Lets you find ActiveRecord + Mongoid objects by year, month, fortnight, week and more!
Ruby

README.md

ByStar

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ByStar (by_*) allows you easily and reliably query ActiveRecord and Mongoid objects based on time.

Examples

   Post.by_year(2013)                           # all posts in 2013
   Post.before(Date.today)                      # all posts for before today
   Post.yesterday                               # all posts for yesterday
   Post.between_times(Time.zone.now - 3.hours,  # all posts in last 3 hours
                      Time.zone.now)
   @post.next                                   # next post after a given post

Installation

Install this gem by adding this to your Gemfile:

gem 'by_star', git: "git://github.com/radar/by_star"

Then run bundle install

If you are using ActiveRecord, you're done!

Mongoid users, please include the Mongoid::ByStar module for each model you wish to use the functionality. This is the convention among Mongoid plugins.

class MyModel
  include Mongoid::Document
  include Mongoid::ByStar

Finder Methods

Base Scopes

ByStar adds the following finder scopes (class methods) to your model to query time ranges. These accept a Date, Time, or DateTime object as an argument, which defaults to Time.zone.now if not specified:

  • between_times(start_time, end_time) - Finds all records occurring between the two given times.
  • before(end_time) - Finds all records occurring before the given time
  • after(start_time) - Finds all records occurring after the given time

between_times supports alternate argument forms:

  • between_times(Range)
  • between_times(Array)
  • between_times(start_time, nil) - same as after(start_time)
  • between_times(nil, end_time) - same as before(end_time)

Time Range Scopes

ByStar adds additional shortcut scopes based on commonly used time ranges. See sections below for detailed argument usage of each:

  • by_day
  • by_week Allows zero-based week value from 0 to 52
  • by_cweek Allows one-based week value from 1 to 53
  • by_weekend Saturday and Sunday only of the given week
  • by_fortnight A two-week period, with the first fortnight of the year beginning on 1st January
  • by_month
  • by_calendar_month Month as it appears on a calendar; days form previous/following months which are part of the first/last weeks of the given month
  • by_quarter 3-month intervals of the year
  • by_year

Relative Scopes

ByStar also adds scopes which are relative to the current time. Note the past_* and next_* methods represent a time distance from current time (Time.zone.now), and do not strictly end/begin evenly on a calendar week/month/year (unlike by_* methods which do.)

  • today Finds all occurrences on today's date
  • yesterday Finds all occurrences on yesterday's date
  • tomorrow Finds all occurrences on tomorrow's date
  • past_day Prior 24-hour period from current time
  • past_week Prior 7-day period from current time
  • past_fortnight Prior 14-day period from current time
  • past_month Prior 30-day period from current time
  • past_year Prior 365-day period from current time
  • next_day Subsequent 24-hour period from current time
  • next_week Subsequent 7-day period from current time
  • next_fortnight Subsequent 14-day period from current time
  • next_month Subsequent 30-day period from current time
  • next_year Subsequent 365-day period from current time

Superlative Finders

Find the oldest or newest records. Returns an object instance (not a relation):

  • newest
  • oldest

Instance Methods

In addition, ByStar adds instance methods to return the next / previous record in the timewise sequence. Returns an object instance (not a relation):

  • object.next
  • object.previous

Kernel Extensions

ByStar extends the kernel Date, Time, and DateTime objects with the following instance methods, which mirror the ActiveSupport methods beginning_of_day, end_of_week, etc:

  • beginning_of_weekend
  • end_of_weekend
  • beginning_of_fortnight
  • end_of_fortnight
  • beginning_of_calendar_month
  • end_of_calendar_month

Lastly, ByStar aliases Rails 3 Date#to_time_in_current_zone to the Rails 4 syntax #in_time_zone, if it has not already been defined.

Usage

Setting the Query Field

By default, ByStar assumes you will use the created_at field to query objects by time. You may specify an alternate field on all query methods as follows:

   Post.by_month("January", field: :updated_at)

Alternatively, you may set a default in your model using the by_star_field macro:

   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
     by_star_field :updated_at
   end

Scoping the Query

All ByStar methods (except oldest, newest, previous, next) return ActiveRecord::Relation and/or Mongoid::Criteria objects, which can be daisy-chained with other scopes/finder methods:

   Post.by_month.your_scope
   Post.by_month(1).include(:tags).where("tags.name" => "ruby")

Want to count records? Simple:

   Post.by_month.count

:scope Option

You may pass a :scope option as a Relation or Proc to all ByStar methods like so:

   @post.next(scope: Post.where(category: @post.category))
   @post.next(scope: ->{ where(category: 'blog') })

This is particularly useful for oldest, newest, previous, next which return a model instance rather than a Relation and hence cannot be daisy-chained with other scopes.

previous and next support a special feature that the :scope option may take the subject record as an argument:

   @post.next(scope: ->(record){ where(category: record.category) })

You may also set a default scope in the by_star_field macro. (It is recommended this be a Proc):

   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
     by_star_field scope: ->{ where(category: 'blog') }
   end

:offset Option

All ByStar finders support an :offset option which is applied to time period of the query condition. This is useful in cases where the daily cycle occurs at a time other than midnight.

For example, if you'd like to find all Posts from 9:00 on 2014-03-05 until 8:59:59.999 on 2014-03-06, you can do:

Post.by_day('2014-03-05', offset: 9.hours)

You may also set a offset scope in the by_star_field macro:

   class Post < ActiveRecord::Base
     by_star_field offset: 9.hours
   end

Timespan Objects

If your object has both a start and end time, you may pass both params to by_star_field:

   by_star_field :start_time, :end_time

By default, ByStar queries will return all objects whose range has any overlap within the desired period (permissive):

   MultiDayEvent.by_month("January")  #=> returns MultiDayEvents that overlap in January,
                                          even if they start in December and/or end in February

Timespan Objects: :strict Option

If you'd like to confine results to only those both starting and ending within the given range, use the :strict option:

   MultiDayEvent.by_month("January", :strict => true)  #=> returns MultiDayEvents that both start AND end in January

Timespan Objects: Database Indexing and :index_start Option

In order to ensure query performance on large dataset, you must add an index to the query field (e.g. "created_at") be indexed. ByStar does not define indexes automatically.

Database indexes require querying a range query on a single field, i.e. start_time >= X and start_time <= Y. If we use a single-sided query, the database will iterate through all items either from the beginning or until the end of time. This poses a challenge for timespan-type objects which have two fields, i.e. start_time and end_time. There are two cases to consider:

1) Timespan with :strict option, e.g. "start_time >= X and end_time <= Y".

Given that this gem requires start_time >= end_time, we add the converse constraint "start_time <= Y and end_time >= X" to ensure both fields are double-sided, i.e. an index can be used on either field.

2) Timespan without :strict option, e.g. "start_time < Y and end_time > X".

This is not yet supported but will be soon.

Chronic Support

If Chronic gem is present, it will be used to parse natural-language date/time strings in all ByStar finder methods. Otherwise, the Ruby Time.parse kernel method will be used as a fallback.

As of ByStar 2.2.0, you must explicitly include gem chronic into your Gemfile in order to use Chronic.

Advanced Usage

between_times

To find records between two times:

   Post.between_times(time1, time2)

You use a Range like so:

   Post.between_times(time1..time2)

Also works with dates - WARNING: there are currently some caveats see Issue #49:

   Post.between_times(date1, date2)

before and after

To find all posts before / after the current time:

   Post.before
   Post.after

To find all posts before certain time or date:

   Post.before(Date.today + 2)
   Post.after(Time.now + 5.days)

You can also pass a string:

   Post.before("next tuesday")

For Time-Range type objects, only the start time is considered for before and after.

previous and next

To find the prior/subsequent record to a model instance, previous/next on it:

   Post.last.previous
   Post.first.next

You can specify a field also:

   Post.last.previous(field: "published_at")
   Post.first.next(field: "published_at")

For Time-Range type objects, only the start time is considered for previous and next.

by_year

To find records from the current year, simply call the method without any arguments:

   Post.by_year

To find records based on a year you can pass it a two or four digit number:

   Post.by_year(09)

This will return all posts in 2009, whereas:

   Post.by_year(99)

will return all the posts in the year 1999.

You can also specify the full year:

   Post.by_year(2009)
   Post.by_year(1999)

by_month

If you know the number of the month you want:

   Post.by_month(1)

This will return all posts in the first month (January) of the current year.

If you like being verbose:

   Post.by_month("January")

This will return all posts created in January of the current year.

If you want to find all posts in January of last year just do

   Post.by_month(1, year: 2007)

or

   Post.by_month("January", year: 2007)

This will perform a find using the column you've specified.

If you have a Time object you can use it to find the posts:

   Post.by_month(Time.local(2012, 11, 24))

This will find all the posts in November 2012.

by_calendar_month

Finds records for a given month as shown on a calendar. Includes all the results of by_month, plus any results which fall in the same week as the first and last of the month. Useful for working with UI calendars which show rows of weeks.

   Post.by_calendar_month

Parameter behavior is otherwise the same as by_month. Also, :start_day option is supported to specify the start day of the week (:monday, :tuesday, etc.)

by_fortnight

Fortnight numbering starts at 0. The beginning of a fortnight is Monday, 12am.

To find records from the current fortnight:

   Post.by_fortnight

To find records based on a fortnight, you can pass in a number (representing the fortnight number) or a time object:

   Post.by_fortnight(18)

This will return all posts in the 18th fortnight of the current year.

   Post.by_fortnight(18, year: 2012)

This will return all posts in the 18th fortnight week of 2012.

   Post.by_fortnight(Time.local(2012,1,1))

This will return all posts from the first fortnight of 2012.

by_week and by_cweek

Week numbering starts at 0, and cweek numbering starts at 1 (same as Date#cweek). The beginning of a week is as defined in ActiveSupport#beginning_of_week, which can be configured.

To find records from the current week:

   Post.by_week
   Post.by_cweek  # same result

This will return all posts in the 37th week of the current year (remember week numbering starts at 0):

   Post.by_week(36)
   Post.by_cweek(37)  # same result

This will return all posts in the 37th week of 2012:

   Post.by_week(36, year: 2012)
   Post.by_cweek(37, year: 2012)  # same result

This will return all posts in the week which contains Jan 1, 2012:

   Post.by_week(Time.local(2012,1,1))
   Post.by_cweek(Time.local(2012,1,1))  # same result

You may pass in a :start_day option (:monday, :tuesday, etc.) to specify the starting day of the week. This may also be configured in Rails.

by_weekend

If the time passed in (or the time now is a weekend) it will return posts from 0:00 Saturday to 23:59:59 Sunday. If the time is a week day, it will show all posts for the coming weekend.

   Post.by_weekend(Time.now)

by_day and today

To find records for today:

   Post.by_day
   Post.today

To find records for a certain day:

   Post.by_day(Time.local(2012, 1, 1))

You can also pass a string:

   Post.by_day("next tuesday")

This will return all posts for the given day.

by_quarter

Finds records by 3-month quarterly period of year. Quarter numbering starts at 1. The four quarters of the year begin on Jan 1, Apr 1, Jul 1, and Oct 1 respectively.

To find records from the current quarter:

   Post.by_quarter

To find records based on a quarter, you can pass in a number (representing the quarter number) or a time object:

   Post.by_quarter(4)

This will return all posts in the 4th quarter of the current year.

   Post.by_quarter(2, year: 2012)

This will return all posts in the 2nd quarter of 2012.

   Post.by_week(Time.local(2012,1,1))

This will return all posts from the first quarter of 2012.

Version Support

ByStar is tested against the following versions:

  • Ruby 1.9.3+
  • Rails/ActiveRecord 3.0+
  • Mongoid 3.0+

Note that ByStar automatically adds the following version compatibility shims:

  • ActiveSupport 3.x: Date#to_time_in_current_zone is aliased to Date#in_time_zone from version 4+
  • Mongoid 3.x: Adds support for Criteria#reorder method from version 4+

Testing

Test Setup

Specify a database by supplying a DB environmental variable:

bundle exec rake spec DB=sqlite

You can also take an ORM-specific test task for a ride:

bundle exec rake spec:active_record

Have an Active Record or Mongoid version in mind? Set the environment variables ACTIVE_RECORD_VERSION and MONGOID_VERSION to a version of your choice. A version number provided will translate to ~> VERSION, and the string master will grab the latest from Github.

# Update your bundle appropriately...
ACTIVE_RECORD_VERSION=4.0.0 MONGOID_VERSION=master bundle update

# ...then run the specs
ACTIVE_RECORD_VERSION=4.0.0 MONGOID_VERSION=master bundle exec rpsec spec

Test Implementation

ByStar tests use TimeCop to lock the system Time.now at Jan 01, 2014, and seed objects with fixed dates according to spec/fixtures/shared/seeds.rb. Note that the timezone is randomized on each run to shake-out timezone related quirks.

Collaborators

ByStar is actively maintained by Ryan Biggs (radar) and Johnny Shields (johnnyshields)

Thank you to the following people:

  • Thomas Sinclair for the original bump for implementing ByStar
  • Ruby on Rails for their support
  • Mislav Marohnic
  • August Lilleas (leethal)
  • gte351s
  • Sam Elliott (lenary)
  • The creators of the Chronic gem
  • Erik Fonselius
  • Johnny Shields (johnnyshields)