, written in Go:

type Allergen int

const (
    IgEggs Allergen = 1 << iota // 1 << 0 which is 00000001
    IgChocolate                 // 1 << 1 which is 00000010
    IgNuts                      // 1 << 2 which is 00000100
    IgStrawberries              // 1 << 3 which is 00001000
    IgShellfish                 // 1 << 4 which is 00010000

And here it is in Ruby, using ioughta:

  :IG_EGGS, ->(ioughta) { 1 << ioughta },


Or, perhaps a bit more Rubyishly:

IG = Object.iota_hash(%i[
]) { |i| 1 << i }.freeze

IG[:shellfish] # => 16


Add this line to your application's Gemfile:

gem 'ioughta'

And then execute:

$ bundle

Or install it yourself as:

$ gem install ioughta


Ioughta works just like const and iota do in Go, with only a few minor differences. You must include the module in your program, class, or module in order to start using it. The iterator starts at zero (0) and increments for each constant (or hash key) being defined. A function (any Ruby callable) takes the current iteration as input and returns the value to be assigned. The default function simply returns the iterator, so you can easily create sequences of constants with consecutive integer values:

require 'ioughta'
include Ioughta

Object.ioughta_const(:FOO, :BAR, :QUX)

FOO # => 0
BAR # => 1
QUX # => 2

To skip value(s) in the sequence, use the :_ symbol:

Object.ioughta_const(:_, :FOO, :BAR, :_, :QUX)

FOO # => 1
BAR # => 2
QUX # => 4

As soon as Ioughta sees a lambda (or any Ruby callable), it will start using it to generate future values from the iterator. You can redefine the lambda as many times as you like:

  :A,                   # will use the default lambda  (0 =>   0)
  :B, ->(i) { i * 2 },  # will multiply by two         (1 =>   2)
  :C,                   # will also multiply by two    (2 =>   4)
  :D, ->(j) { j ** 3 }, # will cube                    (3 =>  27)
  :E,                   # will also cube               (4 =>  64)
  :F,                   # cube all the things          (5 => 125)
  :G, ->{ 0.5 }         # will use a simple value      (6 => 0.5)
  :H, proc(&:itself)    # restore the default behavior (7 =>   7)

You can also pass the lambda as the first argument:

Object.ioughta_const ->(i) { 1 << (10 * i) }, %i[_ KiB MiB GiB TiB PiB EiB ZiB YiB]

Or even pass a block, instead of a lambda (it's the Ruby way!):

UNITS = Object.ioughta_hash(%i[_ KB MB GB TB PB EB ZB YB]) { |i| 10 ** (i * 3) }.freeze

If the first argument is a lambda and a block is given, the block will be silently ignored.


The only major feature missing from the Go implementation is the ability to perform parallel assignment in the constant list. We're defining a list of terms, not a list of expressions, so it's not possible to do in Ruby without resourcing to nasty eval tricks. Don't forget to separate your terms with commas and freeze your hash constants!

You've probably noticed that in order to use Ioughta in the top-level namespace, we need to explicitly specify the Object receiver (just like we need to do for #const_set). I didn't want to get too crazy with the monkey-patching and/or method delegation. No such limitation exists when including Ioughta in a module or class, thanks to the available context. Also, if the ioughta_const and ioughta_hash method names are too ugly for you (I don't blame you), they're aliased as iota_const and iota_hash, respectively.

Here is a very contrived and arbitrary example:

require 'ioughta'

module MyFileUtils
  include Ioughta

  iota_const ->(b) { 1 << b }, %i[EXECUTE WRITE READ]
  iota_const ->(b) { 1 << b }, %i[TACKY SETGID SETUID]

  OFFSET = iota_hash(->(d) { d * 3 }, %i[other group user special]).freeze
  MASK = iota_hash(OFFSET.keys) { |_, key| 7 << OFFSET[key] }.freeze

  def self.mask_and_shift(mode, field)
    (mode & MASK[field]) >> OFFSET[field]

MyFileUtils.mask_and_shift(0644, :user) & MyFileUtils::EXECUTE # => 0
MyFileUtils.mask_and_shift(01777, :special) & MyFileUtils::TACKY # => 1

One note on the above: the lambda (or block) can take the "key" at the current iteration as an optional second argument.


After checking out the repo, run bin/setup to install dependencies. Then, run rake spec to run the tests.

To install this gem onto your local machine, run bundle exec rake install. To release a new version, update the version number in version.rb, and then run bundle exec rake release, which will create a git tag for the version, push git commits and tags, and push the .gem file to


Pronounced /aɪ ˈɔtə/, as in the English phrase "Why, I oughta...!"


Bug reports and pull requests are welcome on GitHub at


The gem is available as open source under the terms of the MIT License.


Helpers for defining sequences of constants in Ruby using a Go-like syntax








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