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hasql

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hasql provides simple and reliable way to access high-availability database setups with multiple hosts.

Status

hasql is production-ready and is actively used inside Yandex' production environment.

Prerequisites

Installation

With Go module support, simply add the following import

import "golang.yandex/hasql"

to your code, and then go [build|run|test] will automatically fetch the necessary dependencies.

Otherwise, to install the hasql package, run the following command:

$ go get -u golang.yandex/hasql

How does it work

hasql operates using standard database/sql connection pool objects. User creates *sql.DB objects for each node of database cluster and passes them to constructor. Library keeps up to date information on state of each node by 'pinging' them periodically. User is provided with a set of interfaces to retrieve *sql.DB object suitable for required operation.

dbFoo, _ := sql.Open("pgx", "host=foo")
dbBar, _ := sql.Open("pgx", "host=bar")
cl, err := hasql.NewCluster(
    []hasql.Node{hasql.NewNode("foo", dbFoo), hasql.NewNode("bar", dbBar) },
    checkers.PostgreSQL,
)
if err != nil { ... }

node := cl.Primary()
if node == nil { ... }

// Do anything you like
fmt.Println("Node address", node.Addr)

ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), time.Second)
defer cancel()
if err = node.DB().PingContext(ctx); err != nil { ... }

hasql does not configure provided connection pools in any way. It is user's job to set them up properly. Library does handle their lifetime though - pools are closed when Cluster object is closed.

Supported criteria

Alive primary|Alive standby|Any alive node, or none otherwise

node := c.Primary()
if node == nil { ... }

Alive primary|Alive standby, or any alive node, or none otherwise

node := c.PreferPrimary()
if node == nil { ... }

Ways of accessing nodes

Any of currently alive nodes satisfying criteria, or none otherwise

node := c.Primary()
if node == nil { ... }

Any of currently alive nodes satisfying criteria, or wait for one to become alive

ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), time.Second)
defer cancel()
node, err := c.WaitForPrimary(ctx)
if err == nil { ... }

Node pickers

When user asks Cluster object for a node a random one from a list of suitable nodes is returned. User can override this behavior by providing a custom node picker.

Library provides a couple of predefined pickers. For example if user wants 'closest' node (with lowest latency) PickNodeClosest picker should be used.

cl, err := hasql.NewCluster(
    []hasql.Node{hasql.NewNode("foo", dbFoo), hasql.NewNode("bar", dbBar) },
    checkers.PostgreSQL,
    hasql.WithNodePicker(hasql.PickNodeClosest()),
)
if err != nil { ... }

Supported databases

Since library works over standard database/sql it supports any database that has a database/sql driver. All it requires is a database-specific checker function that can tell if node is primary or standby.

Check out golang.yandex/hasql/checkers package for more information.

Caveats

Node's state is transient at any given time. If Primary() returns a node it does not mean that node is still primary when you execute statement on it. All it means is that it was primary when it was last checked. Nodes can change their state at a whim or even go offline and hasql can't control it in any manner.

This is one of the reasons why nodes do not expose their perceived state to user.

Extensions

Instrumentation

You can add instrumentation via Tracer object similar to httptrace in standard library.

sqlx

hasql can operate over database/sql pools wrapped with sqlx. It works the same as with standard library but requires user to import golang.yandex/hasql/sqlx instead.

Refer to golang.yandex/hasql/sqlx package for more information.

About

Go library for accessing multi-host SQL database installations

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