An implementation of Ferguson and Schneier's Fortuna random number generator in Go.
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An implementation of Ferguson and Schneier's Fortuna random number generator in Go.

Copyright (C) 2013 Jochen Voss

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

The homepage of this package is at <>. Please send any comments or bug reports to the program's author, Jochen Voss <>.


Fortuna is a cryptographically strong random number generator (RNG). The term "cryptographically strong" indicates that even a very clever and active attacker, who knows some of the random outputs of the RNG, cannot use this knowledge to predict future or past outputs. This property allows, for example, to use the output of the RNG to generate keys for encryption schemes, and to generate session tokens for web pages.

Random number generators are hard to implement and easy to get wrong; even seemingly small details can make a huge difference to the security of the method. For this reason, this implementation tries to follow the original description of the Fortuna generator (chapter 10 of [FS03]) as closely as possible. In addition, some effort was made to ensure that, given identical seeds, the output of this implementation coincides with the output of the implementation from the Python Cryptography Toolkit.

[FS03]Niels Ferguson, Bruce Schneier: Practical Cryptography, Wiley, 2003.


This package can be installed using the go get command:

go get


The Fortuna random number generator consists of two parts: The accumulator collects caller-provided randomness (e.g. timings between the user's key presses). This randomness is then used to seed a pseudo random number generator. During operation, the randomness from the accumulator is also used to periodically reseed the generator, thus allowing to recover from limited compromises of the generator's state.

The accumulator and the generator are described in separate sections, below. Detailed usage instructions are available via the package's online help, either on or on the command line:



The usual way to use the Fortuna random number generator is by creating an object of type Accumulator. A new Accumulator can be allocated using the NewRNG() function:

rng, err := fortuna.NewRNG(seedFileName)
if err != nil {
    panic("cannot initialise the RNG: " + err.Error())
defer rng.Close()

The argument seedFileName is the name of a file where a small amount of randomness can be stored between runs of the program. The program must be able to both read and write this file, and the contents must be kept confidential. If the seedFileName argument equals the empty string "", no entropy is stored between runs. In this case, the initial seed is only based on the current time of day, the current user name, the list of currently installed network interfaces, and output of the system random number generator. Not using a seed file can lead to more predictable output in the initial period after the generator has been created; a seed file must be used in security sensitive applications.

If a seed file is used, the Accumulator must be closed using the Close() method after use.

Randomness can be extracted from the Accumulator using the RandomData() and Read() methods. For example, a slice of 16 random bytes can be obtained using the following command:

data := rng.RandomData(16)

Entropy Pools

The Accumulator uses 32 entropy pools to collect randomness from the environment. The use of external entropy helps to recover from situations where an attacker obtained (partial) knowledge of the generator state.

Any program using the Fortuna generator should continuously collect random/unpredictable data and should submit this data to the Accumulator. For example, code like the following could be used to submit the times between requests in a web-server:

sink := rng.NewEntropyTimeStampSink()
defer close(sink)
http.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    sink <- time.Now()



The Generator class provides a pseudo random number generator which forms the basis of the accumulator described above. New instances of the Fortuna pseudo random number generator can be created using the NewGenerator() function. The argument newCipher should normally be aes.NewCipher from the crypto/aes package, but the Serpent or Twofish ciphers can also be used:

gen := fortuna.NewGenerator(aes.NewCipher)

The generator can be seeded using the .Seed() or .Reseed() methods:


The method .Seed() should be used if reproducible output is required, whereas .Reseed() can be used to add entropy in order to achieve less predictable output.

Uniformly distributed random bytes can then be extracted using the .PseudoRandomData() method:

data := gen.PseudoRandomData(16)

Generator implements the rand.Source interface and thus the functions from the math/rand package can be used to obtain pseudo random samples from more complicated distributions.