Expose a NGinx docker image, build and run locally
We are going to use a super small Linux distribution called Alpine Linux with an Nginx HTTP server. Inside this folder we have a file called "Dockerfile" that is the base of our image.
The Docker works like this, first we have the Dockerfile, the building steps to create the image layers, then we use that image to create and run a container. You can compare a image with a photo, after builded is inmutable, if the Dockerfile gets an update, when you build the image again Docker will replace the layers where those update happens and overlays the resulting file system on top of the previous one.
Our Dockerfile contains only two lines:
Line 1 used
FROM directive that references an existing image in the registry.
Line 2 used
COPY directive to copy the contents of the
./site folder to
/usr/share/nginx/html inside of the image.
Images, Containers and External resources
In order to run this example please clone the repository, then go to docker-nginx folder.
Building, we are going to use -t flag to asing the name of the image. Build the image, executes every statement inside of the Dockerfile and overlays the resulting file system on top of the previous one.
$ docker build -t localnginx .
Listing docker images locally available, in this case ginx, the base image pulled from the registry thanks to the Dockerfile first line and localnginx, our version.
$ docker images
Create and start a container, we are going to use -p flag
-p 3111:80 to map the port 3111 in the host machine to the port 80 inside the container. Here we are attaching our runing console to the execution, tun the comand and go to
http://localhost:3111 to test the served page. Ctrl+C to exit the container console.
$ docker container run -p 3111:80 localnginx
Listing containers, this command will list all running containers, if you add the -a flag it will list all the container not matter their status. One of those containers will be our localnginx.
$ docker container ls -a
Now start again our container and test
http://localhost:3111. It will we available in the same port, but in this case the console will remain deattach.
$ docker container start <container_id>
Each time you use the run command Docker will create a new container based, for example if you run the following command it will create a second localnginx image based container. If you want to list use
-a flag because now is on Exited status. Use
start command to start again that Exited container using the Container Id as a parameter. Finally if you want to errase a container use
-f flag will delete that container even if is running.
$ docker container run -p 3222:80 localnginx $ docker container ls -a $ docker container start <container_id> $ docker rm -f <container_id>
Runing a container setting the name and deattach mode, to set a name to our container we use
--name option and then
-d flag to deattach the container from the console. Another useful commands are stop and star.
$ docker container run -p 3333:80 --name localnginx -d localnginx $ docker container ls $ docker container stop localnginx $ docker container start localnginx
Next step is working with a volumne, an external resource outside our container. We are going to use the html file located inside
external-site folder, so each time we change our page content it will reflected in the runing container. (Don't forget to change the folder's path). This time test
http://localhost:3444 and change /external-site/index.html and refresh your browser.
$ docker container run -p 3444:80 -d --name externalsite -v /<Your_folder_path>/docker-nginx/external-site:/usr/share/nginx/html localnginx
Container info tools
Container logs, an important tool available in Docker is
logs command. If we run the following command we are getting access to the logs of our localnginx.
$ docker logs localningx
Container inspect, if you want to know your container
current ip, open ports, based image, or any low-level information in your Docker object use the
$ docker inspect localnginx
Working inside a container
Now we are going to access our container bash console, we are going to use an Ubuntu image to get the libraries necesaries to perform some simple commands inside our container. The
--rm flag will remove our container once we stop or exit the console. We are goint to use too
exec /bin/bash what allows us to run commands on a running container.
$ docker run --name ubuntubash --rm -i -t ubuntu:rolling bash $ docker run --name ubuntubash -i -t -d ubuntu:rolling $ docker exec -it ubuntubash /bin/bash $ docker attach ubuntubash $ docker start ubuntubash
Some final useful commands, respectily, delete a container by id -f flag to force the command to include the running containers, next the one to delete all containers, rmi command is for images so the thrid command will delete an image by id, the last one will delete all images, use that one wizely!.
$ docker rm -f <container_id> $ docker rm $(docker ps -a -q) $ docker rmi -f <image_id> $ docker rmi -f $(docker images -q)