Utilities for interacting with PyPI
Latest commit 46c7132 Aug 8, 2017 @sigmavirus24 sigmavirus24 committed on GitHub Merge pull request #266 from NextThought/issue265
Minimal help string changes for --repository[-url]



Twine is a utility for interacting with PyPI.

Currently it only supports registering projects and uploading distributions.

Why Should I Use This?

The biggest reason to use twine is that it securely authenticates you to PyPI over HTTPS using a verified connection while python setup.py upload only recently stopped using HTTP in Python 2.7.9+ and Python 3.2+. This means anytime you use python setup.py upload with an older Python version, you expose your username and password to being easily sniffed. Twine uses only verified TLS to upload to PyPI protecting your credentials from theft.

Secondly it allows you to precreate your distribution files. python setup.py upload only allows you to upload something that you've created in the same command invocation. This means that you cannot test the exact file you're going to upload to PyPI to ensure that it works before uploading it.

Finally it allows you to pre-sign your files and pass the .asc files into the command line invocation (twine upload twine-1.0.1.tar.gz twine-1.0.1.tar.gz.asc). This enables you to be assured that you're typing your gpg passphrase into gpg itself and not anything else since you will be the one directly executing gpg --detach-sign -a <filename>.


  • Verified HTTPS Connections
  • Uploading doesn't require executing setup.py
  • Uploading files that have already been created, allowing testing of distributions before release
  • Supports uploading any packaging format (including wheels).


$ pip install twine


  1. Create some distributions in the normal way:

    $ python setup.py sdist bdist_wheel
  2. Upload with twine [1]:

    $ twine upload dist/*

    If you see the following error while uploading to PyPI, it probably means you need to register (see step 2):

    $ HTTPError: 403 Client Error: You are not allowed to edit 'xyz' package information
  1. Done!


$ twine upload -h

usage: twine upload [-h] [-r REPOSITORY] [--repository-url REPOSITORY_URL]
                    [-s] [--sign-with SIGN_WITH] [-i IDENTITY] [-u USERNAME]
                    [-p PASSWORD] [-c COMMENT] [--config-file CONFIG_FILE]
                    [--skip-existing] [--cert path] [--client-cert path]
                    dist [dist ...]

positional arguments:
  dist                  The distribution files to upload to the repository,
                        may additionally contain a .asc file to include an
                        existing signature with the file upload

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -r REPOSITORY, --repository REPOSITORY
                        The repository to upload the package to. Should be a
                        section in the config file (default: pypi). (Can also
                        be set via TWINE_REPOSITORY environment variable)
  --repository-url REPOSITORY_URL
                        The repository URL to upload the package to. This
                        overrides --repository.(Can also be set via
                        TWINE_REPOSITORY_URL environment variable.)
  -s, --sign            Sign files to upload using gpg
  --sign-with SIGN_WITH
                        GPG program used to sign uploads (default: gpg)
  -i IDENTITY, --identity IDENTITY
                        GPG identity used to sign files
  -u USERNAME, --username USERNAME
                        The username to authenticate to the repository as (can
                        also be set via TWINE_USERNAME environment variable)
  -p PASSWORD, --password PASSWORD
                        The password to authenticate to the repository with
                        (can also be set via TWINE_PASSWORD environment
  -c COMMENT, --comment COMMENT
                        The comment to include with the distribution file
  --config-file CONFIG_FILE
                        The .pypirc config file to use
  --skip-existing       Continue uploading files if one already exists. (Only
                        valid when uploading to PyPI. Other implementations
                        may not support this.)
  --cert path           Path to alternate CA bundle (can also be set via
                        TWINE_CERT environment variable)
  --client-cert path    Path to SSL client certificate, a single file
                        containing the private key and the certificate in PEM

Environment Variables

Twine also supports configuration via environment variables. Options passed on the command line will take precedence over options set via environment variables. Definition via environment variable is helpful in environments where it is not convenient to create a .pypirc file, such as a CI/build server, for example.

  • TWINE_USERNAME - the username to use for authentication to the repository
  • TWINE_PASSWORD - the password to use for authentication to the repository
  • TWINE_REPOSITORY - the repository configuration, either defined as a section in .pypirc or provided as a full URL
  • TWINE_REPOSITORY_URL - the repository URL to use
  • TWINE_CERT - custom CA certificate to use for repositories with self-signed or untrusted certificates



  1. Fork the repository on GitHub.
  2. Make a branch off of master and commit your changes to it.
  3. Run the tests with tox
    • Either use tox to build against all supported Python versions (if you have them installed) or use tox -e py{version} to test against a specific version, e.g., tox -e py27 or tox -e py34.
    • Always run tox -e pep8
  4. Ensure that your name is added to the end of the AUTHORS file using the format Name <email@domain.com> (url), where the (url) portion is optional.
  5. Submit a Pull Request to the master branch on GitHub.

If you'd like to have a development environment for twine, you should create a virtualenv and then do pip install -e . from within the directory.

Code of Conduct

Everyone interacting in the twine project's codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms, and mailing lists is expected to follow the PyPA Code of Conduct.