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C++11 Wrapper for Erlang NIF API
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examples
README.markdown
erl_nif.h.patch
nifpp.h

README.markdown

nifpp: C++11 Wrapper for Erlang NIF API

Introduction

Nifpp enhances the Erlang NIF API for C++ by providing:

  • Conversions to/from C++ container types, namely tuple, vector, list, deque, set, and multiset.
  • A safe resource wrapper so that any type can be created as a resource.

Installation

Nifpp is provided as a single header file. Copy nifpp.h into your nif source directory. Wherever you would write

#include <erl_nif.h>

instead write

#include “nifpp.h”

All nifpp functions are available in the nifpp namespace. The C API remains available in the global namespace, and it may be mixed with nifpp functions.

erl_nif.h patch

nifpp requires a small patch to erl_nif.h. Locate your erl_nif.h and patch it with a command like...

patch -p4 /path/to/erl_nif.h <erl_nif.h.patch

Nifpp relies on overloaded functions. The type ERL_NIF_TERM in erl_nif.h is defined as an integer, and this creates conflicts when nifpp wants to deal with actual integers. The patch changes the type of ERL_NIF_TERM to a C++11 enum to avoid the conflict. The new type is activated by a #define in nifpp.h, so the patched erl_nif.h remains compatible with non-nifpp users.

C++11 compatibility

Nifpp was tested with gcc-4.6, but may work with older versions. Activate c++11 support with the switch “--std=c++0x”.

MSVC 2011 and older lack (at least) variadic templates and will not work with nifpp.

get() and make()

Nifpp provides overloaded wrappers for most of the enif_get_XXX() and enif_make_XXX() functions. The prototypes are:

bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, T &var);
ERL_NIF_TERM make(ErlNifEnv *env, const T &var);

get() will return true on success, false on failure.

There are some additional template wrappers for get():

void get_throws(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, T &var);
T get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term);

Both forms will throw nifpp::badarg upon failure. Note that for the last form, the type must be explicitly specified since it cannot be inferred, for example:

int i = get<int>(env, term);

Plain-Old-Data Types

The following POD types are supported:

  • double
  • int
  • unsigned int
  • long
  • unsigned long
  • ErlNifSInt64
  • ErlNifUInt64
  • ERL_NIF_TERM

Note that get()/make() for ERL_NIF_TERM simply outputs the input term without conversion. This is useful in conjunction with tuple and list get()/make() (see below).

Examples:

// get() example 1
long a;
if(get(env, term, a))
{ … do something with a...}

// get() example 2
try {
  double b;
  get_throws(env, term, b);
  … do something with b...
}
except(nifpp::badarg) {}

// get() example 3  
try {
  auto c = get<ErlNifPid>(env, term);
  … do something with c...
}
except(nifpp::badarg) {}

// make() example 1
ERL_NIF_TERM output;
output = make(env, a);
return output;

// make() example 2
auto output = make(env, b);
return output;

// make() example 3
return make(env, c);

Strings

String are represented by std::string. Examples:

// get() example:
std::string a;
get_throws(env, term, a);
… do something with a...

// make() example 1:
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, “hello world”);

// make() example 2:
std::string a(“hello world”);
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, a);

Atoms

nifpp represents atoms by the type str_atom, which is a thin wrapper around std::string. Other more complex and more efficient representations may be added in the future.

// get() example:
str_atom a;
get_throws(env, term, a);
… do something with a...

// make() example 1:
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, str_atom(“hello world”));

// make() example 2:
str_atom a(“hello world”);
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, a);

Binaries

ErlNifBinary is directly supported by get()/make(), for Example:

// inspect binary
ErlNifBinary ebin;
get_throws(env, term, ebin);
...inspect contents of ebin...

// create binary
ErlNifBinary ebin;
enif_alloc_binary(2000, &ebin);
...copy data into ebin...
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, ebin);

The type binary is also supplied to assist in safe creation of binaries. binary is derived from ErlNifBinary and will automatically release the allocated memory if it was never made into a term. For example:

// create binary using "binary" type
try
{
    binary nbin(2000);
    ...copy data into nbin, maybe throw...
    ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, nbin);
}
catch(...)
{} // nbin released here if make() was not called on it.

Tuples

Tuples are represented by the C++11 type std::tuple. Tuples-of-references are a powerful method for cracking and packing Erlang tuple terms. Examples:

// crack simple tuple {hello, 14} using tuple-of-references
str_atom a;
int b;
auto tup = std::make_tuple( std::ref(a), std::ref(b) );
get_throws(env, term, tup);

// crack nested tuple {hello, 14, {10,4}} using tuple-of-references
str_atom a;
int b;
int c;
int d;
auto tup = std::make_tuple( std::ref(a), std::ref(b),
     std::make_tuple( std::ref(c), std::ref(d) ));
get_throws(env, term, tup);

std::tie() offers syntactic sugar for composing a tuple-of-references. Note that the result of std::tie() is not a reference, so it cannot be used in the top-level tuple in the nested tuple example. Examples:

// crack simple tuple {hello, 14} using tuple-of-references [using std::tie()]
str_atom a;
int b;
auto tup = std::tie( a, b );
get_throws(env, term, tup);

// crack nested tuple {hello, 14, {10,4}} using tuple-of-references [using std::tie()]
str_atom a;
int b;
int c;
int d;
auto tup = std::make_tuple( std::ref(a), std::ref(b), std::tie( c, d) );
get_throws(env, term, tup);


`ERL_NIF_TERM` can be used to defer decoding of tuple elements.  Example:

// partial crack
str_atom type;
ERL_NIF_TERM value;
auto tup = std::tie( type, value );
get_throws(env, term, tup);
… decode value based on type

If you want to use std::tuple for the C++ side of your code, you can use regular value tuples too. Example:

// crack plain tuple
std::tuple<str_atom, int, ERL_NIF_TERM> tup;
get_throws(env, term, tup);

And here are some examples of tuple packing...

ERL_NIF_TERM term;
str_atom a(“hello”);
int b(4);
term = make(env, std::make_tuple(a,b));

ERL_NIF_TERM term;
auto tup = std::make_tuple(str_atom(“hello”), 4);
term = make(env, tup);

ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, std::make_tuple(str_atom(“hello”), 4));

Lists

Lists can be represented by a number of types:

  • std::vector
  • std::list
  • std::deque
  • std::set
  • std::multiset

get() and make() may be used on all of them to decode/create an Erlang list. Examples:

std::vector<int> myintlist;
get_throws(env, term, myintlist);

std::vector<ERL_NIF_TERM> mylist;
get_throws(env, term, mylist);

std::deque<int> mydeque;
mydeque.push_back(44);
...
ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, mydeque);

There is also a special Erlang list iteration function:

bool list_foreach(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM list_term, std::function<void (ErlNifEnv *, ERL_NIF_TERM item)>);

This is useful if you want to iterate through a list without copying the entire thing. The following get() function is a good example of list_foreach usage:

[list for each example]

Resources

The following forms are for working with resources:

bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, T * &var);
bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, resource_ptr<T> &var);
ERL_NIF_TERM make(ErlNifEnv *env, const resource_ptr<T> &var)

See section below for details on nifpp resources.

Resource Binaries

TBA

Extending get()/make()

Under Construction (there issues with function definition order that need to be worked out)

You can define get() and make() for any additional type that you wish in your own code. That type may then be used in other composite types like std::tuple and std::vector. Wrappers void get_throws() and void get() will automatically wrap it. To reiterate, the following functions should be implemented for your type:

bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, T &var);
ERL_NIF_TERM make(ErlNifEnv *env, const T &var);

Resources

Nifpp allows any C++ type to be used as a resource. All resource types must be registered using:

template<typename T>
int register_resource(
    ErlNifEnv* env,
    const char* module_str,
    const char* name,
    ErlNifResourceFlags flags = ErlNifResourceFlags(ERL_NIF_RT_CREATE|ERL_NIF_RT_TAKEOVER),
    ErlNifResourceFlags* tried = nullptr);

This function does a number of things:

  1. Create static storage for ErlNifResourceType pointer.
  2. Create a resource destructor that invokes the object’s C++ destructor.
  3. Call enif_open_resource_type() and save result.

Registrations must appear in the nif module’s load() function, for example:

static int load(ErlNifEnv* env, void** priv, ERL_NIF_TERM load_info)
{
   register_resource<std::string>(env, nullptr, "std::string");
   register_resource<int>(env, nullptr, "int");
   register_resource<MyClass>(env, nullptr, "MyClass");
   return 0;
}

Objects are created with:

resource_ptr<T> construct_resource<T>(Args...);

Where Args is a set of parameters accepted by any of T’s constructors. Internally this function calls enif_allocate_resource() and then performs a placement new on the allocated memory. Exceptions in the constructor are properly handled; the memory will immediately be released and the C++ destructor will not be invoked.

resource_ptr is a reference counting pointer similar to std::shared_ptr. Creating copies of a valid resource_ptr<> will invoke enif_keep_resource(), and destroying instances will invoke enif_release_resource(). resource_ptr<> may be safely kept around after the NIF function call returns.

Resource terms are created with make():

ERL_NIF_TERM make(ErlNifEnv *env, const resource_ptr<T> &var);

The object pointer can be retrieved from a resource term with

bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, T * &var);
bool get(ErlNifEnv *env, ERL_NIF_TERM term, resource_ptr<T> &var);

The T* version does not affect reference counts, but should not be kept around after the NIF call returns. The resource_ptr<T> version does increase reference count as described above, but does not have the same restrictions.

Examples of resource construction:

resource_ptr<int> ptr = construct_resource<int>();  //default ctor
resource_ptr<int> ptr = construct_resource<int>(123);
auto ptr = construct_resource<int>(123);  //save typing with c++11 type inference
auto ptr = construct_resource<std::string>(“cupcakes”);
auto ptr = construct_resource<vector<std::string>>(5000, “many cupcakes”);
auto ptr = construct_resource<MyClass>(p1, p2, p3, p4);
auto ptr = construct_resource<std::shared_ptr<MyClass>>(new MyClass(p1, p2, p3, p4));

Any of the above resources can be made into a term with:

ERL_NIF_TERM term = make(env, ptr);

Also, any of the pointers may be kept around after the NIF call returns. Be sure to use C++11 copy constructor semantics to prevent superfluous keep()/release() calls:

auto ptr = construct_resource<std::string>(“cupcakes”);
bakery.front_window = std::move(ptr);

Examples of getting objects from resource terms:

// these are for use within this nif call only.
int *ptr;
std::string *ptr;
vector<std::string>> *ptr;
MyClass *ptr;
std::shared_ptr<MyClass> *ptr;

// these may be stored in between nif calls.
resource_ptr<int> ptr;
resource_ptr<std::string> ptr;
resource_ptr<vector<std::string>>> ptr;
resource_ptr<MyClass> ptr;
resource_ptr<std::shared_ptr<MyClass>> ptr;

// all pointer types retrieved with...
get(env, term, ptr);

Complete examples

Tuple Twiddle

//
// tuple_twiddle_cpp.cpp - Demonstrate nifpp tuple manipulation
//
#include "nifpp.h"
#include <functional>

using std::make_tuple;
using std::ref;

extern "C" {

//
// Convert tuple of form {{1,2},3} to {3,{2,1}}.  Fully decode and recode ints.
//
static ERL_NIF_TERM twiddle_nif(ErlNifEnv* env, int argc, const ERL_NIF_TERM argv[])
{
    try
    {
        int a,b,c;
        auto tup_in  = make_tuple( make_tuple(ref(a), ref(b)), ref(c) );
        nifpp::get_throws(env, argv[0], tup_in);
        return nifpp::make(env, make_tuple( c, make_tuple(b, a)));
    }
    catch(nifpp::badarg) {}
    return enif_make_badarg(env);
}

static ErlNifFunc nif_funcs[] = { {"twiddle", 1, twiddle_nif} };

ERL_NIF_INIT(tuple_twiddle_cpp, nif_funcs, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL)

} //extern C

Memory Mapped Binary Resource

//
// mmap_binary.cpp - Memory map a file and return as a resource binary to Erlang.
// Requires the Boost library and linkage with libboost_iostreams-mt
//
#include "nifpp.h"
#include <boost/iostreams/device/mapped_file.hpp>

using boost::iostreams::mapped_file_source; // encapsulates read-only memory-mapped file

extern "C" {

static int load(ErlNifEnv* env, void** priv, ERL_NIF_TERM load_info)
{
    nifpp::register_resource<mapped_file_source>(env, nullptr, "mapped_file_source");
    return 0;
}

static ERL_NIF_TERM open_nif(ErlNifEnv* env, int argc, const ERL_NIF_TERM argv[])
{
    try
    {
        auto map_ptr = nifpp::construct_resource<mapped_file_source>( nifpp::get<std::string>(env, argv[0]) );
        return nifpp::make_resource_binary(env, map_ptr, (const void *)(map_ptr->data()), map_ptr->size());
    }
    catch(nifpp::badarg) {}
    catch(std::ios_base::failure) {}
    return enif_make_badarg(env);
}

static ErlNifFunc nif_funcs[] = { {"open", 1, open_nif} };

ERL_NIF_INIT(mmap_binary, nif_funcs, load, NULL, NULL, NULL)

} //extern C

Performance

The example programs tuple_twiddle_cpp.cpp and tuple_twiddle_c.c where benchmarked from nifpptest.erl. When compiled under gcc-4.6.2 with the -O2 option, the median results were...

  • tuple_twiddle_cpp: 1803 uSec
  • tuple_twiddle_c: 1887 uSec

The nifpp version was marginally faster on most runs of the benchmark.

Without the -O2 switch the results are...

  • tuple_twiddle_cpp: 7902 uSec
  • tuple_twiddle_c: 1912 uSec

This disparity is typical of template-heavy C++. The moral here is to always use -O2 with nifpp.

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