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Glasgow Debug Tool

Want one? The Crowdsupply campaign is now live.

Let's chat! Our IRC channel is #glasgow at; our Discord channel is #glasgow at 1BitSquared's Discord server.

Important note: if you are looking to assemble boards yourself, use only revC2.


At the moment the project does not see much activity because the founder and primary maintainer, Catherine @whitequark, has spent several years struggling to survive due to disability, large scale social unrest, and other factors. She has now moved to the UK, got necessary healthcare, and is doing a lot better; the project's pace will pick up soon and more maintainers will be added to the current team of three in close future, but the timing of Crowdsupply orders being shipped doesn't match up to maintainer capacity a little bit.

Please stay patient and keep in mind that hardware is made by people who have limited capacity and sometimes need to recover from extreme events.

If you want to show appreciation or help with Catherine's living costs, she has a personal Patreon. These donations will not impact the progress of the project since the limiting factor is health first and time second, but they are very much appreciated.

What is Glasgow?

Glasgow is a tool for exploring digital interfaces, aimed at embedded developers, reverse engineers, digital archivists, electronics hobbyists, and everyone else who wants to communicate to a wide selection of digital devices with high reliability and minimum hassle. It can be attached to most devices without additional active or passive components, and includes extensive protection from unexpected conditions and operator error.

The Glasgow hardware can support many digital interfaces because it uses reconfigurable logic. Instead of only offering a small selection of standard hardware supported interfaces, it uses an FPGA to adapt on the fly to the task at hand without compromising on performance or reliability, even for unusual, custom or obsolete interfaces.

The Glasgow software is a set of building blocks designed to eliminate incidental complexity. Each interface is packaged into a self-contained applet that can be used directly from the command line, or reused as a part of a more complex system. Using Glasgow does not require any programming knowledge, although it becomes much more powerful if you know a bit of Python.

What can I do with Glasgow?

Some of the tasks Glasgow can do well are:

  • communicate via UART,
    • automatically determine and follow the baud rate of device under test,
  • initiate transactions via SPI or I²C,
  • read and write 24-series I²C EEPROMs,
  • read and write 25-series SPI Flash memories,
    • determine memory parameters via SFDP,
  • read and write ONFI-compatible Flash memories,
    • determine memory parameters via ONFI parameter page,
  • read and write parallel 27/28/29-series EPROMs, EEPROMs and Flash memories,
    • determine the extent of floating gate charge decay and rescue data,
  • program and verify AVR microcontrollers with SPI interface,
  • automatically determine unknown JTAG pinout,
  • play back JTAG SVF files,
  • debug ARC processors via JTAG,
  • debug some MIPS processors via EJTAG,
  • program and verify XC9500XL CPLDs via JTAG,
  • communicate using nRF24L01(+) radios,
  • program nRF24LE1 and nRF24LU1(+) microcontrollers,
  • synthesize sound using a Yamaha OPLx/OPM chip and play it in real time on a webpage,
  • read raw modulated data from 5.25"/3.5" floppy drives,
  • ... and more!

Everything above can be done with only a Glasgow revC board, some wires, and depending on the device under test, external power.

How does using Glasgow look like?

Watch a typical command-line workflow in this screencast:


What hardware does Glasgow use?

The Glasgow hardware evolves over time, with each major milestone called a "revision". Although all revisions are, and will always be supported with the same software, they vary significantly in their capabilities, and the chosen revision will limit the possible tasks.

Glasgow boards use a version in the revXN format, where X is a revision letter (increased on major design changes) and N is a stepping number (increased on any layout or component changes). For example, revC0 is the first stepping of revision C.


Revisions A and B have not been produced in significant amounts, contain major design issues, and are therefore mostly of historical interest. Nevertheless, everyone who has one of the revA/revB boards can keep using them—forever.


Overview of the Glasgow PCB

Revision C is the latest revision and is being prepared for mass production. It provides 16 I/O pins with a data rate up to approx. 100 Mbps/pin (50 MHz)*, independent direction control and independent programmable pull-up/pull-down resistors. The I/O pins are grouped into two I/O ports, each of which can use any voltage from 1.8 V to 5 V, sense and monitor I/O voltage of the device under test, as well as provide up to 150 mA of power. The board uses USB 2 for power, configuration, and communication, achieving up to 336 Mbps (42 MB/s) of sustained combined throughput.

* Data rate achievable in practice depends on many factors and will vary greatly with specific interface and applet design. 12 Mbps/pin (6 MHz) can be achieved with minimal development effort; reaching higher data rates requires careful HDL coding and a good understanding of timing analysis.

What software does Glasgow use?

Glasgow is written entirely in Python 3. The interface logic that runs on the FPGA is described using Amaranth, which is a Python-based domain specific language. The supporting code that runs on the host PC is written in Python with asyncio. This way, the logic on the FPGA can be assembled on demand for any requested configuration, keeping it as fast and compact as possible, and code can be shared between gateware and software, removing the need to add error-prone "glue" boilerplate.

Glasgow would not be possible without the open-source iCE40 FPGA toolchain, which is not only very reliable but also extremely fast. It is so fast that FPGA bitstreams are not cached (beyond not rebuilding the bitstream already on the device), as it only takes a few seconds to build one from scratch for something like an UART. When developing a new applet it is rarely necessary to wait for the toolchain.

Implementing reliable, high-performance USB communication is not trivial—packetization, buffering, and USB quirks add up. Glasgow abstracts away USB: on the FPGA, the applet gateware writes to or reads from a FIFO, and on the host, applet software writes to or reads from a socket-like interface. Idiomatic Python code can communicate at maximum USB 2 bulk bandwidth on a modern PC without additional effort. Moreover, when a future Glasgow revision will use Ethernet in addition to USB, no changes to applet code will be required.

Debugging new applets can be hard, especially if bidirectional buses are involved. Glasgow provides a built-in cycle-accurate logic analyzer that can relate the I/O pin level and direction changes to commands and responses received and sent by the applet. The logic analyzer compresses waveforms and can pause the applet if its buffer is about to overflow.

How do I use Glasgow?

If these instructions don't work for you, please file it as a bug, so that the experience can be made more smooth for everyone.

... with Linux?

You will need git and Python 3.8 (or newer). On a Debian (11 or newer) or Ubuntu (20.04 or newer) system these can be installed with:

apt install --no-install-recommends \
  git python3 python3-setuptools python3-pip python3-libusb1 python3-aiohttp python3-bitarray

python3 --version

You will also need recent versions of Yosys and nextpnr-ice40, which can be installed from the binary Tabby CAD Suite distribution, or from separate sources (Yosys and nextpnr-ice40).

Obtain the source code:

git clone
cd glasgow

Configure your system to allow unprivileged access (for anyone in the plugdev group) to the Glasgow hardware:

sudo cp config/99-glasgow.rules /etc/udev/rules.d

Install the dependencies and the scripts for the current user:

cd software
pip install --user --editable ./

The scripts are placed in $HOME/.local/bin, so be sure to add that directory to the PATH environment variable; after this, you can run glasgow from a terminal. Instead of adjusting PATH it is also possible to use python3 -m glasgow.cli.

To update the source code, do:

cd glasgow
git pull

... with macOS?

If you haven't already, install Homebrew. Now:

brew install python
brew tap ktemkin/oss-fpga
brew install --HEAD icestorm yosys nextpnr-ice40

Obtain the source code:

git clone
cd glasgow

Install the dependencies and the scripts for the current user:

cd software
python3 develop

The scripts will be installed in /usr/local/bin, which should already be in your PATH.

... with Windows?

Although first-class Windows support is an important goal and Glasgow already works on Windows, the installation process is not yet ready.

How do I factory flash Glasgow?

"Factory flashing" refers to the process of assigning a brand new Glasgow board (that you probably just assembled) a serial number, as well as writing a few critical configuration options that will let the normal Glasgow CLI pick up this device. Barring severe and unusual EEPROM corruption, this process is performed only once for each board.

As a prerequisite to factory flashing, follow all steps from the "How do I use Glasgow?" section.

Any board that is factory flashed must have a blank FX2_MEM EEPROM. If the FX2_MEM EEPROM is not completely erased (all bytes set to FF), the factory flashing process may fail.

... with Linux?

Configure your system to allow unprivileged access (for anyone in the plugdev group) to any hardware that enumerates as the Cypress FX2 ROM bootloader:

sudo cp config/99-cypress.rules /etc/udev/rules.d

Note that this udev rule will affect more devices than just Glasgow, since the Cypress VID:PID pair is shared.

Plug in the newly assembled device. At this point, lsusb | grep 04b4:8613 should list one entry. Assuming you are factory flashing a board revision C2, run:

glasgow factory --rev C2

Done! At this point, lsusb | grep 20b7:9db1 should list one entry.

... with Windows?

See above.

Who made Glasgow?

  • @whitequark came up with the design, coordinates the project and implements most of gateware and software;
  • @awygle designed the power/analog port circuitry and helped with layout of revB;
  • @marcan improved almost every aspect of hardware for revC;
  • @esden is handling batch manufacturing;
  • @smunaut provided advice crucial for stability and performance of USB communication;
  • @electronic_eel improved the hardware for revC2, designed the test jig and is working on advanced protection circuitry;
  • @Attie improved and refactored many applets;
  • ... and many other people.


Glasgow is distributed under the terms of both 0-clause BSD license as well as Apache 2.0 license.

See LICENSE-0BSD and LICENSE-Apache-2.0.txt for details.


Work in progress for Glasgow Interface Explorer







  • Python 94.2%
  • C 4.4%
  • HTML 1.3%
  • Other 0.1%