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An Introduction to Optimization Algorithms
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An Introduction to Optimization Algorithms

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1. Introduction

With the book "An Introduction to Optimization Algorithms" we try to develop an accessible and easy-to-read introduction to optimization, optimization algorithms, and, in particular, metaheuristics. The goal is to discuss to develop a general framework structure for optimization problems and then approach algorithms from bottom-up, starting with simple approaches and step-by-step moving to more advanced methods. These moves are incremental, as problems of the current algorithm are discussed based on real results on a real example application, the Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP). Every algorithm is implemented in Java 1.8 and all accompanying sources codes are provided in an additional GitHub repository.

The book is available in the following formats:

  1. aitoa.pdf, in the PDF format for reading on the computer and/or printing (but please don't print this, save paper),
  2. aitoa.html, in the HTML5 format for reading in the browser on any device,
  3. aitoa.epub, in the EPUB3 format for reading on mobile phones or other hand-held devices, and
  4. aitoa.azw3, in the AZW3 format for reading on Kindle and similar devices.

2. License

This book is released under the Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY‑NC‑SA 4.0), see for a summary. The accompanying source code package is licensed under the MIT License.

3. Contact

If you have any questions or suggestions, please contact Prof. Dr. Thomas Weise of the Institute of Applied Optimization at Hefei University in Hefei, Anhui, China via email to with CC to

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