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Endnotes For The DevOps Handbook: How to Create World-Class Agility, Reliability, & Security in Technology Organizations

Authors: Gene Kim, Patrick Debois, John Willis, Jez Humble

Anyone interested in the topics covered in The DevOps Handbook will likely find the citations interesting and potentially useful.

I’ve extracted all the endnotes from the book, which are in a very usable form: they show the page number (as per the paperback edition), as well as three words that the citation is anchored to, and then a citation that has been fact-checked.

Enjoy! Pull requests welcome!

Cheers, Gene


Part I: The Three Ways

  • Page 5: One key principle…: Kent Beck, et al., “Twelve Principles of Agile Software,”, 2001,

  • Page 6: He concluded that…: Mike Rother, Toyota Kata: Managing People for Improvement, Adaptiveness and Superior Results (New York: McGraw Hill, 2010), Kindle edition, Part III.

Chapter 1: Agile, Continuous Delivery, and the Three Ways

  • Page 7: Karen Martin and…: Karen Martin and Mike Osterling, Value Stream Mapping: How to Visualize Work and Align Leadership for Organizational Transformation (New York: McGraw Hill, 2013), Kindle edition, chap 1.

  • Page 9: In this book… Ibid., chap. 3.

  • Page 11: Karen Martin and…: Ibid.

Chapter 2: The First Way: The Principles of Flow

  • Page 17: Studies have shown…: Joshua S. Rubinstein, David E. Meyer, and Jeffrey E. Evans, “Executive Control of Cognitive Processes in Task Switching,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27, no. 4 (2001): 763-797, doi: 10.1037//00961523.27.4.763,

  • Page 18: Dominica DeGrandis, one…: “DOES15—Dominica DeGrandis—The Shape of Uncertainty,” YouTube video, 22:54, posted by DevOps Enterprise Summit, November 5, 2015,

  • Taiichi Ohno compared… Sami Bahri, “Few Patients-In-Process and Less Safety Scheduling; Incoming Supplies are Secondary,” The Deming Institute Blog, August 22, 2013,

  • In other words… Meeting between David J. Andersen and team at Motorola with Daniel S. Vacanti, February 24, 2004; story retold at USC CSSE Research Review with Barry Boehm in March 2004.

  • Page 19: The dramatic differences…: James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation (New York: Free Press, 2010), Kindle edition, chap. 1.

  • Page 20: There are many…: Eric Ries, “Work in small batches,”, February 20, 2009,

  • Page 21: In Beyond the…: Goldratt, Beyond the Goal.

  • Page 22: As a solution…: Eliyahu M. Goldratt, The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement (Great Barrington, MA: North River Press, 2014), Kindle edition, “Five Focusing Steps.”

  • Page 23: Shigeo Shingo, one…: Shigeo Shingo, A Study of the Toyota Production System: From an Industrial Engineering Viewpoint (London: Productivity Press, 1989); “The 7 Wastes (Seven forms of Muda),”, accessed July 28, 2016,

  • Page 24: In the book…: Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck, Implementing Lean Software: From Concept to Cash, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2007), 74.

  • The following categories…: Adapted from Damon Edwards, “DevOps Kaizen: Find and Fix What Is Really Behind Your Problems,”, posted by dev2ops, May 4, 2015,

Chapter 3: The Second Way: The Principles of Feedback

  • Page 28: Dr. Charles Perrow…: Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

  • Dr. Sidney Dekker…: Dr. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error (Lund University, Sweden: Ashgate, 2006).

  • After he decoded…: Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 8.

  • Dr. Spear extended… Ibid.

  • Page 29: Dr. Peter Senge…: Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline: The Art & Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Doubleday, 2006), Kindle edition, chap. 5.

  • In one well-documented…: “NUMMI,” This American Life, March 26, 2010,

  • Page 30: As Elisabeth Hendrickson… “DOES15 Elisabeth Hendrickson Its All About Feedback,” YouTube video, 34:47, posted by DevOps Enterprise Summit, November 5, 2015, “In doings so… Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 1.

  • Page 31: As Dr. Spear…: Ibid., chap. 4.

  • In the 1700s…: Dr. Thomas Sowell, Knowledge and Decisions (New York: Basic Books, 1980), 222.

  • Page 34: As Gary Gruver…: Gary Gruver, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2014.

Chapter 4: The Third Way: The Principles of Continual Learning and Experimentation

  • Page 37: For instance, in…: Paul Adler, “Time-and-Motion Regained,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 1993,

  • Page 38: The “name, blame…: Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, chap. 1.

  • Dr. Sidney Dekker…: “Just Culture: Balancing Safety and Accountability,” Lund University, Human Factors & System Safety website, November 6, 2015,

  • Page 39: He observed that…: Ron Westrum, “The study of information flow: A personal journey,” Proceedings of Safety Science 67 (August 2014): 58-63,

  • As Bethany Macri…: Bethany Macri, “Morgue: Helping Better Understand Events by Building a Post Mortem Tool Bethany Macri,” Vimeo video, 33:34, posted by, October 18, 2013,

  • Dr. Spear observes…: Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 1.

  • In The Fifth…: Senge, The Fifth Discipline, chap. 1.

  • Mike Rother observed…: Mike Rother, Toyota Kata, 12.

  • This is why…: Mike Orzen, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2012.

  • Page 41: Consider the following…: “Paul O’Neill,” Forbes, October 11, 2001,

  • In 1987, Alcoa…: Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 4.

  • As Dr. Spear…: Ibid.

  • Page 42: A remarkable example…: Ibid., chap. 5.

  • Page 44: This process of…: Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Antifragile: Things That Gain from Disorder (Incerto), (New York: Random House, 2012).

  • According to Womack…: Jim Womack, Gemba Walks (Cambridge, MA: Lean Enterprise Institute, 2011), Kindle edition, location 4113.

  • Page 45: Mike Rother formalized…: Rother, Toyota Kata, Part IV.

  • Mike Rother observes…: Ibid., Conclusion.

Part II: Where To Start

Chapter 5: Selecting Which Value Stream to Start With

Chapter 6: Understanding the Work in Our Value Stream, Making it Visible, and Expanding it Across the Organization

Chapter 7: How to Design Our Organization and Architecture with Conway’s Law in Mind

Chapter 8: How to Get Great Outcomes by Integrating Operations into the Daily Work of Development

  • Page 95: At Big Fish…: “Big Fish Celebrates 11th Consecutive Year of Record Growth,”, January 28, 2014,

  • Page 96: He observed that…: Paul Farrall, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, January 2015.

  • Farrall defined two…: Ibid., 2014.

  • He concludes, “The…: Ibid.

  • Page 97: Ernest Mueller observed…: Ernest Mueller, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2014.

  • As Damon Edwards…: Edwards, “DevOps Kaizen.”

  • Page 98: Dianne Marsh, Director…: “Dianne Marsh ‘Introducing Change while Preserving Engineering Velocity,” YouTube video, 17:37, posted by Flowcon, November 11, 2014,

  • Page 99: Jason Cox said…: Jason Cox, “Disney DevOps.”

  • Page 100: At Etsy, this…: “devopsdays Minneapolis 2015 Katherine Daniels DevOps: The Missing Pieces,” YouTube video, 33:26, posted by DevOps Minneapolis, July 13, 2015,

  • Page 102: As Ernest Mueller…: Ernest Mueller, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2015.

  • Scrum is an agile…: Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, “New Product Development Game,” Harvard Business Review (January 1986): 137-146.

Part III: The First Way: The Technical Practices Of Flow

Chapter 9: Create the Foundations of Our Deployment Pipeline

Chapter 10: Enable Fast and Reliable Automated Testing

Chapter 11: Enable and Practice Continuous Integration

Chapter 12: Automate and Enable Low-Risk Releases

Chapter 13: Architect for Low-Risk Releases

Part IV: The Second Way: The Technical Practices Of Feedback

Chapter 14: Create Telemetry to Enable Seeing and Solving Problems

Chapter 15: Analyze Telemetry to Better Anticipate Problems and Achieve Goals

Chapter 16: Enable Feedback So Development and Operations Can Safely Deploy Code

Chapter 17: Integrate Hypothesis-Driven Development and A/B Testing into Our Daily Work

Chapter 18: Create Review and Coordination Processes to Increase Quality of Our Current Work

Part V:The Third Way: The Technical Practices Of Continual Learning And Experimentation

Chapter 19: Enable and Inject Learning into Daily Work

  • Page 271: The result is…: Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 1.

  • “For such an…: Ibid., chap. 10.

  • A striking example…: Julianne Pepitone, “Amazon EC2 Outage Downs Reddit, Quora,” CNN Money, April 22, 2011,

  • In January 2013…: Timothy Prickett Morgan, “A Rare Peek Into The Massive Scale of AWS,” Enterprise Tech, November 14, 2014,

  • Page 272: However, a Netflix…: Adrian Cockcroft, Cory Hicks, and Greg Orzell, “Lessons Netflix Learned from the AWS Outage,” The Netflix Tech Blognetflix-learned-from-aws-outage.html.

  • They did so…: Ibid.

  • Page 273: Dr. Sidney Dekker…: Sidney Dekker, Just Culture: Balancing Safety and Accountability (Lund University, Sweden: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007), 152.

  • He asserts that…: “DevOpsDays Brisbane 2014 Sidney Decker, "System Failure, Human Error: Who’s to Blame?” Vimeo video, 1:07:38, posted by, 2014,

  • Page 273: As John Allspaw…: Jenn Webb, interview with John Allspaw, “PostMortems, Sans Finger-Pointing,” The O’Reilly Radar Postcast, podcast audio, August 21, 2014,

  • Page 274: Blameless post-mortems, a…: John Allspaw, “Blameless PostMortems and a Just Culture,”, May 22, 2012,

  • Page 276: Ian Malpass, an…: Ian Malpass, “DevOpsDays Minneapolis 2014 -Ian Malpass, Fallible humans,” YouTube video, 35:48, posted by DevOps Minneapolis, July 20, 2014,

  • Dan Milstein, one…: Dan Milstein, “Post-Mortems at HubSpot: What I Learned from 250 Whys,” HubSpot, June 1, 2011,

  • We may also…: “Post-Mortem for February 24, 2010 Outage,” Google App Engine website, March 4, 2010, /forum/#!topic/google-appengine/p2QKJ0OSLc8; “Summary of the Amazon DynamoDB Service Disruption and Related Impacts in the US-East Region,” Amazon Web Services website, accessed May 28, 2016,

  • This desire to…: Bethany Macri, “Morgue: Helping Better Understand Events by Building a Post Mortem Tool Bethany Macri,” Vimeo video, 33:34, posted by, October 18, 2013,

  • For example, as…: Spear, The High-Velocity Edge, chap. 4.

  • Page 278: Dr. Amy C. Edmondson… Amy C. Edmondson, “Strategies for Learning from Failure,” Harvard Business Review, April 2011,

  • Page 279: Dr. Spear summarizes…: Ibid.

  • We now know…: Ibid., chap. 3.

  • However, prior to…: Michael Roberto, Richard M.J. Bohmer, and Amy C. Edmondson, “Facing Ambiguous Threats,” Harvard Business Review, November 2006,

  • They describe how…: Ibid.

  • Page 280: They observe, “Firms…: Ibid.

  • The authors conclude…: Ibid.

  • On failures, Roy…: Roy Rapoport, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2012.

  • He continues, “I…: Ibid.

  • Page 281: He concludes, “DevOps…: Ibid.

  • As Michael Nygard…: Michael T. Nygard, Release It!: Design and Deploy Production-Ready Software (Pragmatic Bookshelf: Raleigh, NC, 2007), Kindle edition, Part I.

  • Page 281: An even more…: Jeff Barr, “EC2 Maintenance Update,” AWS Blog, September 25, 2014,

  • As Christos Kalantzis…: Bruce Wong and Christos Kalantzis, “A State of Xen Chaos Monkey & Cassandra,” The Netflix Tech Blog, October 2, 2014,

  • Page 282: But, Kalantzis continues…: Ibid.

  • As Kalantzis and…: Ibid.

  • Even more surprising…: Roy Rapoport, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2015.

  • Specific architectural patterns…: Adrian Cockcroft, personal correspondence with Gene Kim, 2012.

  • In this section…: Jesse Robbins, “GameDay: Creating Resiliency Through Destruction LISA11,”, posted by Jesse Robbins, December 7, 2011,

  • Robbins defines resilience…: Ibid.

  • Page 283: Jesse Robbins observes…: Jesse Robbins, Kripa Krishnan, John Allspaw, and Tom Limoncelli, “Resilience Engineering: Learning to Embrace Failure,” amcqueue 10, no. 9 (September 13, 2012): https://

  • As Robbins quips…: Ibid.

  • As Robbins describes…: Ibid.

  • Robbins explains, “You…: Ibid.

  • Page 284: During that time…: “Kripa Krishnan: ‘Learning Continuously From Failures’ at Google,” YouTube video, 21:35, posted by Flowcon, November 11, 2014,

  • Krishnan wrote, “An…: Kripa Krishnan, “Weathering the Unexpected,” Communications of the ACM 55, no. 11 (November 2012): 48-52,

  • Some of the learnings…: Ibid.

  • Page 285: As Peter Senge…: Widely attributed to Peter Senge.

Chapter 20: Convert Local Discoveries into Global Improvements

Chapter 21: Reserve Time to Create Organizational Learning and Improvement

Part VI: The Technological Practices Of Integrating Information Security Change Management And Compliance

Chapter 22: Information Security as Everyone’s Job, Every Day

Chapter 23: Protecting the Deployment Pipeline and Integrating into Change Management and Other Security and Compliance Controls

Conclusion to the DevOps Handbook: A Call to Action


  • Page 353: The Lean movement started…: Ries, The Lean Startup.

  • Page 354: A key principal…: Kent Beck et al., “Twelve Principles of Agile Software,”, 2001,

  • Page 355: Toyota Kata describes… Rother, Toyota Kata, Introduction.

  • His conclusion was…: Ibid..

  • Page 355: In 2011, Eric…: Ries, The Lean Startup.

  • Page 358: In the Phoenix…: Kim, Behr, and Spafford, The Phoenix Project, 365.

  • Page 360: Myth 1: “Human…: Denis Besnard and Erik Hollnagel, Some Myths about Industrial Safety(Paris, Centre De Recherche Sur Les Risques Et Les Crises Mines, 2012), 3,

  • Myth 2: “Systems…: Ibid., 4.

  • Myth 3: “Safety…: Ibid., 6.

  • Myth 4: “Accident…: Ibid., 8.

  • Myth 5: “Accident…: Ibid., 9.

  • Myth 6: Safety…: Ibid., 11.

  • Rather, when the…: John Shook, “Five Missing Pieces in Your Standardized Work (Part 3 of 3),”, October 27, 2009,

  • Page 363: Time to resolve…: “Post Event Retrospective Part 1,” Rally Blogs, accessed May 31, 2016,

  • Bethany Macri, from…: “Morgue: Helping Better Understand events by Building a Post Mortem Tool Bethany Macri,” Vimeo video, 33:34, posted by, October 18, 2013,

  • Page 364: These discussions have…: Cockcroft, Hicks, and Orzell, “Lessons Netflix Learned.”

  • Since then, Chaos…: Ibid.


Endnotes and citations to The DevOps Handbook by Gene Kim, Jez Humble, Patrick Debois and John Willis






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