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bintrans - A Dynamic Binary Translator ====================================== These are the first attempts at installation instructions and documentation for bintrans. The information you find in here should be correct, but it is certainly not comprehensive. If there is anything you would like to know which is not contained in here, please mail me. Overview -------- bintrans currently has working i386->PPC and PPC->Alpha translators. There is also a i386->Alpha translator which is currently defunct, because I have not kept it up-to-date with other parts of bintrans. If you need it, please mail me, and I'll see what I can do to help you. bintrans can also run as an interpreter, in which case it can emulate the i386 and the PPC. Running bintrans as an interpreter should work on almost all native architectures (like i386, SPARC, MIPS, ...). Mail me if you have any problems running the interpreter. WARNING: bintrans does not currently run real-world applications. It runs the SPECINT95 benchmarks and some small X11 applications (it runs xedit and xdvi on i386->PPC and xbattle on PPC->Alpha). The main thing holding bintrans back is the system call interface and signal handling. I'll soon start implementing signals, but I'm currently mostly dependent on contributors regard the system call interface. If you want to help out, please mail me. Homepage -------- bintrans's homepage is http://www.complang.tuwien.ac.at/schani/bintrans/ Prerequisites ------------- The i386->PPC translator requires the uClibc library. You can get it from http://www.uclibc.org/ Also, if you want to play with the machine descriptions, get a Common Lisp implementation. I have only tested this with CLISP, so if you use something else, you're on your own. CLISP's homepage is http://clisp.sourceforge.net/ Compiling --------- First, modify the Makefile. Search for the string "ATT" and follow the instructions you find there. You shouldn't have to change anything other than the ATT-annotated parts. There are four different modes bintrans can run in. They are: COMPILER This is the mode of operation which you'll most likely want to use. In this mode, bintrans will operate as a dynamic binary translator. INTERPRETER This mode uses the interpreter to execute foreign instructions. That means it's slow, but it should run on almost all native architectures. DEBUGGER This runs the interpreter with a simple machine level debugger interface. Type "help" on the debugger prompt for a summary of commands. CROSSDEBUGGER In this mode, the compiler and the interpreter run in tandem. After each executed fragment, the state of both is compared and if they differ, execution stops. This makes finding bugs in the compiler very easy, provided that the interpreter works correctly. The DEFINES variable can be used to specify several options. These are the most important ones: USE_HAND_TRANSLATOR This must be enabled if you use COMPILER or CROSSDEBUGGER mode. COLLECT_STATS Collects all sorts of useful and lots of uttely meaningless statistics and prints them out when the program is finished. I always keep it turned on. DUMP_CODE Prints out the native code generated during executions, together with the corresponding original foreign code. EMULATED_MEM This can and should be used in interpreter and debugger mode for better portability. It makes bintrans emulate the foreign address space instead of using the native address space directly. Installing ---------- Installation of bintrans mainly involves creating a root file system for the emulated machine. Simply create a directory and copy all the files you want there, or NFS mount the root partition of a system you want to emulate. Then, create a file ".bintransrc" in your home directory, which should look like this: (root ppc linux "/nethome/hansolo/schani/Work/unix/bintrans/ppc-root") (root i386 linux "/nethome/hansolo/schani/Work/unix/bintrans/i386-root") Of course, you have to change the paths accordingly. You can download example i386 and PPC root file systems from the bintrans homepage. NOTE: In order for dynamic executables to work, you have to make sure all shared libraries (including the dynamic loader ld.so) are in the correct places in the emulated root file system. Running Programs ---------------- Simply invoke bintrans with the name and arguments of the foreign executable. Let's say you copied a hello-world program called "hello" to the directory /usr/bin in the emulated root file system. Invoke it with bintrans /usr/bin/hello It seems X11 applications don't work yet with X11 authentication, so you have to turn it off, by doing xhost + Contributing ------------ bintrans needs YOUR help! Play around with it and mail me if something doesn't work. Again, don't expect Mozilla to run, but simple X11 applications should run without too much difficulty, i.e. there will probably a few unsupported system calls and maybe one or the other opcode which isn't implemented yet. One area which needs lots of help is the system call interface. Fortunately, this part of bintrans isn't too hard to work on. Please mail me if you want to have a go at it. If you are interested in getting bintrans to support other foreign-native combinations, I'm also very interested and willing to help. Also, the name "bintrans" is slightly boring and is a testament to my lack of phantasy. If you can think of a better name, please let me know. Machine Descriptions -------------------- bintrans uses machine descriptions to automatically generate interpreters, disassemblers, composer macros, and liveness analysers. Currently, there are machine descriptions for the i386, the PPC and the Alpha, residing in the files "i386.lisp", "ppc.lisp", and "alpha.lisp", respectively. Should you choose to play around with them, here's how to generate the various C files from them: 1. Start CLISP 2. (load "init.lisp") then: 3a. (generate-all-alpha-files) ; to generate the Alpha files 3b. (generate-all-ppc-files) ; to generate the PPC files 3c. (generate-all-intel-files) ; to generate the i386 files Loading and generating might take quite some time, so don't worry if it takes a little longer. --- Mark Probst firstname.lastname@example.org