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InfluxDB Arduino Client

Simple Arduino client for writing and reading data from InfluxDB, no matter whether it is a local server or InfluxDB Cloud. The library supports authentication, secure communication over TLS, batching, automatic retrying on server back-pressure and connection failure.

It also allows setting data in various formats, automatically escapes special characters and offers specifying timestamp in various precisions.

Library supports both InfluxDB 2 and InfluxDB 1.

This is a new implementation and the API, original API is still supported.

Supported devices:

This library doesn't support using those devices as a peripheral.

Table of contents

Basic code for InfluxDB 2

After setting up an InfluxDB 2 server, first define connection parameters and a client instance:

// InfluxDB 2 server url, e.g. (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Client Libraries)
#define INFLUXDB_URL "influxdb-url"
// InfluxDB 2 server or cloud API authentication token (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Tokens -> <select token>)
#define INFLUXDB_TOKEN "token"
// InfluxDB 2 organization name or id (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Settings -> Profile -> <name under tile> )
#define INFLUXDB_ORG "org"
// InfluxDB 2 bucket name (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Buckets)
#define INFLUXDB_BUCKET "bucket"

// Single InfluxDB instance

The next step is adding data. A single row of data is represented by the Point class. It consists of a measurement name (like a table name), tags (which labels data) and fields ( the values to store):

// Define data point in the measurement named 'device_status`
Point pointDevice("device_status");
// Set tags
pointDevice.addTag("device", "ESP8266");
pointDevice.addTag("SSID", WiFi.SSID());
// Add data fields
pointDevice.addField("rssi", WiFi.RSSI());
pointDevice.addField("uptime", millis());

And finally, write the data to the database:

// Write data

Complete source code is available in the BasicWrite example.

Data can be seen in the InfluxDB UI immediately. Use the Data Explorer or create a Dashboard.

Basic code for InfluxDB 1

Using InfluxDB Arduino client for InfluxDB 1 is almost the same as for InfluxDB 2. The only difference is that InfluxDB 1 uses database as classic name for data storage instead of bucket and the server is unsecured by default. There is also a different InfluxDBClient constructor and setConnectionParametersV1 function for setting the security params. Everything else remains the same.

// InfluxDB server url, e.g. (don't use localhost, always server name or ip address)
#define INFLUXDB_URL "influxdb-url"
// InfluxDB database name
#define INFLUXDB_DB_NAME "database"

// Single InfluxDB instance

// Define data point with measurement name 'device_status`
Point pointDevice("device_status");
// Set tags
pointDevice.addTag("device", "ESP8266");
pointDevice.addTag("SSID", WiFi.SSID());
// Add data
pointDevice.addField("rssi", WiFi.RSSI());
pointDevice.addField("uptime", millis());

// Write data

Complete source code is available in BasicWrite example

Connecting to InfluxDB Cloud 2

Instead of setting up a local InfluxDB 2 server, it is possible to quickly start with InfluxDB Cloud 2 with a Free Plan.

InfluxDB Cloud uses secure communication over TLS (https). We need to tell the client to trust this connection. The paragraph bellow describes how to set trusted connection. However, InfluxDB cloud servers have only 3 months validity period. Their CA certificate, included in this library, is valid until 2035. Check Skipping certification validation for more details.

Connecting an Arduino client to InfluxDB Cloud server requires a few additional steps comparing to connecting to local server.

Connection parameters are almost the same as above, the only difference is that server URL now points to the InfluxDB Cloud 2, you set up after you've finished creating an InfluxDB Cloud 2 subscription. You will find the correct server URL in InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Client Libraries.

//Include also InfluxCloud 2 CA certificate
#include <InfluxDbCloud.h>
// InfluxDB 2 server or cloud url, e.g. (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Client Libraries)
#define INFLUXDB_URL "influxdb-url"
// InfluxDB 2 server or cloud API authentication token (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Tokens -> <select token>)
#define INFLUXDB_TOKEN "token"
// InfluxDB 2 organization name or id (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Settings -> Profile -> <name under tile> )
#define INFLUXDB_ORG "org"
// InfluxDB 2 bucket name (Use: InfluxDB UI -> Load Data -> Buckets)
#define INFLUXDB_BUCKET "bucket"

You need to pass an additional parameter to the client constructor, which is a certificate of the server to trust. The constant InfluxDbCloud2CACert contains the InfluxDB Cloud 2 CA certificate, which is predefined in this library:

// Single InfluxDB instance

Read more about secure connection.

Additionally, time needs to be synced:

// Synchronize time with NTP servers and set timezone
// Accurate time is necessary for certificate validation and writing in batches
// For the fastest time sync find NTP servers in your area:
configTzTime(TZ_INFO "", "");

Read more about time synchronization in Configure Time.

Defining data and writing it to the DB is the same as in the case of BasicWrite:

// Define data point with measurement name 'device_status`
Point pointDevice("device_status");
// Set tags
pointDevice.addTag("device", "ESP8266");
pointDevice.addTag("SSID", WiFi.SSID());
// Add data
pointDevice.addField("rssi", WiFi.RSSI());
pointDevice.addField("uptime", millis());

// Write data

Complete source code is available in SecureWrite example.

Writing in Batches

InfluxDB client for Arduino can also write data in batches. A batch is simply a set of points that will be sent at once. To create a batch, the client will keep all points until the number of points reaches the batch size and then it will write all points at once to the InfluxDB server. This is often more efficient than writing each point separately.


If using batch writes, the timestamp should be employed. Timestamp specifies the time when data was gathered and it is used in the form of a number of seconds (milliseconds, etc) from epoch (1.1.1970) UTC. If points have no timestamp assigned, InfluxDB assigns a timestamp at the time of writing, which could happen much later than the data has been obtained, because the final batch write will happen when the batch is full (or when flush buffer is forced).

InfluxDB allows sending timestamps in various precisions - nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds or seconds. The milliseconds precision is usually enough for using on Arduino. The maximum available precision is microseconds. Setting the timestamp to nanoseconds will just add zeroes for microseconds fraction and will not improve timestamp accuracy.

The client has to be configured with a time precision. The default settings is to not use the timestamp, which means that the server will assign a timestamp when the data is written to the database. The setWriteOptions functions allows setting custom WriteOptions params and one of them is write precision:

// Set write precision to milliseconds. Leave other parameters default.

When a write precision is configured, the client will automatically assign the current time to the timestamp of each written point which doesn't have a timestamp assigned.

If you want to manage timestamp on your own, there are several ways to set the timestamp explicitly.

  • setTime(WritePrecision writePrecision) - Sets the timestamp to the actual time in the desired precision. The same precision must set in WriteOptions.
  • setTime(unsigned long long timestamp) - Sets the timestamp to an offset since the epoch. Correct precision must be set InfluxDBClient::setWriteOptions.
  • setTime(String timestamp) - Sets the timestamp to an offset since the epoch. Correct precision must be set InfluxDBClient::setWriteOptions.

The getTime() method allows copying the timestamp between points.

Configure Time

Dealing with timestamps, and also validating server or CA certificate, requires that the device has correctly set the time. This can be done with one line of code:

// Synchronize time with NTP servers and set timezone
// Accurate time is necessary for certificate validation and writing in batches
// For the fastest time sync find NTP servers in your area:
configTzTime("PST8PDT", "", "");

The configTzTime function starts the time synchronization with NTP servers. The first parameter specifies the timezone information, which is important for distinguishing between UTC and a local timezone and for daylight saving changes. The last two string parameters are the internet addresses of NTP servers. Check for address of some local NTP servers.

Timezone string details are described at Values for some timezones:

  • Central Europe: CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3
  • Eastern: EST5EDT
  • Japanese: JST-9
  • Pacific Time: PST8PDT

There is also another function for syncing the time, which takes timezone and DST offset. As DST info is set via static offset it will create local time problem when DST change occurs. It's declaration is following:

configTime(long gmtOffset_sec, int daylightOffset_sec, const char* server1, const char* server2 = nullptr, const char* server3 = nullptr);

In the example code it would be:

// Synchronize time with NTP servers
// Accurate time is necessary for certificate validation and writing in batches
configTime(3600, 3600, "", "");

Both configTzTime and configTime functions are asynchronous. This means that calling the functions just starts the time synchronization. Time is often not synchronized yet upon returning from call.

There is a helper function timeSync provided with the this library. The function starts time synchronization by calling the configTzTime and waits maximum 20 seconds for time to be synchronized. It prints progress info and final local time to the Serial console. timeSync has the same signature as configTzTime and it is included with the main header file InfluxDbClient.h:

// Synchronize time with NTP servers and waits for competition. Prints waiting progress and final synchronized time to the Serial.
// Accurate time is necessary for certificate validation and writing points in batch
// For the fastest time sync find NTP servers in your area:
void timeSync(const char *tzInfo, const char* ntpServer1, const char* ntpServer2 = nullptr, const char* ntpServer3 = nullptr);

Batch Size

Setting batch size depends on data gathering and DB updating strategy.

If data is written in short periods (seconds), the batch size should be set according to your expected write periods and update frequency requirements. For example, if you would like to see updates (on the dashboard or in processing) each minute and you are measuring a single value (1 point) every 10s (6 points per minute), the batch size should be 6. If it is sufficient to update each hour and you are creating 1 point each minute, your batch size should be 60.

In cases where the data should be written in longer periods and gathered data consists of several points, the batch size should be set to the expected number of points to be gathered.

To set the batch size we use WriteOptions object and setWriteOptions function:

// Enable lines batching

Writing the point will add a point to the underlying buffer until the batch size is reached:

// Write first point to the buffer
// Buffered write always returns `true`
// Write second point to the buffer
// Write ninth point to the buffer
// Writing tenth point will cause flushing buffer and returns actual write result.
if(!client.writePoint(point10)) {
    Serial.print("InfluxDB write failed: ");

In case cases where the number of points is not always the same, set the batch size to the maximum number of points and use the flushBuffer() function to force writing to the database. See Buffer Handling for more details.

Large batch size

The maximum batch size depends on the available RAM of the device (~45KB for ESP8266 and ~260KB for ESP32). Larger batch size, >100 for ESP8255, >2000 for ESP32, must be chosen carefully to not crash the app with out of memory error. The Stream write mode must be used, see Write Modes

Always determine your typical line length using client.pointToLineProtocol(point).length(). For example, ESP32 can handle 2048 lines with an average length of 69. When the length of line or batch size is increased, the device becomes unstable, even there is more than 76k, it cannot send data or even crashes. ESP8266 handles successfully 330 of such lines.

⚠️ Thoroughly test your app when using large batch files.

Write Modes

Client has two modes of writing:

  • Buffer (default)
  • Stream

Writing is performed the way that client keeps written lines (points) separately and when a batch is completed, it allocates a data buffer for sending to a server via WiFi Client. This is the fastest way to write data but requires some amount of free memory. Thus a big batch size cannot be used.

Another way of writing is stream write.

  // Enables stream write

In this mode client continuously streams lines from batch to WiFi Client. No buffer allocation. As lines are allocated separately, it avoids problems with max allocable block size. The downside is, that writing is about 50% slower than in the Buffer mode.

Buffer Handling and Retrying

InfluxDB contains an underlying buffer for handling writing in batches and automatic retrying on server back-pressure and connection failure.

Its size is controlled by the bufferSize param of WriteOptions object:

// Increase buffer to allow caching of failed writes

The recommended size is at least 2 x batch size.

The state of the buffer can be determined via two functions:

  • isBufferEmpty() - Returns true if buffer is empty
  • isBufferFull() - Returns true if buffer is full

A full buffer can occur when there is a problem with the internet connection or the InfluxDB server is overloaded. In such cases, points to write remain in the buffer. When more points are added and connection problem remains, the buffer will reach the top and new points will overwrite older points.

Each attempt to write a point will try to send older points in the buffer. So, the isBufferFull() function can be used to skip low priority points.

The flushBuffer() function can be used to force writing, even if the number of points in the buffer is lower than the batch size. With the help of the isBufferEmpty() function a check can be made before a device goes to sleep:

 // Check whether buffer in not empty
 if (!client.isBufferEmpty()) {
     // Write all remaining points to db

Other functions for dealing with buffer:

  • checkBuffer() - Checks point buffer status and flushes if the number of points reaches batch size or flush interval runs out. This is the main function for controlling the buffer and it is used internally.
  • resetBuffer() - Clears the buffer.

Check SecureBatchWrite example for example code of buffer handling functions.

Write Options

Writing points can be controlled via WriteOptions, which is set in the setWriteOptions function:

Parameter Default Value Meaning
writePrecision WritePrecision::NoTime Timestamp precision of written data
batchSize 1 Number of points that will be written to the database at once
bufferSize 5 Maximum number of points in buffer. Buffer contains new data that will be written to the database and also data that failed to be written due to network failure or server overloading
flushInterval 60 Maximum time(in seconds) data will be held in buffer before points are written to the db
retryInterval 5 Default retry interval in sec, if not sent by server. Value 0 disables retrying
maxRetryInterval 300 Maximum retry interval in sec
maxRetryAttempts 3 Maximum count of retry attempts of failed writes

HTTP Options

HTTPOptions controls some aspects of HTTP communication and they are set via setHTTPOptions function:

Parameter Default Value Meaning
connectionReuse false Whether HTTP connection should be kept open after initial communication. Usable for frequent writes/queries.
httpReadTimeout 5000 Timeout (ms) for reading server response

Secure Connection

Connecting to a secured server requires configuring the client to trust the server. This is achieved by providing the client with a server certificate, certificate authority certificate or certificate SHA1 fingerprint.

📝 In ESP32 arduino SDK (1.0.4), WiFiClientSecure doesn't support fingerprint to validate the server certificate.

The certificate (in PEM format) or SHA1 fingerprint should be placed in flash memory to save RAM. Code bellow is an example certificate in PEM format. Valid InfluxDB 2 Cloud CA certificate is included in the library in the constant InfluxDbCloud2CACert, located in the InfluxDBCloud.h.

You can use a custom server certificate by exporting it, e.g. using a web browser:

// Server certificate in PEM format, placed in the program (flash) memory to save RAM
const char ServerCert[] PROGMEM =  R"EOF(

// Alternatively, use a fingerprint of server certificate to set trust. Works only for ESP8266.
const char ServerCert[] PROGMEM = "cabd2a79a1076a31f21d253635cb039d4329a5e8";

InfluxDb 2

There are two ways to set the certificate or fingerprint to trust a server:

  • Use full param constructor
// InfluxDB client instance with preconfigured InfluxCloud certificate
  • Use setConnectionParams function:
// InfluxDB client instance
InfluxDBClient client;

void setup() {
    // configure client

InfluxDb 1

Use setConnectionParamsV1 function:

// InfluxDB client instance
InfluxDBClient client;

void setup() {
    // configure client

Another important prerequisite to successfully validate a server or CA certificate is to have properly synchronized time. More on this in Configure Time.

ℹ️ Time synchronization is not required for validating server certificate via SHA1 fingerprint.

Skipping certificate validation

The CA certificate provided with the library is ISRG Root X1. This certificate lasts a very long time, until 2035. It is not necessary to update your device until then when using ISRG Root X1.

If you are using your own certificate, plase keep in mind server certificates have limited validity period, often only a few months. It will be necessary to frequently change trusted certificate in the source code and reflashing the device. A solution could be using OTA update, but you will still need to care about certificate validity and updating it ahead of time to avoid connection failures.

The best way to prevent frequent updates is to use a root certificate like the one provided with the library. If you are unable to use a root certificate from a trusted authority, you may want to use insecure mode instead. This is done with the help of InfluxDBClient::setInsecure() method. You will also save space in flash (and RAM) by leaving certificate param empty when calling constructor or setConnectionParams method.

📝 The InfluxDBClient::setInsecure() method must be called before calling any function that will establish connection. The best place to call it is in the setup method:

// InfluxDB client instance without a server certificate

void setup() {
    // Set insecure connection to skip server certificate validation 

⚠️ Using untrusted connection is a security risk.


InfluxDB 2 and InfluxDB 1.7+ (with enabled flux) uses Flux to process and query data. InfluxDB client for Arduino offers a simple, but powerful, way how to query data with query function. It parses response line by line, so it can read a huge responses (thousands data lines), without consuming a lot device memory.

The query returns FluxQueryResult object, which parses response and provides useful getters for accessing values from result set.

The InfluxDB flux query result set is returned in CSV format. In the example below, the first line contains type information and the second column names, and the rest is data:


Accessing data using FluxQueryResult requires knowing the query result structure, especially the name and the type of the column. The best practice is to tune the query in the InfluxDB Data Explorer and use the final query with this library.

Browsing thought the result set is done by repeatedly calling the next() method, until it returns false. Unsuccessful reading is distinguished by a non empty value from the getError() method. As a flux query result can contain several tables, differing by grouping key, use the hasTableChanged() method to determine when there is a new table. Single values are returned using the getValueByIndex() or getValueByName() methods. All row values at once are retrieved by the getValues() method. Always call the close() method at the of reading.

A value in the flux query result column, retrieved by the getValueByIndex() or getValueByName() methods, is represented by the FluxValue object. It provides getter methods for supported flux types:

Flux type Getter C type
long getLong() long
unsignedLong getUnsignedLong() unsigned long
dateTime:RFC3339, dateTime:RFC3339Nano getDateTime() FluxDateTime
bool getBool() bool
double bool double
string, base64binary, duration getString() String

Calling improper type getter will result in a zero (empty) value.

Check for null (missing) value using the isNull() method.

Use the getRawValue() method for getting the original string form.

// Construct a Flux query
// Query will find RSSI for last 24 hours for each connected WiFi network with this device computed by given selector function
String query = "from(bucket: \"my-bucket\") |> range(start: -24h) |> filter(fn: (r) => r._measurement == \"wifi_status\" and r._field == \"rssi\"";
query += "and r.device == \"ESP32\")";
query += "|> max()";

// Send query to the server and get result
FluxQueryResult result = client.query(query);

// Iterate over rows. Even there is just one row, next() must be called at least once.
while ( {
  // Get typed value for flux result column 'SSID'
  String ssid = result.getValueByName("SSID").getString();
  Serial.print("SSID '");

  Serial.print("' with RSSI ");

  // Get converted value for flux result column '_value' where there is RSSI value
  long value = result.getValueByName("_value").getLong();

  // Format date-time for printing
  // Format string according to
  String timeStr = time.format("%F %T");

  Serial.print(" at ");


// Check if there was an error
if(result.getError() != "") {
  Serial.print("Query result error: ");

Complete source code is available in QueryAggregated example.

Original API


 #define INFLUXDB_HOST ""
 #define INFLUXDB_PORT 1337
 #define INFLUXDB_DATABASE "test"
 //if used with authentication
 #define INFLUXDB_USER "user"
 #define INFLUXDB_PASS "password"

 // connect to WiFi

 Influxdb influx(INFLUXDB_HOST); // port defaults to 8086
 // or to use a custom port

 // set the target database
 // or use a db with auth
 influx.setDbAuth(INFLUXDB_DATABASE, INFLUXDB_USER, INFLUXDB_PASS) // with authentication

// To use the v2.0 InfluxDB

Sending a single measurement

Using an InfluxData object:

// create a measurement object
InfluxData measurement ("temperature");
measurement.addTag("device", d2);
measurement.addTag("sensor", "dht11");
measurement.addValue("value", 24.0);

// write it into db

Using raw-data

 influx.write("temperature,device=d2,sensor=dht11 value=24.0")

Write multiple data points at once

Batching measurements and send them with a single request will result in a much higher performance.

InfluxData measurement1 = readTemperature()

InfluxData measurement2 = readLight()

InfluxData measurement3 = readVoltage()

// writes all prepared measurements with a single request into db.
boolean success = influx.write();


All db methods return status. Value false means something went wrong. Call getLastErrorMessage() to get the error message.

When error message doesn't help to explain the bad behavior, go to the library sources and in the file src/InfluxDBClient.cpp uncomment line 32:

// Uncomment bellow in case of a problem and rebuild sketch

Then upload your sketch again and see the debug output in the Serial Monitor.

If you couldn't solve a problem by yourself, please, post an issue including the debug output.


If you would like to contribute code you can do through GitHub by forking the repository and sending a pull request into the master branch.


The InfluxDB Arduino Client is released under the MIT License.