A Django application to retrieve client's IP address
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README.md

Django IPware

A Django application to retrieve client's IP address

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Overview

Best attempt to get client's IP address while keeping it DRY.

Notice

There is not a good out-of-the-box solution against fake IP addresses, aka IP Address Spoofing. You are encouraged to read the (Advanced users) section of this page and use trusted_proxies_ips and/or proxy_count features to match your needs, especially if you are planning to include ipware in any authentication, security or anti-fraud related architecture.

How to install

1. easy_install django-ipware
2. pip install django-ipware
3. git clone http://github.com/un33k/django-ipware
    a. cd django-ipware
    b. run python setup.py install
4. wget https://github.com/un33k/django-ipware/zipball/master
    a. unzip the downloaded file
    b. cd into django-ipware-* directory
    c. run python setup.py install

How to use

 # In a view or a middleware where the `request` object is available

 from ipware import get_client_ip
 client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request)
 if client_ip is None:
    # Unable to get the client's IP address
 else:
     # We got the client's IP address
     if is_routable:
         # The client's IP address is publicly routable on the Internet
     else:
         # The client's IP address is private

 # Order of precedence is (Public, Private, Loopback, None)

Advanced users:

  • Precedence Order

The default meta precedence order is top to bottom. However, you may customize the order by providing your own IPWARE_META_PRECEDENCE_ORDER by adding it to your project's settings.py

 # The default meta precedence order
 IPWARE_META_PRECEDENCE_ORDER = (
     'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR', 'X_FORWARDED_FOR',  # <client>, <proxy1>, <proxy2>
     'HTTP_CLIENT_IP',
     'HTTP_X_REAL_IP',
     'HTTP_X_FORWARDED',
     'HTTP_X_CLUSTER_CLIENT_IP',
     'HTTP_FORWARDED_FOR',
     'HTTP_FORWARDED',
     'HTTP_VIA',
     'REMOTE_ADDR',
 )

Alternativley, you can provide your custom request header meta precedence order when calling get_client_ip().

get_client_ip(request, request_header_order=['X_FORWARDED_FOR'])
get_client_ip(request, request_header_order=['X_FORWARDED_FOR', 'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR'])
  • Private Prefixes

You may customize the prefixes to indicate an IP addresses private. This is done by adding your own IPWARE_PRIVATE_IP_PREFIX to your project's settings.py. IP addresses matching the following prefixes are considered private & are not publicly routable.

# The default private IP prefixes
IPWARE_PRIVATE_IP_PREFIX = getattr(settings,
   'IPWARE_PRIVATE_IP_PREFIX', (
     '0.',  # messages to software
     '10.',  # class A private block
     '100.64.',  '100.65.',  '100.66.',  '100.67.',  '100.68.',  '100.69.',
     '100.70.',  '100.71.',  '100.72.',  '100.73.',  '100.74.',  '100.75.',
     '100.76.',  '100.77.',  '100.78.',  '100.79.',  '100.80.',  '100.81.',
     '100.82.',  '100.83.',  '100.84.',  '100.85.',  '100.86.',  '100.87.',
     '100.88.',  '100.89.',  '100.90.',  '100.91.',  '100.92.',  '100.93.',
     '100.94.',  '100.95.',  '100.96.',  '100.97.',  '100.98.',  '100.99.',
     '100.100.', '100.101.', '100.102.', '100.103.', '100.104.', '100.105.',
     '100.106.', '100.107.', '100.108.', '100.109.', '100.110.', '100.111.',
     '100.112.', '100.113.', '100.114.', '100.115.', '100.116.', '100.117.',
     '100.118.', '100.119.', '100.120.', '100.121.', '100.122.', '100.123.',
     '100.124.', '100.125.', '100.126.', '100.127.',  # carrier-grade NAT
     '169.254.',  # link-local block
     '172.16.', '172.17.', '172.18.', '172.19.',
     '172.20.', '172.21.', '172.22.', '172.23.',
     '172.24.', '172.25.', '172.26.', '172.27.',
     '172.28.', '172.29.', '172.30.', '172.31.',  # class B private blocks
     '192.0.0.',  # reserved for IANA special purpose address registry
     '192.0.2.',  # reserved for documentation and example code
     '192.168.',  # class C private block
     '198.18.', '198.19.',  # reserved for inter-network communications between two separate subnets
     '198.51.100.',  # reserved for documentation and example code
     '203.0.113.',  # reserved for documentation and example code
     '224.', '225.', '226.', '227.', '228.', '229.', '230.', '231.', '232.',
     '233.', '234.', '235.', '236.', '237.', '238.', '239.',  # multicast
     '240.', '241.', '242.', '243.', '244.', '245.', '246.', '247.', '248.',
     '249.', '250.', '251.', '252.', '253.', '254.', '255.',  # reserved
   ) + (
     '::',  # Unspecified address
     '::ffff:', '2001:10:', '2001:20:'  # messages to software
     '2001::',  # TEREDO
     '2001:2::',  # benchmarking
     '2001:db8:',  # reserved for documentation and example code
     'fc00:',  # IPv6 private block
     'fe80:',  # link-local unicast
     'ff00:',  # IPv6 multicast
   )
)
  • Trusted Proxies

If your Django server is behind one or more known proxy server(s), you can filter out unwanted requests by providing the trusted proxy list when calling get_client_ip(request, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.233.133']). In the following example, your load balancer (LB) can be seen as a trusted proxy.

 `Real` Client  <public> <---> <public> LB (Server) <private> <--------> <private> Django Server
                                                                   ^
                                                                   |
 `Fake` Client  <private> <---> <private> LB (Server) <private> ---^
# In the above scenario, use your load balancer's IP address as a way to filter out unwanted requests.
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.233.133'])

# If you have multiple proxies, simply add them to the list
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.233.133', '177.139.233.134'])

# For proxy servers with fixed sub-domain and dynamic IP, use the following pattern.
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.', '177.140'])
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.233.', '177.139.240'])
  • Proxy Count

If your Django server is behind a known number of proxy server(s), you can filter out unwanted requests by providing the number of proxies when calling get_client_ip(request, proxy_count=1). In the following example, your load balancer (LB) can be seen as the only proxy.

 `Real` Client  <public> <---> <public> LB (Server) <private> <--------> <private> Django Server
                                                                   ^
                                                                   |
                                       `Fake` Client  <private> ---^
# In the above scenario, the total number of proxies can be used as a way to filter out unwanted requests.
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_count=1)

# The above may be very useful in cases where your proxy server's IP address is assigned dynamically.
# However, If you have the proxy IP address, you can use it in combination to the proxy count.
client_ip, is_routable = get_client_ip(request, proxy_count=1, proxy_trusted_ips=['177.139.233.133'])
  • Originating Request

If your proxy server is configured such that the right most IP address is that of the originating client, you can indicate right-most as your proxy_order when calling get_client_ip(request, proxy_order="right-most"). Please note that the de-facto standard for the originating client IP address is the left-most as per <client>, <proxy1>, <proxy2>.

Running the tests

To run the tests against the current environment:

python manage.py test

License

Released under a (MIT) license.

Version

X.Y.Z Version

`MAJOR` version -- when you make incompatible API changes,
`MINOR` version -- when you add functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and
`PATCH` version -- when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes.