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Queueable actions in Laravel

Latest Version on Packagist GitHub Workflow Status Check & fix styling Total Downloads

Actions are a way of structuring your business logic in Laravel. This package adds easy support to make them queueable.

$myAction->onQueue()->execute();

You can specify a queue name.

$myAction->onQueue('my-favorite-queue')->execute();

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Installation

You can install the package via composer:

composer require spatie/laravel-queueable-action

You can optionally publish the config file with:

php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Spatie\QueueableAction\QueueableActionServiceProvider" --tag="config"

This is the contents of the published config file:

return [
    /*
     * The job class that will be dispatched.
     * If you would like to change it and use your own job class,
     * it must extends the \Spatie\QueueableAction\ActionJob class.
     */
    'job_class' => \Spatie\QueueableAction\ActionJob::class,
];

Usage

If you want to know about the reasoning behind actions and their asynchronous usage, you should read the dedicated blog post: https://stitcher.io/blog/laravel-queueable-actions.

You can use the following Artisan command to generate queueable and synchronous action classes on the fly.

php artisan make:action MyAction [--sync]

Here's an example of queueable actions in use:

class MyAction
{
    use QueueableAction;

    public function __construct(
        OtherAction $otherAction,
        ServiceFromTheContainer $service
    ) {
        // Constructor arguments can come from the container.

        $this->otherAction = $otherAction;
        $this->service = $service;
    }

    public function execute(
        MyModel $model,
        RequestData $requestData
    ) {
        // The business logic goes here, this can be executed in an async job.
    }
}
class MyController
{
    public function store(
        MyRequest $request,
        MyModel $model,
        MyAction $action
    ) {
        $requestData = RequestData::fromRequest($myRequest);

        // Execute the action on the queue:
        $action->onQueue()->execute($model, $requestData);

        // Or right now:
        $action->execute($model, $requestData);
    }
}

The package also supports actions using the __invoke() method. This will be detected automatically. Here is an example:

class MyInvokeableAction
{
    use QueueableAction;

    public function __invoke(
        MyModel $model,
        RequestData $requestData
    ) {
        // The business logic goes here, this can be executed in an async job.
    }
}

The actions using the __invoke() method should be added to the queue the same way as explained in the examples above, by running the execute() method after the onQueue() method.

$myInvokeableAction->onQueue()->execute($model, $requestData);

Testing queued actions

The package provides some test assertions in the Spatie\QueueableAction\Testing\QueueableActionFake class. You can use them in a PhpUnit test like this:

/** @test */
public function it_queues_an_action()
{
    Queue::fake();

    (new DoSomethingAction)->onQueue()->execute();

    QueueableActionFake::assertPushed(DoSomethingAction::class);
}

Don't forget to use Queue::fake() to mock Laravel's queues before using the QueueableActionFake assertions.

The following assertions are available:

QueueableActionFake::assertPushed(string $actionClass);
QueueableActionFake::assertPushedTimes(string $actionClass, int $times = 1);
QueueableActionFake::assertNotPushed(string $actionClass);
QueueableActionFake::assertPushedWithChain(string $actionClass, array $expextedActionChain = [])
QueueableActionFake::assertPushedWithoutChain(string $actionClass)

Feel free to send a PR if you feel any of the other QueueFake assertions are missing.

Chaining actions

You can chain actions by wrapping them in the ActionJob.

Here's an example of two actions with the same arguments:

use Spatie\QueueableAction\ActionJob;

$args = [$userId, $data];

app(MyAction::class)
    ->onQueue()
    ->execute(...$args)
    ->chain([
        new ActionJob(AnotherAction::class, $args),
    ]);

The ActionJob takes the action class or instance as the first argument followed by an array of the action's own arguments.

Custom Tags

If you want to change what tags show up in Horizon for your custom actions you can override the tags() function.

class CustomTagsAction
{
    use QueueableAction;

    // ...

    public function tags() {
        return ['action', 'custom_tags'];
    }
}

Job Middleware

Middleware where action job passes through can be added by overriding the middleware() function.

class CustomTagsAction
{
    use QueueableAction;

    // ...

    public function middleware() {
        return [new RateLimited()];
    }
}

Action Backoff

If you would like to configure how many seconds Laravel should wait before retrying an action that has encountered an exception on a per-action basis, you may do so by defining a backoff property on your action class:

class BackoffAction
{
    use QueueableAction;
    
    /**
     * The number of seconds to wait before retrying the action.
     *
     * @var array<int>|int
     */
    public $backoff = 3;
}

If you require more complex logic for determining the action's backoff time, you may define a backoff method on your action class:

class BackoffAction
{
    use QueueableAction;
    
    /**
     * Calculate the number of seconds to wait before retrying the action.
     *
     */
    public function backoff(): int
    {
        return 3;
    }
}

You may easily configure "exponential" backoffs by returning an array of backoff values from the backoff method. In this example, the retry delay will be 1 second for the first retry, 5 seconds for the second retry, and 10 seconds for the third retry:

class BackoffAction
{
    /**
     * Calculate the number of seconds to wait before retrying the action.
     *
     */
    public function backoff(): array
    {
        return [1, 5, 10];
    }
}

What is the difference between actions and jobs?

In short: constructor injection allows for much more flexibility. You can read an in-depth explanation here: https://stitcher.io/blog/laravel-queueable-actions.

Testing the package

composer test

Changelog

Please see CHANGELOG for more information on what has changed recently.

Contributing

Please see CONTRIBUTING for details.

Security

If you discover any security related issues, please email freek@spatie.be instead of using the issue tracker.

Credits

License

The MIT License (MIT). Please see License File for more information.