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An Adaptive Radix Tree Implementation in Go

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This library provides a Go implementation of the Adaptive Radix Tree (ART).


  • Lookup performance surpasses highly tuned alternatives
  • Support for highly efficient insertions and deletions
  • Space efficient
  • Performance is comparable to hash tables
  • Maintains the data in sorted order, which enables additional operations like range scan and prefix lookup
  • O(k) search/insert/delete operations, where k is the length of the key
  • Minimum / Maximum value lookups
  • Ordered iteration
  • Prefix-based iteration
  • Support for keys with null bytes, any byte array could be a key


package main

import (

func main() {

    tree := art.New()

    tree.Insert(art.Key("Hi, I'm Key"), "Nice to meet you, I'm Value")
    value, found := tree.Search(art.Key("Hi, I'm Key"))
    if found {
        fmt.Printf("Search value=%v\n", value)

    tree.ForEach(func(node art.Node) bool {
        fmt.Printf("Callback value=%v\n", node.Value())
        return true

    for it := tree.Iterator(); it.HasNext(); {
        value, _ := it.Next()
        fmt.Printf("Iterator value=%v\n", value.Value())

// Output:
// Search value=Nice to meet you, I'm Value
// Callback value=Nice to meet you, I'm Value
// Iterator value=Nice to meet you, I'm Value


Check out the documentation on


plar/go-adaptive-radix-tree outperforms kellydunn/go-art by avoiding memory allocations during search operations. It also provides prefix based iteration over the tree.

Benchmarks were performed on datasets extracted from different projects:

  • The "Words" dataset contains a list of 235,886 english words. [2]
  • The "UUIDs" dataset contains 100,000 uuids. [2]
  • The "HSK Words" dataset contains 4,995 words. [4]
go-adaptive-radix-tree # Average time Bytes per operation Allocs per operation
Tree Insert Words 9 117,888,698 ns/op 37,942,744 B/op 1,214,541 allocs/op
Tree Search Words 26 44,555,608 ns/op 0 B/op 0 allocs/op
Tree Insert UUIDs 18 59,360,135 ns/op 18,375,723 B/op 485,057 allocs/op
Tree Search UUIDs 54 21,265,931 ns/op 0 B/op 0 allocs/op
Tree Insert Words 5 272,047,975 ns/op 81,628,987 B/op 2,547,316 allocs/op
Tree Search Words 10 129,011,177 ns/op 13,272,278 B/op 1,659,033 allocs/op
Tree Insert UUIDs 10 140,309,246 ns/op 33,678,160 B/op 874,561 allocs/op
Tree Search UUIDs 20 82,120,943 ns/op 3,883,131 B/op 485,391 allocs/op

To see more benchmarks just run

$ make benchmark


[1] The Adaptive Radix Tree: ARTful Indexing for Main-Memory Databases (Specification)

[2] C99 implementation of the Adaptive Radix Tree

[3] Another Adaptive Radix Tree implementation in Go

[4] HSK Words. HSK(Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) - Standardized test of Standard Mandarin Chinese proficiency.