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FAQ: containers and Oracle Database

Can I use setup or startup scripts with the Oracle Database image pulled from the Oracle Container Registry or Docker Hub?

Yes, this feature is supported version 19.3 onwards.

Versions prior to 19.3 available on the Oracle Container Registry, like the Oracle Database 12c Standard Edition 2 and Enterprise Edition images, are not based on any of the Dockerfiles contained in this repository. For such versions, if you require the runtime functionality documented in this repository, you will need to build an image from the appropriate Dockerfile.

How do I change the timezone of my container

As of Docker 17.06-ce, Docker does not yet provide a way to pass down the TZ Unix environment variable from the host to the container. Because of that all containers run in the UTC timezone. If you would like to have your database run in a different timezone you can pass on the TZ environment variable within the docker run command via the -e option. An example would be: docker run ... -e TZ="Europe/Vienna" oracle/database:12.2.0.1-ee. Another option would be to specify two read-only volume mounts: docker run ... -v /etc/timezone:/etc/timezone:ro -v /etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro oracle/database:12.2.0.1-ee. This will synchronize the timezone of the the container with that of the Docker host.

Can I run Oracle Database containers on Apple M1 (Arm) devices?

Oracle Database 19c Enterprise Edition is now supported on ARM64 platforms. You will have to provide the installation binaries of Oracle Database 19c and put them into the dockerfiles/19.3.0 folder before running the buildContainerImage.sh script.

checkSpace.sh: ERROR - There is not enough space available in the container

This error is thrown when there is no sufficient space available within the container to unzip the install binaries and run the installation of the Oracle database. The container runs the df Unix command, meaning that even if you think there should be enough space, there certainly isn't within the container.

Please make sure that you have enough space available. If you use a storage diver such as overlay2, make sure that the output of docker info shows a Base Device Size: that is bigger than the required space. If not, please change the Base Device Size via the --storage-opt dm.basesize= option for the Docker daemon, see this thread on Docker forums for more information on that. Note: You will have to delete all images afterwards to make sure that the new setting is picked up!

Error: The container doesn't have enough memory allocated. A database XE container needs at least 1 GB of shared memory (/dev/shm)

The default size for /dev/shm is only 64 KB. In order to increase it you have to pass on the --shm-size option to the docker run command. For example: docker run ... --shm-size=1g oracle/database:11.2.0.2-xe

Image build: unzip error: invalid compressed data to inflate

CRC errors by the Unix unzip command during image build can be caused by a lack of sufficient memory for your container. On macOS X it has been proven that running Docker with only 2GB of RAM will cause this error. Increasing the RAM for Docker to 4GB remedies the situation.

"Cannot create directory" error when using volumes

This is a Unix file system permission issue. Docker by default will map the uid inside the container to the outside world. The uid for the oracle user inside the container is 54321 and therefore all files are created with this uid. If you happen to have your volume pointed at a location outside there container where this uid doesn't have any permissions for, the container can't write to it and therefore the database files creation fails. There are several remedies for this situation:

  • Use named volumes
  • Change the ownership of your folder to 54321
  • Change the permissions of your folder so that the uid 54321 has write permissions

If you are running rootless containers (in particular with the Podman container runtime) you also need to take in account the uid remapping from /etc/subuid. Podman users can use podman unshare command to join the user namespace and set permissions. E.g.:

podman unshare chown 54321:54321 ~/data/my_db

Last but not least, if SELinux is enabled, the mapped folder should be properly labeled. If you encounter SELinux permission issues, you can add the :Z flag to the bind mounts.

ORA-00600: internal error code, arguments: [pesldl03_MMap: errno 1 errmsg Operation not permitted], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []

This error happens if you try to use native compilation for PL/SQL but haven't assigned exec rights to /dev/shm. For example, the below would raise the error in such case:

alter session set plsql_code_type='NATIVE';

create or replace procedure test as
begin
   null;
end;
/

Docker, by default, doesn't assign exec rights to /dev/shm which is where the native compiled code is stored and executed. As you don't have execution rights to it, however, you get the error Operation not permitted.

Run the container with -v /dev/shm --tmpfs /dev/shm:rw,exec,size=<yoursize> instead, the important part being the exec in --tmpfs /dev/shm:rw,exec,size=<yoursize>. Also make sure you assign an appropriate size as the default Docker uses is only 64MB. Assigning 1GB or more is recommended.

ORA-12637: Packet receive failed

When initially connecting to your 19c (or higher) database the client may appear to hang and timeout after a few minutes with: ORA-12637: Packet receive failed

Oracle Net 19c will attempt to automatically detect support for Out Of Band breaks and enable or disable the feature. Some network stacks do not correctly handle this and problems have been seen on docker-engine-19.03.1.ol-1.0.0.el7. You may explicitly disable this feature by setting DISABLE_OOB=ON in the client's sqlnet.ora file. By default, Oracle Instant Client for Linux will use /<instant_client_path>/network/admin/sqlnet.ora, $TNS_ADMIN/sqlnet.ora or ~/.sqlnet.ora. For example, you could use:

echo "DISABLE_OOB=ON" >> ~/.sqlnet.ora

For more information on configuring the sqlnet.ora file see Database Net Services Reference, Instant Client Installation for Linux, What is DISABLE_OOB (Out Of Band Break)? (Doc ID 373475.1) and issue #1352.

Python-oracledb

For the Python python-oracledb driver for Oracle Database:

  • for the default Thin mode, pass a parameter disable_oob=True when connecting or creating a connection pool.
  • for Thick mode (and for the legacy cx_Oracle driver) use sqlnet.ora as described previously.

Refer to the module documentation for more information.

ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file

This error occurs when the database cannot find a data file (used for tablespaces) that was previously present. This is most likely because the data file has been located outside the volume in a previous container and was hence not persisted. Ensure that when you add tablespaces and/or data files that they are located within the volume location, i.e. $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/$ORACLE_SID, (e.g. /opt/oracle/oradata/XE).

Running Oracle Database 23c Free on Apple Silicon (ARM) chip

Setup Database

Below are the steps to run Oracle Database 23c Free on Apple Silicon (ARM) machine

  1. Install Podman Lima on Mac

    brew install podman lima

  2. Start a lima instance (vm)

    limactl start --name podman-amd64 --set='.arch = "x86_64" | .memory = "10GiB"' template://podman

    Wait for the VM to boot up. Above command may error out if the VM takes a while to boot up. Ultimately it comes up fine.

  3. Set the address or hostname of the lima container runtime

    export CONTAINER_HOST=unix://Users/$USER/.lima/podman-amd64/sock/podman.sock

  4. Pull the oracle database 23c free image

    podman pull container-registry.oracle.com/database/free:latest

  5. Run the container with the pulled image

    podman run -e ORACLE_PWD=<password> -d -P container-registry.oracle.com/database/free:latest

  6. Check whether the database came up healthy.

    $ podman ps -a
        CONTAINER ID  IMAGE                                               COMMAND               CREATED        STATUS                  PORTS                    NAMES 
        825dcbd3e822  container-registry.oracle.com/database/free:latest  /bin/sh -c exec $...  4 minutes ago  Up 4 minutes (healthy)  0.0.0.0:42439->1521/tcp  hopeful_yalow

Connect

  1. Install sqlplus

    cd $HOME/Downloads

    curl -O https://download.oracle.com/otn_software/mac/instantclient/198000/instantclient-basic-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru.dmg

    curl -O https://download.oracle.com/otn_software/mac/instantclient/198000/instantclient-sqlplus-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru.dmg

    hdiutil mount instantclient-basic-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru.dmg

    hdiutil mount instantclient-sqlplus-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru.dmg

    /Volumes/instantclient-basic-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru/install_ic.sh

    hdiutil unmount /Volumes/instantclient-basic-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru

    hdiutil unmount /Volumes/instantclient-sqlplus-macos.x64-19.8.0.0.0dbru

  2. Test the connection:

    $HOME/Downloads/instantclient_19_8/sqlplus sys@localhost:<PORT>/FREE as sysdba

    $HOME/Downloads/instantclient_19_8/sqlplus system@localhost:<PORT>/FREE

    $HOME/Downloads/instantclient_19_8/sqlplus pdbadmin@localhost:<PORT>/FREEPDB1

    PORT is 42439 in above e.g. (Step 6 output of "podman ps -a").

Alternative (Using SQLcl):

  1. Install Java

  2. Install SQLcl

  3. Test the connection:

    sqlcl/bin/sql sys@localhost:<PORT>/FREE as sysdba

    sqlcl/bin/sql system@localhost:<PORT>/FREE

    sqlcl/bin/sql pdbadmin@localhost:<PORT>/FREEPDB1

    PORT is 42439 in above e.g. (Step 6 output of "podman ps -a").