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ADTs for typescript

Enables succinct ADT declaration.

In typescript, Algebraic Data Types are encoded using union types with a discriminator field.

Example:

import { ADT } from "ts-adt";

type Option<A> = ADT<{
  some: { value: A };
  none: {};
}>;

This translates to:

type Option<A> = { _type: "some"; value: A } | { _type: "none" };

Here, Option<A> represents a value that can be one of two types; either it's an object with a _type attribute "some" and a value A, or it's an object with _type attribute "none". This type is quite useful, especially when used with Typescript's type narrowing feature:

declare const userImage: Option<string>;

function getUserImage(): string {
  if (userImage._type === "some") {
    return userImage.value; // value is accessible here, since _type is 'some'
  } else {
    return "http://example.com/defaultImage";
  }
}

Pattern matching

Pattern matching is a common usecase when dealing with ADTs. You'll often find yourself in a position where you need to default to certain values depending on what the underlying value is. For this reason, we've included a match and matchI function:

import { ADT, match, matchI } from "ts-adt";

declare const userImage: Option<string>;

const img = matchI(userImage)({
  some: ({ value }) => value,
  none: () => "http://example.com/defaultImage",
});

const img = pipe(
  userImage,
  match({
    some: ({ value }) => value,
    none: () => "http://example.com/defaultImage",
  })
);

Both functions work the same way, but their arguments are ordered differently for better inference in different cases.

Partial Matching

You can also use partial matching if you don't need to match against all possible cases.

Consider if you have an ADT of the shape:

type Xor<A, B> = ADT<{
  nothing: {};
  left: { value: A };
  right: { value: A };
}>;

declare const myXor: Xor<number>;

You can supply an "otherwise" function which gets invoked if the value doesn't match any of the supplied matchers. The otherwise function will be passed a value whose type is the types which weren't matched.

declare const myXor: Xor<number>;

matchPI(promise)({ nothing: () => 0 }, (rest) => {
  // rest inferred as {_type: 'left', value: number } | {_type: 'right', value: number }
  return rest.value;
});

Custom Discriminant field

By default, ADT and the match functions use the _type field as the discriminant. You can build an ADT using a different discriminant field, along with matching match functions by using the utilities in ts-adt/MakeMatch:

import { MakeADT, makeMatchers } from "ts-adt/MakeADT";

type Option<A> = MakeADT<
  "typ",
  {
    some: { value: A };
    none: {};
  }
>; // { typ: 'some', value: A } | { typ: 'none' }

const [match, matchP, matchI, matchPI] = makeMatchers("typ");

You can also use makeMatchers to build matchers for ADTs in other libraries:

import * as O from "fp-ts/Option";

const [match, matchP, matchI, matchPI] = makeMatchers("_tag");

pipe(
  O.fromNullable("value"),
  match({
    None: () => 0,
    Some: (v) => v.value,
  })
);