Defects4J is a collection of reproducible bugs and a supporting infrastructure with the goal of advancing software engineering research.
Contents of Defects4J
Defects4J contains 395 bugs from the following open-source projects:
|Identifier||Project name||Number of bugs|
Each bug has the following properties:
- Issue filed in the corresponding issue tracker, and issue tracker identifier mentioned in the fixing commit message.
- Fixed in a single commit
- Minimized: the Defects4J maintainers manually pruned out irrelevant changes in the commit (e.g., refactorings or feature additions).
- Fixed by modifying the source code (as opposed to configuration files, documentation, or test files).
- A triggering test exists that failed before the fix and passes after the fix -- the test failure is not random or dependent on test execution order.
The (b)uggy and (f)ixed program revisions are labelled with
<id>f, respectively (
<id> is an integer).
Setting up Defects4J
- Java 1.7
- Git >= 1.9
- SVN >= 1.8
- Perl >= 5.0.10
All bugs have been reproduced and triggering tests verified, using the latest version of Java 1.7. Note that using Java 1.8+ might result in unexpected failing tests on a fixed program version. The next major release of Defects4J will be compatible with Java 8.
All required Perl modules are listed in
cpanfile. On many Unix platforms,
these required Perl modules are installed by default. If this is not the case,
you can use cpan (or a cpan wrapper) to install them. For example, if you have
cpanm installed, you can automatically install all modules by running:
cpanm --installdeps .
Defects4J generates and executes tests in the timezone
If you are using the bugs outside of the Defects4J framework, set the
environment variable to
America/Los_Angeles and export it.
Steps to set up Defects4J
git clone https://github.com/rjust/defects4j
Initialize Defects4J (download the project repositories and external libraries, which are not included in the git repository for size purposes and to avoid redundancies):
Add Defects4J's executables to your PATH:
defects4j info -p Lang
Get information for a specific project (commons lang):
defects4j info -p Lang
Get information for a specific bug (commons lang, bug 1):
defects4j info -p Lang -b 1
Checkout a buggy source code version (commons lang, bug 1, buggy version):
defects4j checkout -p Lang -v 1b -w /tmp/lang_1_buggy
Change to the working directory, compile sources and tests, and run tests:
The scripts in
framework/test/are examples of how to use Defects4J, which you might find useful as inspiration when you are writing your own scripts that use Defects4J.
Command-line interface: defects4j command
framework/bin/defects4j to execute any of the following commands:
|info||View configuration of a specific project or summary of a specific bug|
|checkout||Checkout a buggy or a fixed project version|
|compile||Compile sources and developer-written tests of a buggy or a fixed project version|
|test||Run a single test method or a test suite on a buggy or a fixed project version|
|mutation||Run mutation analysis on a buggy or a fixed project version|
|coverage||Run code coverage analysis on a buggy or a fixed project version|
|monitor.test||Monitor the class loader during the execution of a single test or a test suite|
|export||Export version-specific properties such as classpaths, directories, or lists of tests|
Export version-specific properties
defects4j export -p <property_name> [-o output_file] in the working
directory to export a version-specific property:
|classes.modified||Classes (source files) modified by the bug fix|
|cp.compile||Classpath to compile and run the project|
|cp.test||Classpath to compile and run the developer-written tests|
|dir.src.classes||Source directory of classes (relative to working directory)|
|dir.bin.classes||Target directory of classes (relative to working directory)|
|dir.src.tests||Source directory of tests (relative to working directory)|
|dir.bin.tests||Target directory of test classes (relative to working directory)|
|tests.all||List of all developer-written test classes|
|tests.relevant||List of relevant tests classes (a test class is relevant if, when executed, the JVM loads at least one of the modified classes)|
|tests.trigger||List of test methods that trigger (expose) the bug|
Test execution framework
The test execution framework for generated test suites (
provides the following scripts:
|defects4j||Main script, described above|
|run_bug_detection||Determine the real fault detection rate|
|run_mutation||Determine the mutation score|
|run_coverage||Determine code coverage ratios (statement and branch coverage)|
|run_evosuite||Generate test suites using EvoSuite|
|run_randoop||Generate test suites using Randoop|
Mining and contributing additional bugs to Defects4J
The bug-mining README details the bug-mining process.
Scripts built on Defects4J
Fault localization (FL)
Automated program repair (APR)
- Scripts and annotations for evaluating APR techniques
- Patches generated with the Nopol, jGenProg, and jKali APR systems
- Repair actions and patterns for Defects4J v1.2.0
"Defects4J: A Database of Existing Faults to Enable Controlled Testing Studies for Java Programs" René Just, Darioush Jalali, and Michael D. Ernst, ISSTA 2014 [download].
"Are Mutants a Valid Substitute for Real Faults in Software Testing?" René Just, Darioush Jalali, Laura Inozemtseva, Michael D. Ernst, Reid Holmes, and Gordon Fraser, FSE 2014 [download].
Documentation for any script or module is available as html documentation.
The directory structure of Defects4J is as follows:
defects4j | |--- project_repos: The version control repositories of the provided projects. | |--- major: The Major mutation framework. | |--- framework: Libraries and executables of the database abstraction and | test execution framework. | |--- bin: Command line interface to Defects4J. | |--- core: The modules of the core framework. | |--- lib: Libraries used in the core framework. | |--- util: Util scripts used by Defects4J. | |--- projects: Project-specific resource files. | |--- test: Scripts to test the framework.
Defects4J uses a semantic versioning scheme (
|Addition/Deletion of bugs||X|
|New/upgraded internal or external tools||X|
|Fixes and documentation changes||X|
MIT License, see
license.txt for more information.