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Upgrading

The intent of this document is to make migration of breaking changes as easy as possible. Please note that not all breaking changes might be included here. Please check the CHANGELOG.md for a full list of changes before finalizing the upgrade process.

Hassle-free upgrades

Do you want the latest features and patches without work and hassle? Are you looking for a reliable, scalable, and secure deployment with zero effort? We can run it for you! If you're interested, contact us now!

1.0.0-rc.4

This patch requires you to run SQL migrations. No other important changes have been made.

1.0.0-rc.1

This release ships with major scalability and reliability improvements and resolves several bugs.

Schema Changes

Please read all paragraphs of this section with the utmost care, before executing hydra migrate sql. Do not take this change lightly and create a backup of the database before you begin. To be sure, copy the database and do a dry-run locally.

Be aware that running these migrations might take some time when using large databases. Do a dry-run before hammering your production database.

Foreign Keys

In order to keep data consistent across tables, several foreign key constraints have been added between consent, oauth2, client tables. If you are running a large database take enough time to run this migration - it might take a while depending on the amount of data and the database version and driver. Before executing this migration, you should manually check and remove inconsistent data.

Removing inconsistent oauth2 data

This migration automatically removes inconsistent OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect data. Possible impacts are:

  1. Existing authorize codes, access, refresh tokens might be invalidated (all flows, including PKCE and OpenID Connect)

As OAuth 2.0 clients are generally capable of handling re-authorization, this should not have a serious impact. Removing this data increases security through strong consistency. The following data-altering statements will be executed:

-- First we need to delete all rows that point to a non-existing oauth2 client.
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_access WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_access.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_refresh WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_refresh.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_code WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_code.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_oidc WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_oidc.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_pkce WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_pkce.client_id = hydra_client.id);

-- request_id is a 40 varchar in the referenced table which is why we are resizing
-- 1. We must remove request_ids longer than 40 chars. This should never happen as we've never issued them longer than this
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_access WHERE LENGTH(request_id) > 40;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_refresh WHERE LENGTH(request_id) > 40;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_code WHERE LENGTH(request_id) > 40;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_oidc WHERE LENGTH(request_id) > 40;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_pkce WHERE LENGTH(request_id) > 40;

-- 2. Next we're actually resizing
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_access ALTER COLUMN request_id TYPE varchar(40);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_refresh ALTER COLUMN request_id TYPE varchar(40);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_code ALTER COLUMN request_id TYPE varchar(40);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_oidc ALTER COLUMN request_id TYPE varchar(40);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_pkce ALTER COLUMN request_id TYPE varchar(40);

-- In preparation for creating the client_id index and foreign key, we must set it to varchar(255) which is also
-- the length of hydra_client.id
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_access WHERE LENGTH(client_id) > 255;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_refresh WHERE LENGTH(client_id) > 255;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_code WHERE LENGTH(client_id) > 255;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_oidc WHERE LENGTH(client_id) > 255;
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_pkce WHERE LENGTH(client_id) > 255;
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_access ALTER COLUMN client_id TYPE varchar(255);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_refresh ALTER COLUMN client_id TYPE varchar(255);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_code ALTER COLUMN client_id TYPE varchar(255);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_oidc ALTER COLUMN client_id TYPE varchar(255);
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_pkce ALTER COLUMN client_id TYPE varchar(255);
Removing inconsistent login & consent data

This migration automatically removes inconsistent login & consent data. Possible impacts are:

  1. Users that set remember to true during login have to re-authenticate.
  2. Users that set remember to true during consent have to re-authorize requested OAuth 2.0 Scope.
  3. Data associated with OAuth 2.0 Clients that have been removed will be deleted.

That is achieved by running the following queries. Make sure you understand what these queries do and what impact they may have on your system before executing hydra migrate sql:

-- This can be null when no previous login session exists, so let's remove default
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_authentication_request ALTER COLUMN login_session_id DROP DEFAULT;

-- This can be null when no previous login session exists or if that session has been removed, so let's remove default
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_consent_request ALTER COLUMN login_session_id DROP DEFAULT;

-- This can be null when the login_challenge was deleted (should not delete the consent itself)
ALTER TABLE hydra_oauth2_consent_request ALTER COLUMN login_challenge DROP DEFAULT;

-- Consent requests that point to an empty or invalid login request should set their login_challenge to NULL
UPDATE hydra_oauth2_consent_request SET login_challenge = NULL WHERE NOT EXISTS (
  SELECT 1 FROM hydra_oauth2_authentication_request WHERE hydra_oauth2_consent_request.login_challenge = hydra_oauth2_authentication_request.challenge
);

-- Consent requests that point to an empty or invalid login session should set their login_session_id to NULL
UPDATE hydra_oauth2_consent_request SET login_session_id = NULL WHERE NOT EXISTS (
  SELECT 1 FROM hydra_oauth2_authentication_session WHERE hydra_oauth2_consent_request.login_session_id = hydra_oauth2_authentication_session.id
);

-- Login requests that point to a login session that no longer exists (or was never set in the first place) should set that to NULL
UPDATE hydra_oauth2_authentication_request SET login_session_id = NULL WHERE NOT EXISTS (
  SELECT 1 FROM hydra_oauth2_authentication_session WHERE hydra_oauth2_authentication_request.login_session_id = hydra_oauth2_authentication_session.id
);

-- Login, consent, obfuscated sessions that point to a client which no longer exists must be deleted
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_authentication_request WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_authentication_request.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_consent_request WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_consent_request.client_id = hydra_client.id);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_obfuscated_authentication_session WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_client WHERE hydra_oauth2_obfuscated_authentication_session.client_id = hydra_client.id);

-- Handled login and consent requests which point to a consent/login request that no longer exists must be deleted
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_consent_request_handled WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_oauth2_consent_request WHERE hydra_oauth2_consent_request_handled.challenge = hydra_oauth2_consent_request.challenge);
DELETE FROM hydra_oauth2_authentication_request_handled WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM hydra_oauth2_consent_request WHERE hydra_oauth2_authentication_request_handled.challenge = hydra_oauth2_consent_request.challenge);

Be aware that some queries might cascade and remove other data to. One such example is checking hydra_oauth2_consent_request for rows that have no associated login_challenge. If such a row is removed, the associated hydra_oauth2_consent_request_handled is removed as well.

Indices

Several indices have been added which should resolve table locking when searching in large data sets.

Non-breaking Changes

Access Token Audience

This patch adds the access token audience feature. For more information on this, head over to the docs.

Refresh Grant

Previously, the refresh grant did not check whether a client's allowed scope or audience changed. This has now been added. If an OAuth 2.0 Client performs the refresh flow but the requested token includes a scope which has not been whitelisted at the client, the flow will fail and no refresh token will be granted.

Customise login and consent flow timeout

You can now set the login and consent flow timeout using environment variable LOGIN_CONSENT_REQUEST_LIFESPAN.

Breaking Changes

Refresh Token Expiry

All refresh tokens issued with this release will expire after 30 days of non-use. This behaviour can be modified using the REFRESH_TOKEN_LIFESPAN environment variable. By setting REFRESH_TOKEN_LIFESPAN=-1, refresh tokens are set to never expire, which is the previous behaviour.

Tokens issued before this change will still be valid forever.

We discourage setting REFRESH_TOKEN_LIFESPAN=-1 as it might clog the database with tokens that will never be used again. In high-scale systems, REFRESH_TOKEN_LIFESPAN should be set to something like 15 or 30 days.

Swagger & SDK Restructuring

To better represent the public and admin endpoint, previous swagger tags (like oAuth2, jwks, ...) have been deprecated in favor of tags public and admin. This has different impacts for the different code-generated client libraries.

Go

If you use the hydra.SDK interface only and the hydra.NewSDK() factory, everything will work as before. If you rely on e.g. hydra.NewOAuth2Api(), you will be affected by this change.

Others

All method signatures stayed the same, but the factory names for instantiating the SDK client have changed. For example, hydra.NewOAuth2Api() is now hydra.NewAdminApi() and hydra.NewPublicApi() - depending on which endpoints you need to interact with.

JSON Web Token formatted Access Token data

Previously, extra fields coming from session.access_token where directly embedded in the OAuth 2.0 Access Token when the JSON Web Token strategy was used. However, the token introspection response returned the extra data as a field ext: {...}.

In order to have a streamlined experience, session data is from now on stored in a field ext: {...} for Access Tokens formatted as JSON Web Tokens.

This change does not impact the opaque strategy, which is the default one.

CLI Changes

Flags https-tls-key-path and https-tls-cert-path have been removed from the hydra serve * commands. Use environment variables HTTPS_TLS_CERT_PATH and HTTPS_TLS_KEY_PATH instead.

API Changes

Endpoint /health/status, which redirected to /health/alive was deprecated and has been removed.

1.0.0-beta.9

CORS is disabled by default

A new environment variable CORS_ENABLED was introduced. It sets whether CORS is enabled ("true") or not ("false")". Default is disabled.

1.0.0-beta.8

Schema Changes

This patch introduces some minor database schema changes. Before you apply it, you must run hydra migrate sql against your database.

Split of Public and Administrative Endpoints

Previously, all endpoints were exposed at one port. Since access control was removed with version 1.0.0, administrative endpoints (JWKs management, OAuth 2.0 Client Management, Login & Consent Management) were exposed and had to be secured with sophisticated set ups using, for example, an API gateway to control which endpoints can be accessed by whom.

This version introduces a new port (default :4445, configurable using environment variables ADMIN_PORT and ADMIN_POST) which is serves all administrative APIs:

  • All /clients endpoints.
  • All /jwks endpoints.
  • All /health, /metrics, /version endpoints.
  • All /oauth2/auth/requests endpoints.
  • Endpoint /oauth2/introspect.
  • Endpoint /oauth2/flush.

The second port exposes API endpoints generally available to the public (default :4444, configurable using environment variables PUBLIC_PORT and PUBLIC_HOST):

  • ./well-known/jwks.json
  • ./well-known/openid-configuration
  • /oauth2/auth
  • /oauth2/token
  • /oauth2/revoke
  • /oauth2/fallbacks/consent
  • /oauth2/fallbacks/error
  • /userinfo

The simplest way to starting both ports is to run hydra serve. This will start a process which listens on both ports and exposes their respective features. All settings (cors, database, tls, ...) will be shared by both listeners.

To configure each listener differently - for example setting CORS for public but not privileged APIs - you can run hydra serve public and hydra serve admin with different settings. Be aware that this will not work with DATABASE=memory and that both services must use the same secrets.

Golang SDK Configuration.EndpointURL is now Configuration.AdminURL

To reflect the changes made in this patch, the SDK's configuration struct has been updated. Additionally, Configuration.PublicURL has been added in case you need to perform OAuth2 flows with the SDK before accessing the admin endpoints.

hydra serve is now hydra serve all

To reflect the changes of public and administrative ports, command hydra serve is now hydra serve all.

Environment variable HYDRA_URL now is HYDRA_ADMIN_URL for admin commands

CLI Commands like hydra clients ..., hydra keys ..., hydra token flush, hydra token introspect no longer use environment variable HYDRA_URL as default for --endpoint but instead HYDRA_ADMIN_URL.

OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection

Previously, OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection was protected with HTTP Basic Authorization (a valid OAuth 2.0 Client with Client ID and Client Secret was needed) or HTTP Bearer Authorization (a valid OAuth 2.0 Access Token was needed).

As OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection is generally an internal-facing endpoint used by resource servers to validate OAuth 2.0 Access Tokens, this endpoint has moved to the privileged port. The specification does not implore which authorization scheme must be used - it only shows that HTTP Basic/Bearer Authorization may be used. By exposing this endpoint to the privileged port a strong authorization scheme is implemented and no further authorization is needed. Thus, access control was stripped from this endpoint, making integration with other API gateways easier.

You may still choose to export this endpoint to the public internet and implement any access control mechanism you find appropriate.

OAuth 2.0 Client flag public has been removed

Previously, OAuth 2.0 Clients had a flag called public. If set to true, the OAuth 2.0 Client was able to exchange authorize codes for access tokens without a password. This is useful in scenarios where the device can not keep a secret (browser app, mobile app).

Since OpenID Connect Dynamic Discovery was added, this flag collided with the token_endpoint_auth_method. If token_endpoint_auth_method is set to none, then that is equal to setting public to true. To remove this ambiguity the public flag was removed.

If you wish to create a client that runs on an untrusted device (browser app, mobile app), simply set "token_endpoint_auth_method": "none" in the JSON request.

If you are using the ORY Hydra CLI, you can use --token-endpoint-auth-method none to achieve what --is-public did previously.

The SQL migrations will automatically migrate clients that have public set to true by setting token_endpoint_auth_method to none.

1.0.0-beta.7

Regenerated OpenID Connect ID Token cryptographic keys

This patch resolves an issue which caused the migration to fail from beta.4 to beta.5 / beta.6. The reason being that the keys stored in the data store had mismatching kid values if generated by <= beta.5. This patch runs a SQL migration script which removes the old key and then, after booting up ORY Hydra, regenerates it.

To apply this change, please run you must run hydra migrate sql against your database.

1.0.0-beta.5

This patch implements the OpenID Connect Dynamic Client registration specification and thus now supports client authentication via JSON Web Tokens signed with RSA public/private keypairs, alongside HTTP Basic Authorization and sending the client's ID and secret in the POST body.

For more information on this, please refer to the specification.

OAuth 2.0 Client Response Type changes

Previously, when response types such as code token id_token were requested (OpenID Connect Hybrid Flow) it was enough for the client to have response_types=["code", "token", "id_token"]. This is however incompatible with the OpenID Connect Dynamic Client Registration 1.0 spec which dictates that the response_types have to match exactly.

Assuming you are requesting &response_types=code+token+id_token, your client should have response_types=["code token id_token"], if other response types are required (e.g. &response_types=code, &response_types=token) they too must be included: response_types=["code", "token", "code token id_token"].

This will only affect you if you have clients requesting OpenID Connect Hybrid flows where more than one response_type is requested.

Schema Changes

This patch introduces some minor database schema changes. Before you apply it, you must run hydra migrate sql against your database.

HTTP Error Payload

Previously, errors have been returned as nested objects:

{
    "error": {
        "error": "invalid_request"
        // ...
    }
}

while other endpoints, specifically those under OAuth 2.0 / OpenID Connect returned them without nesting:

{
    "error": "invalid_request"
    // ...
}

This patch updates all error responses and formats them coherently as across all APIs:

{
    "error": "invalid_request"
    // ...
}

OAuth 2.0 Clients must specify correct token_endpoint_auth_method

With support for the OpenID Connect Dynamic Discovery specification, a new field has been added to the OAuth 2.0 Client's metadata which is token_endpoint_auth_method. The token_endpoint_auth_method specifies which authentication methods the client can use at the token, introspection, and revocation endpoint.

The default value for this method is client_secret_basic which uses the Basic HTTP Authorization scheme. If your client uses the POST body to perform authentication, this value must be changed to client_secret_post

OAuth 2.0 Client field id is now client_id

The OpenID Connect Dynamic Client Registration 1.0 spec formulates that the client's ID should be sent as field client_id. Until now, the id was sent as field id. This release changes that. For example, what was previously

$ curl http://hydra/clients/my-client

{
    "id": "my-client",
    // ...
}

is now

$ curl http://hydra/clients/my-client

{
    "client_id": "my-client",
    // ...
}

For now, the id field will still be returned, but is marked deprecated and will be removed in future releases.

1.0.0-beta.1

This section summarizes important changes introduced in 1.0.0. Follow it chronologically to ensure a proper migration.

We are very well aware that the changelist is huge and we try to prepare you as good as we can to migrate to this version. We also understand that breaking changes are frustrating and it takes time to adopt to them. We sincerely hope that the benefits from this version (improved consent flow, easier set up, clear boundaries & responsibilities) outweigh the hassle of upgrading to the new version.

If you have difficulties upgrading and would like a helping hand, reach out to us at mailto:hi@ory.sh and we will help you with the upgrade process. Our services are billed by the hour and are priced fairly.

Upgrading from versions v0.9.x

This is a (potentially incomplete) summary of what needs to be done to upgrade from versions of the 0.9.x branch, which are still common. As always, try this with a staging environment first and create back ups. Never run this directly in production unless you are 100% sure everything works:

  1. Get the latest ORY Hydra binary or docker image from the 1.0.0 branch.
  2. Run $ export DATABASE_URL=<your-database-url>.
  3. If you want to keep using Access Control Policies and the Warden API, you must install ORY Keto using the binaries or the docker image:
    1. $ keto migrate hydra $DATABASE_URL.
    2. $ keto migrate sql $DATABASE_URL.
    3. Read how to update the JWK storage: AES-GCM nonce storage. If you only use auto-generated keys and have never used POST or PUT on the /keys API, you can probably just execute a DELETE FROM hydra_jwk to just remove all the auto-generated keys. When starting the ORY Hydra 1.0.0 CLI the required keys will be re-generated automatically.
    4. $ hydra migrate sql $DATABASE_URL.
  4. If you don't use Access Control Policies nor the Warden API, you can skip ORY Keto:
    1. Read how to update the JWK storage: AES-GCM nonce storage and read point 3.3 of this list.
    2. $ hydra migrate sql $DATABASE_URL.
  5. $ export SCOPE_STRATEGY=DEPRECATED_HIERARCHICAL_SCOPE_STRATEGY - this will set the scope strategy to the old scope strategy used in version 0.9.x. If you set this, you don't need to update the scopes your OAuth 2.0 Clients are allowed to request.
  6. $ hydra help serve.
  7. $ hydra serve --your-flags.

It's still a good idea to read through the changes in 0.10.0, for example: Response payload changes to /warden/token/allowed. You can, however, skip the New consent flow subsection in the 0.10.0 section. All required changes are explained in detail in this release's consent flow description.

OpenID Connect Certified

ORY Hydra is now OpenID Connect Certified! Certification spans the OAuth 2.0 Authorize Code Flow, Implicit Flow, and Hybrid Flow as well as dynamic discovery.

The certification is one reason for the breaking changes in the consent app.

Breaking Changes

Introspection API

One change has been made to the introspection API which is that key aud is no longer a string, but an array of strings. As this claim has not been supported actively up until now, this will most likely not affect you at all.

Introspection is now capable of introspecting refresh tokens

Previously, we disabled the introspection of refresh tokens. This has now changed to comply with the OAuth 2.0 specification. To distinguish tokens, use the token_type in the introspection response. It can either be access_token or refresh_token.

Access Control & Warden API

Internal access control, access control policies, and the Warden API have moved to a separate project called ORY Keto. You will be able to run a combination of ORY Hydra, ORY Oathkeeper, and ORY Keto which will be backwards compatible with ORY Hydra before the 1.0.0 release. This section explains how to upgrade and links to an example explaining the set up of the three services.

This means that ORY Hydra has no longer any type of internal access control. Endpoints such as POST /clients no longer require access tokens to be accessed. You must secure these endpoints yourself. For more information, click here.

ORY Keto handles access control using access control policies. The project currently supports the Warden API, Access Control Policy management, and Roles (previously known as Warden Groups). ORY Keto is independent from ORY Hydra as it does not rely on any proprietary APIs but instead uses open standards such as OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection and the OAuth 2.0 Client Credentials Grant to authenticate credentials. ORY Keto can be used as a standalone project, and might even be used with other OAuth 2.0 providers, opening up tons of possible use cases and scenarios. To learn more about the project, head over to github.com/ory/keto.

Assuming that you have the 1.0.0 release binary of ORY Hydra and ORY Keto locally installed, you can migrate the existing policies and Warden Groups using the migrate commands. Please back up your database before doing this:

$ export DATABASE_URL=<your-database-url>

# Migrate the policies and warden groups to keto
$ keto migrate hydra $DATABASE_URL

# Create other Keto database schemas
$ keto migrate sql $DATABASE_URL

# Run Hydra migrations
$ hydra migrate sql $DATABASE_URL

Now you can run keto serve and endpoints /policies as well as /warden will be available at ORY Keto's URL.

Running the backwards compatible set up

We have set up a docker-compose example of a set up that resembles ORY Hydra prior to this release. You can find the source and documentation at github.com/ory/examples.

If you find it difficult to run this set up but would like to use the old access control mechanisms, feel free to reach out to us at mailto:hi@ory.sh.

Warden API

The Warden endpoints have moved to a new project. Thus, obviously, the URL changes too. The Warden API paths have changed as well:

  • /warden/allowed is now /warden/subjects/authorize
  • /warden/token/allowed is now /warden/oauth2/access-tokens/authorize
  • /warden/oauth2/clients/authorize is a new endpoint that lets you authorize OAuth 2.0 Clients using their ID and secret.

The backwards compatible set up properly forwards the old paths. If you use that image and you have been using http://my-hydra/warden/token/allowed previously, you can still use that URL to access that functionality if the backwards-compatible image is hosted at that location. This image does, however, currently not rewrite the request and response payloads. If you think that's a good idea, let us know.

The request payload of these endpoints has changed:

  • /warden/token/allowed - only key scopes was renamed to scope in order to have a coherent API with any OAuth 2.0 endpoints which use the scope for singular and plural:
    • Key scopes is now scope - a response body is { "token": "...", "action": "...", "resource": "...", "scope": ["scope-a", "scope-b"] } instead of (previously) { "token": "...", "action": "...", "resource": "...", "scopes": ["scope-a", "scope-b"] }.

All other endpoints have not experienced any request payload changes.

The response payload of these endpoints has changed:

  • /warden/token/allowed - keys have been changed to conform to the OAuth 2.0 Introspection response payload and offer a coherent API.
    • Key grantedScopes is now scope and is no longer an array string but rather a space-delimited string ("scope-a scope-b").
    • Key clientId is now client_id.
    • Key issuedAt is now iat.
    • Key expires_at is now exp.
    • Key subject is now sub.
    • Key accessTokenExtra is now session and might be omitted if the OAuth 2.0 Introspection Endpoint does not provide session data.
    • Key aud ("audience") has been added as a string array.
    • Key iss ("issuer") has been added.
    • Key nbf ("not before") has been added.

We are aware that these changes are rather serious, especially if you rely on the Warden API in each of your endpoints. If you have ideas on how to improve upgrading or offer a backwards compatible API, please open an issue and let us know.

All other endpoints have not experienced any response payload changes.

Warden Groups

Warden Groups have been an experiment determined to simplify managing multiple subjects with the same access rights. In ORY Keto, Warden Groups have been renamed to Roles and the endpoint has moved from /warden/groups to /roles. No request or response payloads have changed, only the URL is a different one.

If you use the backwards-compatible image, you can access roles using the /warden/groups path as you did before.

jwk: Forces JWK to have a unique ID

Previously, JSON Web Keys did not have to specify a unique id. JWKs generated by ORY Hydra typically only used public or private as KeyID. This patch changes that and appends a unique id if no KeyID was given. To be able to separate between public and private key pairs in resource name, the public/private convention was kept.

This change targets specifically the OpenID Connect ID Token and HTTP TLS keys. The ID Token key was previously "hydra.openid.id-token:public" and "hydra.openid.id-token:private" which now changed to something like "hydra.openid.id-token:public:9a458aa3-65a0-4982-835f-343eec45183c" and "hydra.openid.id-token:private:fa353995-d77d-420a-b967-63bf0721271b" with the UUID part being random for every installation.

This change will help greatly with key rotation in the future.

If you rely on these keys in your applications and if they are hardcoded in some way, you may want to use the /.well-known/openid-configuration or /.well-known/jwks.json endpoints instead. Libraries, which handle these standards appropriately, exist for almost any programming language.

These keys will be generated automatically if they do not exist yet in the database. No further steps for upgrading are required.

Consent Flow

The consent flow has been refactored in order to implement session (login & consent) management in ORY Hydra and in order to properly support OpenID Connect parameters such as prompt, max_age, and others.

First, the consent flow has been renamed to "User Login and Consent Flow". The consent app has been renamed to User Login Provider and User Consent Provider. If you implement both features (explained in the next sections) in one program, you can call it the User Login and Consent Provider.

A reference implementation of the new User Login and Consent Provider is available at github.com/ory/hydra-login-consent-node.

The major difference between the old and new flow is, that authentication (user login) and scope authorization (user consent) are now two separate endpoints.

The new User Login and Consent Flow is documented in the developer guide.

Changes to the CLI

The CLI has changed in order to improve developer experience and adopt to the changes made with this release.

hydra host

The command hydra host has been renamed to hydra serve as projects ORY Oathkeeper and ORY Keto use the serve terminology as well.

Because this patch removes the internal access control, no root client and root policy will be created upon start up. Thus, environment variable FORCE_ROOT_CLIENT_CREDENTIALS has been removed without replacement.

To better reflect what environment variables touch which system, ISSUER has been renamed to OAUTH2_ISSUER_URL and CONSENT_URL has been renamed to OAUTH2_CONSENT_URL.

Additionally, flag --dangerous-force-auto-logon has been removed it has no effect any more.

hydra connect

The command hydra connect has been removed as it no longer serves a purpose now that the internal access control has been removed. Every command you call now needs the environment variable HYDRA_URL (previously named CLUSTER_URL) which should point to ORY Hydra's URL. Removing this command has an additional benefit - privileged client IDs and secrets will no longer be stored in a plaintext file on your system if you use this command.

As access control has been removed, most commands (except token user, token client, token revoke, token introspect) work without supplying any credentials at all. The listed exceptions support setting an OAuth 2.0 Client ID and Client Secret using flags --client-id and --client-secret or environment variables OAUTH2_CLIENT_ID and OAUTH2_CLIENT_SECRET.

All other commands, such as hydra clients create, still support scenarios where you would need an OAuth2 Access Token. In those cases, you can supply the access token using flag --access-token or environment variable OAUTH2_ACCESS_TOKEN. Assuming that you would like to automate management in a protected scenario, you could do something like this:

$ token=$(hydra token client --client-id foo --client-secret bar --endpoint http://foobar)
$ hydra clients create --access-token $token ...

All commands now support the --endpoint flag which sets the HYDRA_URL in case you don't want to use environment variables.

hydra token user

Flags --id and --secret are now called --client-id and --client-secret.

hydra token client

Flags --client-id and --client-secret have been added.

Flag --scopes has been renamed to --scope.

hydra token validate

This command has been renamed to hydra token introspect to properly reflect that you are performing OAuth 2.0 Token Introspection.

Flags --client-id and --client-secret have been added.

Flag --scopes has been renamed to --scope.

hydra clients create

As OAuth 2.0 specifies that terminology scope does not have a plural scopes, we updated the places where the incorrect scopes was used in order to provide a more consistent developer experience.

This command renamed flag --allowed-scopes to --scope.

hydra migrate ladon

This command is a relict of an old version of ORY Hydra which is, according to our metrics, not being used any more.

hydra policies

This command has moved to Keto. All commands work the same way, but you have to have Keto installed and replace hydra with keto. For example hydra policies create ... is now keto policies create ...

hydra groups

This command has moved to Keto. All commands work the same way, but you have to have Keto installed and replace hydra groups with keto roles. For example hydra groups create ... is now keto roles create ...

SDK

As the SDK is code-generated, and we are not specialists in every language, we have only documented changes to the Go API. Please help improving this section by adding upgrade guides for the SDK you upgraded.

The following methods have been moved.

  • The Access Control Policy SDK has moved to ORY Keto:
    • CreatePolicy(body swagger.Policy) (*swagger.Policy, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto. The method signature has not changed, apart from types github.com/ory/hydra/sdk/go/hydra/swagger now being included from github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto/swagger.
    • DeletePolicy(id string) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto. The method signature has not changed, apart from types github.com/ory/hydra/sdk/go/hydra/swagger now being included from github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto/swagger.
    • GetPolicy(id string) (*swagger.Policy, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto. The method signature has not changed, apart from types github.com/ory/hydra/sdk/go/hydra/swagger now being included from github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto/swagger.
    • ListPolicies(offset int64, limit int64) ([]swagger.Policy, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto. The method signature has not changed, apart from types github.com/ory/hydra/sdk/go/hydra/swagger now being included from github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto/swagger.
    • UpdatePolicy(id string, body swagger.Policy) (*swagger.Policy, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto. The method signature has not changed, apart from types github.com/ory/hydra/sdk/go/hydra/swagger now being included from github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto/swagger.
  • The Warden Group SDK has moved to Keto:
    • AddMembersToGroup(id string, body swagger.GroupMembers) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) is now AddMembersToRole(id string, body swagger.RoleMembers) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
    • CreateGroup(body swagger.Group) (*swagger.Group, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now CreateRole(body swagger.Role) (*swagger.Role, *swagger.APIResponse, error and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
    • DeleteGroup(id string) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) is now DeleteRole(id string) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
    • ListGroups(member string, limit, offset int64) ([]swagger.Group, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now ListRoles(member string, limit int64, offset int64) ([]swagger.Role, *swagger.APIResponse, error) and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
    • GetGroup(id string) (*swagger.Group, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now GetRole(id string) (*swagger.Role, *swagger.APIResponse, error) and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
    • RemoveMembersFromGroup(id string, body swagger.GroupMembers) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) is now RemoveMembersFromRole(id string, body swagger.RoleMembers) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) and is now available via github.com/ory/keto/sdk/go/keto.
  • The Warden API SDK has moved to Keto:
    • DoesWardenAllowAccessRequest(body swagger.WardenAccessRequest) (*swagger.WardenAccessRequestResponse, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now IsSubjectAuthorized(body swagger.WardenSubjectAuthorizationRequest) (*swagger.WardenSubjectAuthorizationResponse, *swagger.APIResponse, error). Please check out the changes to the request/response body as well.
    • DoesWardenAllowTokenAccessRequest(body swagger.WardenTokenAccessRequest) (*swagger.WardenTokenAccessRequestResponse, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now IsOAuth2AccessTokenAuthorized(body swagger.WardenOAuth2AccessTokenAuthorizationRequest) (*swagger.WardenOAuth2AccessTokenAuthorizationResponse, *swagger.APIResponse, error). Please check out the changes to the request/response body as well.
  • The Consent API SDK has been deprecated:
    • AcceptOAuth2ConsentRequest(id string, body swagger.ConsentRequestAcceptance) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) has been removed without replacement.
    • GetOAuth2ConsentRequest(id string) (*swagger.OAuth2ConsentRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error) has been removed without replacement.
    • RejectOAuth2ConsentRequest(id string, body swagger.ConsentRequestRejection) (*swagger.APIResponse, error) has been removed without replacement.
  • The Login & Consent API SDK has been added:
    • AcceptConsentRequest(challenge string, body swagger.AcceptConsentRequest) (*swagger.CompletedRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)
    • AcceptLoginRequest(challenge string, body swagger.AcceptLoginRequest) (*swagger.CompletedRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)
    • RejectConsentRequest(challenge string, body swagger.RejectRequest) (*swagger.CompletedRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)
    • RejectLoginRequest(challenge string, body swagger.RejectRequest) (*swagger.CompletedRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)
    • GetLoginRequest(challenge string) (*swagger.LoginRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)
    • GetConsentRequest(challenge string) (*swagger.ConsentRequest, *swagger.APIResponse, error)

Additionally, the following methods have been removed as they were of very little use and also mixed the Client Credentials flow with the Authorize Code Flow which lead to weird usage. It's much easier to configure clientcredentials.Config or oauth2.Config yourself.

  • GetOAuth2ClientConfig() (*clientcredentials.Config)
  • GetOAuth2Config() (*oauth2.Config)

Improvements

Health Check endpoint has moved

The health check endpoint has moved from /health/status to /health/alive. We set up a 308 redirect from /health/status to /health/alive so this should not cause any issues.

The /health/alive endpoint returns 200 OK as soon as the HTTP server is responsive. Another endpoint /health/ready was added which returns 200 OK only if the database connection is working as well.

As part of this change, function getInstanceStatus of the SDK is now isInstanceAlive and isInstanceReady.

Unknown request body payloads result in error

Previously, if you had a typo in the JSON (e.g. client_nme instead of client_name), ORY Hydra simply ignored that key. Now, an error is thrown if unknown JSON keys are included.

UTC everywhere

ORY Hydra now uses UTC everywhere, reducing the possibility of errors stemming from different timezones.

Pagination everywhere

Each endpoint that returns a list of items now supports pagination using limit and offset query parameters.

Flushing old access tokens

An endpoint (/oauth2/flush) has been added that allows you to flush old access tokens.

Prometheus endpoint

An endpoint /health/prometheus for providing data to Prometheus has been added.

0.11.12

This release resolves a security issue (reported by platform.sh) related to the fosite storage implementation in this project. Fosite used to pass all of the request body from both authorize and token endpoints to the storage adapters. As some of these values are needed in consecutive requests, the storage adapter of this project chose to drop all of the key/value pairs to the database in plaintext.

This implied that confidential parameters, such as the client_secret which can be passed in the request body since fosite version 0.15.0, were stored as key/value pairs in plaintext in the database. While most client secrets are generated programmatically (as opposed to set by the user) and most popular OAuth2 providers choose to store the secret in plaintext for later retrieval, we see it as a considerable security issue nonetheless.

The issue has been resolved by sanitizing the request body and only including those values truly required by their respective handlers. This also implies that typos (eg client_secet) won't "leak" to the database.

There are no special upgrade paths required for this version.

This issue does not apply to you if you do not use an SQL backend. If you do upgrade to this version, you need to run hydra migrate sql path://to.your/database.

If your users use POST body client authentication, it might be a good move to remove old data. There are multiple ways of doing that. Back up your data before you do this:

  1. Radical solution: Drop all rows from tables hydra_oauth2_refresh, hydra_oauth2_access, hydra_oauth2_oidc, hydra_oauth2_code. This implies that all your users have to re-authorize.
  2. Sensitive solution: Replace all values in column form_data in tables hydra_oauth2_refresh, hydra_oauth2_access with an empty string. This will keep all authorization sessions alive. Tables hydra_oauth2_oidc and hydra_oauth2_code do not contain sensitive information, unless your users accidentally sent the client_secret to the /oauth2/auth endpoint.

We would like to thank platform.sh for sponsoring the development of a patch that resolves this issue.

0.11.3

The experimental endpoint /health/metrics has been removed as it caused various issues such as increased memory usage, and it was apparently not used at all.

0.11.0

This release has a minor breaking change in the experimental Warden Group SDK: FindGroupsByMember(member string) ([]swagger.Group, *swagger.APIResponse, error) is now ListGroups(member string, limit, offset int64) ([]swagger.Group, *swagger.APIResponse, error). The change has to be applied in a similar fashion to other SDKs generated using swagger.

Leave the member parameter empty to list all groups, and add it to filter groups by member id.

0.10.0

This release has several major improvements, and some breaking changes. It focuses on cryptographic security by leveraging best practices that emerged within the last one and a half years. Before upgrading to this version, make a back up of the JWK table in your SQL database.

This release requires running hydra migrate sql before hydra host.

The most important breaking changes are the SDK libraries, the new consent flow, the AES-GCM improvement, and the response payload changes to the warden.

We know that these are a lot of changes, but we highly recommend upgrading to this version. It will be the last before releasing 1.0.0.

Breaking Changes

Introspection now requires authorization

The introspection endpoint was previously accessible to anyone with valid client credentials or a valid access token. According to spec, the introspection endpoint should be protected by additional access control mechanisms. This version introduces new access control requirements for this endpoint.

The client id of the basic authorization / subject of the bearer token must be allowed action introspect on resource rn:hydra:oauth2:tokens. If an access token is used for authorization, it needs to be granted the hydra.introspect scope.

New consent flow

Previously, the consent flow looked roughly like this:

  1. App asks user for Authorization by generating the authorization URL (http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/auth?client_id=...).
  2. Hydra asks browser of user for authentication by redirecting to the Consent App with a consent challenge (http://login.mydomain.com/login?challenge=xYt...).
  3. Retrieves a RSA 256 public key from Hydra.
  4. Uses said public key to verify the consent challenge.
  5. User logs in and authorizes the requested scopes
  6. Consent app generates the consent response
  7. Retrieves a private key from Hydra which is used to sign the consent response.
  8. Creates a response message and sign with said private key.
  9. Redirects the browser back to Hydra, appending the consent response (http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/auth?client_id=...&consent=zxI...).
  10. Hydra validates consent response and generates access tokens, authorize codes, refresh tokens, and id tokens.

This approach had several disadvantages:

  1. Validating and generating the JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) requires libraries for each language
  2. Because libraries are required, auto generating SDKs from the swagger spec is impossible. Thus, every language requires a maintained SDK which significantly increases our workload.
  3. There have been at least two major bugs affecting almost all JWT libraries for any language. The spec has been criticised for it's mushy language.
  4. The private key used by the consent app for signing consent responses was originally thought to be stored at the consent app, not in Hydra. However, since Hydra offers JWK storage, it was decided to use the Hydra JWK store per default for retrieval of the private key to improve developer experience. However, to make really sense, the private key should have been stored at the consent app, not in Hydra.
  5. Private/Public keypairs need to be fetched on every request or cached in a way that allows for key rotation, complicating the consent app.
  6. There is currently no good mechanism for rotating JWKs in Hydra's storage.
  7. The consent challenge / response has a limited length as it's transmitted via the URL query. The length of a URL is limited.

Due to these reasons we decided to refactor the consent flow. Instead of relying on JWTs using RSA256, a simple HTTP call is now enough to confirm a consent request:

  1. App asks user for Authorization by generating the authorization URL (http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/auth?client_id=...).
  2. Hydra asks browser of user for authentication by redirecting to the Consent App with a unique consent request id (http://login.mydomain.com/login?consent=fjad2312).
  3. Consent app makes a HTTP REST request to http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/consent/requests/fjad2312 and retrieves information on the authorization request.
  4. User logs in and authorizes the requested scopes
  5. Consent app accepts or denies the consent request by making a HTTP REST request to http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/consent/requests/fjad2312/accept or http://hydra.mydomain.com/oauth2/consent/requests/fjad2312/reject.
  6. Redirects the browser back to Hydra.
  7. Hydra validates consent request by checking if it was accepted and generates access tokens, authorize codes, refresh tokens, and id tokens.

Learn more on how the new consent flow works in the guide: https://ory.gitbooks.io/hydra/content/oauth2.html#consent-flow

Audience

Previously, the audience terminology was used as a synonym for OAuth2 client IDs. This is no longer the case. The audience is typically a URL identifying the endpoint(s) the token is intended for. For example, if a client requires access to endpoint http://mydomain.com/users, then the audience would be http://mydomain.com/users.

This changes the payload of /warden/token/allowed and is incorporated in the new consent flow as well. Please note that it is currently not possible to set the audience of a token. This feature is tracked with here.

IMPORTANT NOTE: In OpenID Connect ID Tokens, the token is issued for that client. Thus, the aud claim must equal to the client_id that initiated the request.

Response payload changes to /warden/token/allowed

Previously, the response of the warden endpoint contained shorthands like aud, iss, and so on. Those have now been changed to their full names:

  • sub is now named subject.
  • scopes is now named grantedScopes.
  • iss is now named issuer.
  • aud is now named clientId.
  • iat is now named issuedAt.
  • exp is now named expiresAt.
  • ext is now named accessTokenExtra.

Go SDK

The Go SDK was completely replaced in favor of a SDK based on swagger-codegen. Unfortunately this means that any code relying on the old SDK has to be replaced. On the bright side the dependency tree is much smaller as no direct dependencies to ORY Hydra's code base exist any more.

Read more on it here: https://ory.gitbooks.io/hydra/content/sdk/go.html

Health endpoints

  • GET /health is now GET /health/status
  • GET /health/stats is now GET /health/metrics

Group endpoints

GET /warden/groups now returns a list of groups, not just a list of strings (group ids).

Replacing hierarchical scope strategy with wildcard scope strategy

The previous scope matching strategy has been replaced in favor of a wildcard-based matching strategy. Previously, foo matched foo and foo.bar and foo.baz. This is no longer the case. So foo matches only foo. Matching subsets is possible using wildcards. foo.* matches foo.bar and foo.baz.

This change makes setting scopes more explicit and is more secure, as it is less likely to make mistakes.

Read more on this strategy here.

To fall back to hierarchical scope matching, set the environment variable SCOPE_STRATEGY=DEPRECATED_HIERARCHICAL_SCOPE_STRATEGY. This feature might be fully removed in a later version.

AES-GCM nonce storage

Our use of crypto/aes's AES-GCM was replaced in favor of cryptopasta/encrypt. As this includes a change of how nonces are appended to the ciphertext, ORY Hydra will be unable to decipher existing databases.

There are two paths to migrate this change:

  1. If you have not added any keys to the JWK store:
    1. Stop all Hydra instances.
    2. Drop all rows from the hydra_jwk table.
    3. Start one Hydra instance and wait for it to boot.
    4. Restart all remaining Hydra instances.
  2. If you added keys to the JWK store:
    1. If you can afford to re-generate those keys:
      1. Write down all key ids you generated.
      2. Stop all Hydra instances.
      3. Drop all rows from the hydra_jwk table.
      4. Start one Hydra instance and wait for it to boot.
      5. Restart all remaining Hydra instances.
      6. Regenerate the keys and use the key ids you wrote down.
    2. If you can not afford to re-generate the keys:
      1. Export said keys using the REST API.
      2. Stop all Hydra instances.
      3. Drop all rows from the hydra_jwk table.
      4. Start one Hydra instance and wait for it to boot.
      5. Restart all remaining Hydra instances.
      6. Import said keys using the REST API.

Minor Breaking Changes

Token signature algorithm changed from HMAC-SHA256 to HMAC-SHA512

The signature algorithm used to generate authorize codes, access tokens, and refresh tokens has been upgraded from HMAC-SHA256 to HMAC-SHA512. With upgrading to alpha.9, all previously issued authorize codes, access tokens, and refresh will thus be rendered invalid. Apart from some re-authorization procedures, which are usually automated, this should not have any significant impact on your installation.

HS256 JWK Generator now uses all 256 bit

The HS256 (symmetric/shared keys) JWK Generator now uses the full 256 bit range to generate secrets instead of a predefined rune sequence. This change only affects keys generated in the future.

ES512 Key generator

The JWK algorithm ES521 was renamed to ES512. If you want to generate a key using this algorithm, you have to use the update name in the future.

Build tags deprecated

This release removes build tags -http, -automigrate, -without-telemetry from the docker hub repository and replaces it with a new and tiny (~6MB) docker image containing the binary only. Please note that this docker image does not have a shell, which makes it harder to penetrate.

Instead of relying on tags to pass arguments, it is now possible to pass command arguments such as docker run oryd/hydra:v0.10.0 host --dangerous-force-http directly.

Version 0.10.8 reintroduces an image with a shell, appended with tag -alpine.

Important Additions

Prefixing Resources Names

It is now possible to alter resource name prefixes (rn:hydra) using the RESOURCE_NAME_PREFIX environment variable.

Refreshing OpenID Connect ID Token using refresh_token grant type

  1. It is now possible to refresh openid connect tokens using the refresh_token grant. An ID Token is issued if the scope openid was requested, and the client is allowed to receive an ID Token.

Important Changes

Telemetry

To improve ORY Hydra and understand how the software is used, optional, anonymized telemetry data is shared with ORY. A change was made to help us understand which telemetry sources belong to the same installation by hashing (SHA256) two environment variables which make up a unique identifier. Click here to read more about how we collect telemetry data, why we do it, and how to enable or disable it.

URL Encoding Root Client Credentials

This release adds the possibility to specify special characters in the FORCE_ROOT_CLIENT_CREDENTIALS by www-url-decoding the values. If you have characters that are not url safe in your root client credentials, please use the following form to specify them: "FORCE_ROOT_CLIENT_CREDENTIALS=urlencode(id):urlencode(secret)".

0.9.0

This version adds performance metrics to /health and sends anonymous usage statistics to our servers, click here for more details on this feature and how to disable it.

0.8.0

This PR improves some performance bottlenecks, offers more control over Hydra, moves to Go 1.8, and moves the REST documentation to swagger.

Before applying this update, please make a back up of your database. Do not upgrade directly from versions below 0.7.0.

To upgrade the database schemas, please run the following commands in exactly this order

$ hydra help migrate sql
$ hydra help migrate ladon
$ hydra migrate sql mysql://...
$ hydra migrate ladon 0.6.0 mysql://...

Breaking changes

Ladon updated to 0.6.0

Ladon was greatly improved with version 0.6.0, resolving various performance bottlenecks. Please read more on this release here.

Redis and RethinkDB deprecated

Redis and RethinkDB are removed from the repository now and no longer supported, see this issue.

Moved to ory namespace

To reflect the GitHub organization rename, Hydra was moved from https://github.com/ory-am/hydra to https://github.com/ory/hydra.

SDK

The method FindPoliciesForSubject of the policy SDK was removed. Instead, List was added. The HTTP endpoint GET /policies no longer allows to query by subject.

JWK

To generate JWKs previously the payload at POST /keys was { "alg": "...", "id": "some-id" }. id was changed to kid so this is now { "alg": "...", "kid": "some-id" }.

Migrations are no longer automatically applied

SQL Migrations are no longer automatically applied. Instead you need to run hydra migrate sql after upgrading to a Hydra version that includes a breaking schema change.

Changes

Log format: json

Set the log format to json using export LOG_FORMAT=json

SQL Connection Control

You can configure SQL connection limits by appending parameters max_conns, max_idle_conns, or max_conn_lifetime to the DSN: postgres://foo:bar@host:port/database?max_conns=12.

REST API Docs are now generated from source code

... and are swagger 2.0 spec.

Documentation on scopes

Documentation on scopes (e.g. offline) was added.

New response writer library

Hydra now uses github.com/ory/herodot for writing REST responses. This increases compatibility with other libraries and resolves a few other issues.

Graceful http handling

Hydra is now capable of gracefully handling SIGINT.

Best practice HTTP server config

Hydra now implements best practices for running HTTP servers that are exposed to the public internet.