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Added Templates section on ActionView guide.

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1 parent 29caa46 commit 558f096115eb123eafcea6df66762ba1c10150a6 @smartinez87 smartinez87 committed Apr 16, 2011
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101 railties/guides/source/action_view_overview.textile
@@ -118,6 +118,103 @@ h3. Templates, Partials and Layouts
As mentioned before, the final HTML output is a composition of three Rails elements: +Templates+, +Partials+ and +Layouts+.
Find below a brief overview of each one of them.
+h4. Templates
+
+Action View templates can be written in several ways. If the template file has a <tt>.erb</tt> extension then it uses a mixture of ERB (included in Ruby) and HTML. If the template file has a <tt>.builder</tt> extension then a fresh instance of <tt>Builder::XmlMarkup</tt> library is used.
+
+Rails supports multiple template systems and uses a file extension to distinguish amongst them. For example, an HTML file using the ERB template system will have <tt>.html.erb</tt> as a file extension.
+
+h5. ERB
+
+Within an ERB template Ruby code can be included using both +<% %>+ and +<%= %>+ tags. The +<% %>+ are used to execute Ruby code that does not return anything, such as conditions, loops or blocks, and the +<%= %>+ tags are used when you want output.
+
+Consider the following loop for names:
+
+<erb>
+<b>Names of all the people</b>
+<% @people.each do |person| %>
+ Name: <%= person.name %><br/>
+<% end %>
+</erb>
+
+The loop is setup in regular embedding tags +<% %>+ and the name is written using the output embedding tag +<%= %>+. Note that this is not just a usage suggestion, for Regular output functions like print or puts won't work with ERB templates. So this would be wrong:
+
+<erb>
+<%# WRONG %>
+Hi, Mr. <% puts "Frodo" %>
+</erb>
+
+To suppress leading and trailing whitespaces, you can use +<%-+ +-%>+ interchangeably with +<%+ and +%>+.
+
+h5. Builder
+
+Builder templates are a more programmatic alternative to ERB. They are especially useful for generating XML content. An XmlMarkup object named +xml+ is automatically made available to templates with a <tt>.builder</tt> extension.
+
+Here are some basic examples:
+
+<ruby>
+xml.em("emphasized")
+xml.em { xml.b("emph & bold") }
+xml.a("A Link", "href"=>"http://rubyonrails.org")
+xml.target("name"=>"compile", "option"=>"fast")
+</ruby>
+
+will produce
+
+<html>
+<em>emphasized</em>
+<em><b>emph &amp; bold</b></em>
+<a href="http://rubyonrails.org">A link</a>
+<target option="fast" name="compile" \>
+</html>
+
+Any method with a block will be treated as an XML markup tag with nested markup in the block. For example, the following:
+
+<ruby>
+xml.div {
+ xml.h1(@person.name)
+ xml.p(@person.bio)
+}
+</ruby>
+
+would produce something like:
+
+<html>
+<div>
+ <h1>David Heinemeier Hansson</h1>
+ <p>A product of Danish Design during the Winter of '79...</p>
+</div>
+</html>
+
+A full-length RSS example actually used on Basecamp:
+
+<ruby>
+xml.rss("version" => "2.0", "xmlns:dc" => "http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/") do
+ xml.channel do
+ xml.title(@feed_title)
+ xml.link(@url)
+ xml.description "Basecamp: Recent items"
+ xml.language "en-us"
+ xml.ttl "40"
+
+ for item in @recent_items
+ xml.item do
+ xml.title(item_title(item))
+ xml.description(item_description(item)) if item_description(item)
+ xml.pubDate(item_pubDate(item))
+ xml.guid(@person.firm.account.url + @recent_items.url(item))
+ xml.link(@person.firm.account.url + @recent_items.url(item))
+ xml.tag!("dc:creator", item.author_name) if item_has_creator?(item)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+end
+</ruby>
+
+h5. Template caching
+
+By default, Rails will compile each template to a method in order to render it. When you alter a template, Rails will check the file's modification time and recompile it in development mode.
+
h4. Partials
Partial templates – usually just called "partials" – are another device for breaking the rendering process into more manageable chunks. With a partial, you can move the code for rendering a particular piece of a response to its own file.
@@ -222,6 +319,10 @@ You can also specify a second partial to be rendered between instances of the ma
Rails will render the +_product_ruler+ partial (with no data passed in to it) between each pair of +_product+ partials.
+h4. Layouts
+
+TODO...
+
h3. Using Templates, Partials and Layouts in "The Rails Way"
TODO...

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