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Threaded code is a technique used in the implementation of virtual machines (VMs). It avoids the overhead of calling subroutines repeatedly by 'threading' them together with jumps. This was originally done in assembly, where it is the most straightforward to implement. In C, it is harder to implement threaded code that is also performant.

These files are a test of three different techniques for produced fast threaded code. Each .c file implements a simple VM that counts to 2 billion, printing a star whenever the loop counter is evenly divisible by 200 million. The test settings can be changed in threaded_code.h. They all can be compiled and run with 'make benchmark'.

The VMs

No threading:

Doesn't use threaded code. This technique is often used to emulate switch statements in languages like Python. It is going to be the slowest of any of the VMs, and so acts a a control.

Computed goto:

The equivalent in Fortran is assigned goto, but the Python VM calls it computed goto. GCC, Clang, and ICC allow for the location of a label to be stored in a variable. Since goto can only be used in local scope, the code implementing the VM instructions has to fit into one large function.


This is a pretty unusual technique to find in a C program, so I'll spend more time on it. It starts by calling a function, but then it never returns from it. That function ends by calling another function, which also ends by calling another function, and—

This is a recursive technique. As such, it would only be able to keep calling new functions a few hundred or thousand times before it causes a stack overflow. However, GCC, Clang, and ICC have support for tail call optimization, which replaces those function calls with jumps. This means that it's more or less equivelant to computed goto at an assembly level.

Switch statement:

This is the traditional way to implement a VM in C. It is similar in structure to computed goto, but is regarded as slower due to several factors. One is that it requires branching, another is that C performs bounds checking on switch statements. On the other hand, switch statements are used so often that compiler writers focus on making them faster.

For more thorough explanations, see

So, how do these examples compare to each other?

Test results:

I tested these VMs on a desktop computer running Debian with an Intel Core i3-3220 CPU (Ivy Bridge) at 3.30GHz. Each was run 5 times, with their times to complete in seconds being averaged. This was then performed again at different optimization levels.

Average time to complete execution (seconds), based on the compiler and optimization level

Clang 7.0.1 -O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Ofast
No threading (control) 32.2s 18.4 16.4 16.2 45.8
Computed goto 18.8s 5.4 5.4 5.2 5.4
Continuation passing * 7.8 5.6 5.8 4.6
Switch statement 22.0s 13.4 7.2 6.6 6.6
GCC 8.3.0 -O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Ofast
No threading (control) 30.4 17.8 33.2 14.8 74.2
Computed goto 15.8 6.8 4.8 4.8 5.0
Continuation passing * 9.0 6.2 6.2 6.2
Switch statement 22.0 13.6 12.8 24.6 24.2
ICC 2021.5.0 -O0 -O1 -O2 -O3 -Ofast
No threading (control) 39.0 20.4 19.8 20.4 21.0
Computed goto 23.8 5.2 5.4 5.2 5.2
Continuation passing * 8.8 6.4 6.4 6.6
Switch statement 26.4 15.4 18.4 18.4 17.6

*Requires -foptimize-sibling-calls and -Og at the minimum to be set. Otherwise, a stack overflow will result.


Only one of these techniques is guaranteed to work in all compilers, the switch statement. However, projects like the Python VM have started using this option only as a fallback, preferring computed goto instead. It's easy to see why, it's the fastest in almost every test.

Of the techniques, I'd say the continuation-passing one was my favorite to write. It's much closer to a normal program in structure than the computed goto or switch statement example, and you could split the code implementing the VM into separate files without having to rely on macros to stitch them back together. It's only slightly less performant than computed goto, while being more in line with structured programming.

That said, clang did shockingly well at optimizing that switch statement. I'm also on rather old hardware at this point. Give a few more years for other compilers to catch up, and alternatives to the switch statement may not even matter.


A demonstration of ways to implement 'threaded code,' a technique used in Forth and in virtual machines like the JVM.








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