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README.md

FUSTr

Families Under Selection in Transcriptomes

Introduction

Fuster is a pipeline that clusters coding sequences from transcriptomes into protein families, and then analyzes those families for positive selection.

Getting started

The only software needed to run FUSTr is Docker. FUSTr takes as input a directory containing transcriptome assemblies

Important: transcriptome assemblies need to be fasta files ending in .fasta, all in one directory.

Download FUSTr with the following command

git clone https://github.com/tijeco/FUSTr.git

With Docker installed correctly on your system issue the following command to initialize the Docker container

bash FUSTr/setup_docker.sh <directory_containing_fastas>

Once the docker container has been initialized you can enter it using the following command

docker run -it fustr /bin/bash

Now that you are in the docker container, your data is in /home/usr/data, to run FUSTr simply issue the following command

FUSTr -d ./data -t <number_of_threads>

The output will be in data/final_results/

You can use scp to transfer this to your local machine.

You do not have to make this Docker container over and over for new analysis with setup_docker.sh. You can continue using the container for the analysis of additional datasets.

Troubleshooting docker

If you are getting permission denied issues run the following command, then log out and back in to your system.

sudo usermod -a -G docker $USER

If you have issues setting up the docker conatiner using setup_docker.sh (i.e. apt-get install returns non-zero code), you likely need to adjust docker's DNS settings using the lovely tutorial by Robin Winslow here.

If you still experience issues with docker, please see below on how to install FUSTr directly to your system.

Some notes about docker

In order to setup Docker on a new machine you will need root privileges for running commands or to create a group of users. This is not a problem if Docker is already properly installed on the system.

Also, the default container size for Docker is 10 GB, which was plenty to run the analysis for the manuscript (273,221 transcripts and 48,000 simulated transcripts). For larger datasets, this may not be enough space.

For the reasons above, in the event that users do not have root permissions to setup Docker on a new computer, or have a bewilderingly large dataset that would cause the 10GB Docker container to run out of space, below we have included instructions for installing FUSTr on the user's system.

Installing FUSTr without Docker

These are the following dependencies of FUSTr that must be installed for FUSTr to properly function on a Linux 64 bit system.

  1. Miniconda3

    • Be sure to choose Python 3.6
    • Will download Miniconda3-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh for Linux 64 bit systems

    Install Miniconda3

    bash Miniconda3-latest-Linux-x86_64.sh

    Choose to install to PATH

  2. SiLiX

  • Download version 1.2.11
  • Make sure Boost libraries are also installed (for Ubuntu issue the following commands, requires root permissions)
sudo apt-get install libboost-dev
sudo apt-get install libboost-program-options-dev
  • Install SiLiX, requires root
wget ftp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/pub/logiciel/silix/silix-1.2.11.tar.gz
tar zxvf silix-1.2.11.tar.gz
cd silix-1.2.11
./configure
make
make check
sudo make install
  1. Snakemake

    • Install snakemake
    conda install snakemake
  2. Add FUSTr to PATH

    • Add full path to FUSTr/bin to .bashrc file i.e. export PATH=/path/to/FUSTr/bin:$PATH

    to run FUSTr simply issue the following command

    FUSTr -d directory_with_fastas -t <number_of_threads>
    

What goes on under the hood

The file setup_docker.sh takes as input a directory that contains the transcriptome assemblies the user wishes to analyze. There may be any number of transcriptomes in this directory. The only reqirements are that they are

  1. Uncompressed text files
  2. Proper FASTA format
  3. End in .fasta
  4. All contained in one directory

This directory is then added to a docker container (located under /home/usr/data) that installs all necessary third party dependencies, removing the need for users to install any of them on their actual system.

Once in the docker container (automatically initiated at /home/usr), FUSTr is installed to the system path.

Once FUSTr is executed using FUSTr -d ./data -t <number_of_threads> Snakefile is executed to run 10 subroutines.

  1. cleanFasta takes each input fasta file in the ./data and cleans the text file for any spurious characters that commonly occur when transferring text files between different system architectures (such as ^M) that will break downstram analysis. The output for this file is found in intermediate_files/{sample}.clean

  2. newHeaders takes as input the output from cleanFasta. It further cleans the headers only keeping the first fields of text (some times headers have whole paragraphs of unnecessary information describing the sequence, so these are removed). Then these cleaned headers are analyzed to infer any patterns that may exist. The detected header patterns are placed in headerPatterns.txt, the output of the fasta files with new headers are placed in intermediate_files/{sample}.new_headers

  3. orf takes as input the outputfrom newHeaders. The program Transdecoder finds coding sequences from these transcripts, the output is placed in both {sample}.new_headers.transdecoder.pep and {sample}.new_headers.transdecoder.cds. Additional output from Transdecoder can be found in {sample}.new_headers.transdecoder_dir

  4. longIsoform takes as input the files from orf and headerPatterns.txt as input to filter isoforms. It looks for genes that have multiple possible isoforms and only passes along the longest isoform for further analysis. The output can be found in intermediate_files/{sample}.longestIsoform.pep and intermediate_files/{sample}.longestIsoform.cds

  5. blast takes the combined pep output from longIsoform with lighter unique identifiers as input using DIAMOND to run an all against all BLASTP search. The output can be found in intermediate_files/all.pep.combined.blastall.out

  6. silix takes as input the output from blast and assigns proteins to putative gene families in the file intermediate_files/all.pep.combined_r90_SLX.fnodes

  7. mafft generates multiple protein squence alignments for the families generated in silix into files Families/family_{fam}.aln

  8. fasttree reconstructs phylogenies for the alignments generated by mafft into files Families/family_{fam}.tree

  9. trimAln trims spurious columns from output of mafft in files Families/family_{fam}.trimmed.aln

  10. hyphy takes trimmed alignments reverse translated to become codon alignments and classifies the selective regime of each site in each family. Output is placed in Families/family_{fam}_dir/family_{fam}.aln.codon.FUBAR.json

Investigating families of interest

Use the following command to parse only the json files listed in the famsUnderSelection.txt file and place them in a nice csv file per family. The columns will have the following information per codon position of the family alignment:

  1. alpha Mean posterior synonymous substitution rate at a site
  2. beta Mean posterior non-synonymous substitution rate at a site
  3. beta-alpha Mean posterior beta-alpha Prob[alpha>beta] Posterior probability of negative selection at a site
  4. Prob[alpha<beta] Posterior probability of positive selection at a site
  5. BayesFactor[alpha<beta] Empiricial Bayes Factor for positive selection at a site
  6. PSRF Potential scale reduction factor - an MCMC mixing measure
  7. Neff Estimated effective sample site for Prob [alpha<beta]
python FUSTr/utils/fubar_json.FUSTr.py -d <directory_with_fastas>