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JNIfTI: An extensible file format for storage and interchange of neuroimaging data

  • Status of this document: This document is currently under development.
  • Copyright: (C) 2019-2020 Qianqian Fang <q.fang at>, 2020 Edward Xu <xu.ed at>
  • License: Apache License, Version 2.0
  • Version: V1 (Draft 1)
  • Abstract:

JNIfTI is a highly extensible file format developed for the storage, interchange and processing of neuroimaging data. Built upon the JData specification, a JNIfTI file has both a text-based interface using the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) [RFC4627] format and a binary interface using the Universal Binary JSON (UBJSON) serialization format. This further allows JNIfTI to store not only neuroimaging data formatted in the NIfTI-1, NIfTI-2, and Analyze7.5 specifications, but also non-array-based and complex data structures, such as neuroimaging metadata, using simple syntax. To enhance accessibility, JNIfTI files can be directly parsed by most existing JSON and UBJSON parsers. Advanced features include optional hierarchical data storage, image data grouping, data compression, streaming and encryption as permitted by JData data serialization framework.

Table of Content



JNIfTI has been developed as a more widely accessible extension to the NIFTI format, a widely supported binary data format for storing spatiotemporal neuroimaging data. It provides a modernized, easy-to-use container for serializing array-formatted imaging and time series data obtained from neuroanatomical or functional scans. The original NIFTI format (NIFTI-1) was derived from another widely supported medical image format, Analyze 7.5, and extended the Analyze 7.5 metadata to a 352-byte binary header (containing a 348-byte header for the metadata storage and 4 bytes of extension flags). In 2011, the NIFTI format was upgraded to NIFTI-2, consequently permitting the storage of large sized imaging data by using 64-bit integers to store the image dimension data in place of the original 16-bit.

Although the NIfTI format is quite simple and allows for easy data parsing and storage, it suffers from a number of drawbacks, namely a fixed header size, rigid and static list of metadata fields, and inflexibility towards storing only array-valued neuroimaging data. This constitutes a major challenge towards extending the NIfTI format to store additional metadata records or complex auxiliary data, such as for physiological monitoring or multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, due to the rigidity of the NIfTI header, extending from Analyze 7.5 to NIfTI-1, and subsequently NIfTI-2, rendered the prior data formats incompatible with newer parsers and softwares. This has become a significant burden towards the recovery and reusability of data acquired under the previous data formats. To add to this, the NIfTI formats consist only of a binary interface and thus are not directly human-readable, thus further complicating this task.

Over the past few years, JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) has become ubiquitously recognized among the Internet community for its ability to store complex data, excellent portability, and human-readability. The subsequent introduction and widespread adoption of a range of binary JSON-like format, such as UBJSON, Binary JData (BJData), MessagePack and CBOR, have added complementary features such as support for typed data, smaller file sizes, and faster processing speeds as well. The JData specification capitalizes upon the strengths of these data interchange formats and provides the foundation for serializing complex hierarchical data using JSON/BJData constructs. This has then enabled the definition of language- and library-neutral neuroimaging data representations using the simple and extensible constructs from JSON and BJData syntax.

JNIfTI specification overview

JNIfTI is an extensible framework for storing neuroimaging and time series data using the JData representation, with a syntax compatible with widely- used JSON and Binary JData/BJData file formats. JNIfTI directly addresses the limitations currently faced by the NIfTI formats by providing flexible and rich metadata support, fast and efficient storage of typed numerical array data, versatile accommodation for both array- and non-array-formed auxiliary or multi-modality data entries, flexible data grouping, and internal data compression. In doing so, the JNIfTI framework establishes the groundwork for more robust practices of data sharing and reusability, as well as easy integration and automation.

The purpose of this document is to

  • define a 1-to-1 mapping between the existing NIFTI-1 and NIFTI-2 headers to a JSON/BJData-based flexible metadata header structure, so that all NIFTI formatted metadata can be losslessly stored using JNIfTI
  • define dedicated data containers to losslessly convert and store all NIFTI formatted neuroimaging data arrays, and provide examples demonstrating the use of JData-enabled features for reducing file sizes, enhancing readability, and improving organization
  • define a set of human-readable and standardized string values to directly represent the meaning of data as alternative to NIFTI-1/2 numerical coded values
  • establish a set of flexible mechanisms to extend the capability of the format to accommodate additional physiological, anatomical and multi-modal data

In the following sections, we will clarify basic JNIfTI grammar and define JNIfTI header and data containers. The additional features and extension mechanisms will also be discussed and exemplified.


All JNIfTI files are JData specification compliant. As with JData, JNIfTI provides both a text-based format using JSON serialization and a binary format based upon the BJData serialization scheme.The two forms can be converted from one to another.

Briefly, the text-based JNIfTI is a valid JSON file with an extension to support concatenated JSON objects; the binary-format JNIfTI is a valid BJData file with extended syntax to support N-D arrays. Please refer to the JData specification for these definitions.

Each NIFTI-1/2 file carries a numerical N-dimensional (N-D, N=1-7) array as the primary data payload. According to the JData specification, N-D arrays have two equivalent and interchangeable storage forms - the direct storage format and the annotated storage format.

For example, one can store a 1-D or 2-D array using the direct storage format as

 "jnifti_keyword": [v1,v2,...,vn]


 "jnifti_keyword": [

or using the "annotated storage" format as

 "jnifti_keyword": {
       "_ArrayType_": "typename",
       "_ArraySize_": [N1,N2,N3,...],
       "_ArrayData_": [v1,v2,v3,...]

The direct storage format and the annotated storage format are functionally equivalent. While we primarily describe data storage in the context of the direct format below, it is applicable to the annotated format as well. We also note that any valid JSON formatted data structure can be converted into a binary form using the rules defined in the Binary JData specification, which was extended from UBJSON specification (Draft 12).

JNIfTI Keywords

JNIfTI uses three dedicated data containers to store NIFTI-1/2 compatible data:

  • NIFTIHeader: a named structure to store all defined NIFTI-1/2 header metadata and to allow for additional user-defined metadata or headers,
  • NIFTIData: an array or structure object to store the primary neuroimaging data. When using the array-form, it can support an arbitrary number of dimensions, with the length of each dimension stored as an integer of up to 64bit.
  • NIFTIExtension: (optional) an array of JData "_ByteStream_" objects to store the NIFTI-1 extension buffers (for compatibility purposes)

These three data containers can appear at any level in a JData tree. NIFTIData is the only required data object if a JNIfTI file contains a neuroimaging dataset. When a NIFTIHeader field is stored under the same parent node as a NIFTIData object, the NIFTIHeader record serves as the metadata for the NIFTIData object. The optional NIFTIExtension is strictly used for compatibility purpose only, and is grouped with the NIFTIHeader and NIFTIData records if they appear under the same node.

When multiple NIFTIHeader/NIFTIData/NIFTIExtension objects need to be stored under the same parent node in a JData tree, they must be differentiated by attaching a name, such as NIFTIHeader(name), NIFTIData(name) and NIFTIExtension(name). Objects of the same name shall be grouped and processed together. JNIfTI keywords should not be repeated more than once (with the same name or without a name) under the same parent node as creates an invalid JSON construct.


The JNIfTI format use a structure named "NIFTIHeader" to store NIFTI-compatible header information.

In the below table, we define a 1-to-1 mapping from NIFTI-1/2 headers to the corresponding JNIfTI NIFTIHeader self-explanatory subfields

Table 1. A mapping table for NIFTI-1/2 headers and JNIfTI NIFTIHeader structure

NIFTI-1 NIFTI-2 Headers Meanings JNIfTI NIFTIHeader container
struct struct nifti_1_header{ "NIFTIHeader": {
int int sizeof_hdr; NIFTI-1/2: 348/540     "NIIHeaderSize": <i>,
char - data_type[10]; ++UNUSED++     "A75DataTypeName": "s",
char - db_name[18]; ++UNUSED++     "A75DBName": "s",
int - extents; ++UNUSED++     "A75Extends": <i>,
short - session_error; ++UNUSED++     "A75SessionError": <i>,
char - regular; ++UNUSED++     "A75Regular": <i>,
char char dim_info; MRI slice ordering     "DimInfo" : {
        "Freq": <i>,
        "Phase": <i>,
        "Slice": <i>
short int64 dim[8]; Data array dimensions     "Dim": [dim[1],dim[2],...],
float double intent_p1 ; 1st intent parameter     "Param1": <f>,
float double intent_p2 ; 2nd intent parameter     "Param2": <f>,
float double intent_p3 ; 3rd intent parameter     "Param3": <f>,
short int intent_code ; NIFTI_INTENT_* code     "Intent": <i>|"s",
short short datatype; Defines data type     "DataType": <i>|"s",
short short bitpix; Number bits/voxel     "BitDepth": <i>,
short int slice_start; First slice index     "FirstSliceID": <i>,
float double pixdim[8]; Grid spacings     "VoxelSize":[pixdim[1],pixdim[2],...],
+x direction meaning     "Orientation": { "x": "s",
+y direction meaning         "y": "s",
+z direction meaning         "z": "s"
RAS or LAS base on pixdim[0]      },  
float double vox_offset; Offset into .nii file     "NIIByteOffset": <f>,
float double scl_slope ; Data scaling: slope     "ScaleSlope": <f>,
float double scl_inter ; Data scaling: offset     "ScaleOffset": <f>,
short int slice_end; Last slice index     "LastSliceID": <i>,
char int slice_code ; Slice timing order     "SliceType": <i>|"s",
char int xyzt_units ; Units of pixdim[1..4]     "Unit":{"L":<i>|"s","T":<i>|"s"},
float float cal_max; Max display intensity     "MaxIntensity": <f>,
float float cal_min; Min display intensity     "MinIntensity": <f>,
float float slice_duration; Time for 1 slice     "SliceTime": <f>,
float float toffset; Time axis shift     "TimeOffset": <f>,
int - glmax; ++UNUSED++     "A75GlobalMax": <i>,
int - glmin; ++UNUSED++     "A75GlobalMin": <i>,
char char descrip[80]; Data description     "Description": "s",
char char aux_file[24]; Auxiliary filename     "AuxFile": "s",
short int qform_code ; NIFTI_XFORM_* code     "QForm": <i>,
short int sform_code ; NIFTI_XFORM_* code     "SForm": <i>,
float double quatern_b ; Quaternion b param     "Quatern": { "b"=<f>,
float double quatern_c ; Quaternion c param         "c": <f>,
float double quatern_d ; Quaternion d param         "d": <f>
float double qoffset_x ; Quaternion x shift     "QuaternOffset":{ "x": <f>,
float double qoffset_y ; Quaternion y shift         "y": <f>,
float double qoffset_z ; Quaternion z shift         "z": <f>
float double srow_x[4] ; 1st row affine transform     "Affine": [ [<f>,<f>,<f>,<f>],
float double srow_y[4] ; 2nd row affine transform         [<f>,<f>,<f>,<f>],
float double srow_z[4] ; 3rd row affine transform         [<f>,<f>,<f>,<f>]
char char intent_name[16]; 'name' or meaning of data     "Name" : "s",
char*4 char*8 magic[] ; NIFTI-1:"ni1\0" or "n+1\0"     "NIIFormat": "s",
struct struct nifti_extender {char extension[4];};     "NIFTIExtension": [<i>,<i>,<i>,<i>],

Notations from the above table are explained below

  • <i> represents an integer value (signed integer of 8, 16, 32 or 64bit)
  • <f> represents an numerical value (including integers, 32bit and 64bit floating point numbers)
  • "s" represents a UTF-8 encoded string of arbitrary length
  • [...] represents a vector of variable length
  • <...> represents (optional) additional subfields for user-defined header or future extensions
  • <i>|"s" represents alternative forms, in this example, the field can be either an integer or a string

To convert a NIFTI-1/2 header to the JNIfTI NIFTIHeader structure without sacrificing accuracy, the storage type byte length of the NIFTIHeader subfields be of equal or greater value to their original NIfTI header counterpart; in the case of a string value, the new string must be of the same or longer length to store the entire original string value.

If the NIFTI header field contains an array, the converted NIFTIHeader subfield shall also contain an array object sorted in the same order.

Not all "NIFTIHeader" subfields shall present. However, if any of the subfields in the NIFTI-1/2 header carry meaningful data, the corresponding subfield in the NIFTIHeader must present. The order of the NIFTIHeader subfields is not required.

Mapping in the reverse direction, i.e. from JNIfTI to NIFTI-1/2, is not guaranteed to be lossless.

DataType (NIFTI-1 header: datatype)

To enhance the readability of the header, we allow the use of a string to represent data type (i.e. the DataType subfield in NIFTIHeader) instead of an integer code. The below table maps the NIFTI data type codes to the acceptable data type strings.

Table 2. A mapping table from NIFTI-1 data types to string-valued JNIfTI data types and storage types in BJData

NIFTI-1/2 Data Types NIFTI Code JNIfTI DataType BJData Type
unsigned char
NIFTI_TYPE_UINT8 2 "uint8" U
signed short
NIFTI_TYPE_INT16 4 "int16" I
signed int
NIFTI_TYPE_INT32 8 "int32" l
32 bit float
NIFTI_TYPE_FLOAT32 16 "single" d
64 bit complex = 2 32 bit floats
NIFTI_TYPE_COMPLEX64 32 "complex64"* d (x2)
64 bit float = double
NIFTI_TYPE_FLOAT64 64 "double" D
3x 8 bit bytes
NIFTI_TYPE_RGB24 128 "rgb24" * U (x3)
signed char
NIFTI_TYPE_INT8 256 "int8" i
unsigned short
NIFTI_TYPE_UINT16 512 "uint16" u
unsigned int
NIFTI_TYPE_UINT32 768 "uint32" m
signed long long
NIFTI_TYPE_INT64 1024 "int64" L
unsigned long long
NIFTI_TYPE_UINT64 1280 "uint64" M
128 bit float = long double
NIFTI_TYPE_FLOAT128 1536 "double128"* U (x16)
2x 64 bit floats = 128 bit complex
NIFTI_TYPE_COMPLEX128 1792 "complex128"* D (x2)
2x 128 bit floats = 256 bit complex
NIFTI_TYPE_COMPLEX256 2048 "complex256"* U (x32)
4x 8 bit bytes
NIFTI_TYPE_RGBA32 2304 "rgba32" * U (x4)

A "*" sign in the JNIfTI DataType column indicates that the data is a composite type, and must be stored using the "annotated" JData format.

Dim (NIFTI-1 header: dim)

In the NIFTI-1/2 formats, dim[0] stores the number of dimensions of the data, and dim[1] to dim[7] store the respective dimension of data. In NIFTIHeader, we use an array object Dim to store the effective dimension sizes starting from dim[1]. The length of Dim array should equal to that of dim[0].

DimInfo (NIFTI-1 header: dim_info)

In the NIFTI-1/2 formats, the dim_info field combines 3 parameters, freq_dim, phase_dim and slice_dim, using bit-masks. To enhance readability, we represent each of these parameters as explicit subfields in JNIfFTI, specifically "Freq", "Phase" and "Slice" inside the "DimInfo" structure. A fixed order of the 3 subfields is not required.

Orientation (NIFTI-1 header: pixdim[0])

The first element in the pixdim[] array, i.e. pixdim[0] in the NIFTI-1/2 header, indicates the handedness of the coordinate system. pixdim[0] is assigned a value of either 0, indicating a "right-anterior-superior" (RAS) coordinate (+x-axis = right, +y-axis = anterior, +z-axis = superior), or 1, representing a "left-anterior-superior" (LAS) system.

To enhance readability of JNIfTI, NIFTIHeader uses much more intuitive and extended labels to indicate the orientations of axes. In the "Orientation" field, one can define 3 string-valued subfields, "x", "y" and "z", to indicate the direction of the positive axis. The allowed values (case-insensitive) are

  • "l" or "left"
  • "r" or "right"
  • "a" or "anterior"
  • "p" or "posterior"
  • "s" or "superior"
  • "i" or "inferior"

For example, an RAS orientation can be indicated by

"Orientation" : {"x":"r", "y":"a",  "z":"s"}

If this subfield is missing, we assume the same "RAS" default orientation as NIFTI-1/2.

Unit (NIFTI-1 header: xyzt_units)

The NIFTI-1/2 xyzt_units is a combined mask of both space and time. In JNIfTI, we map it to a structure with at least two subfields: "L" to store spatial units, and "T" to store time units.

Similar to DataType, both L and T allow the use of an integer value, matching that of the NIFTI-1/2 unit definitions, or a more descriptive string value to specify the units. The mapping between NIFTI-1/2 units to the string forms is listed below

Table 3. A mapping table for NIFTI-1 unit types and string-valued JNIfTI NIFTIHeader Unit field

NIFTI-1/2 Unit Types JNIfTI Unit
Unknown Units
Length Units
NIFTI code for meters
NIFTI code for millimeters
NIFTI code for micrometers
Time Units
NIFTI code for seconds
NIFTI code for milliseconds
NIFTI code for microseconds
Other Units
NIFTI code for Hertz
NIFTI code for ppm
NIFTI code for radians per second

Intent (NIFTI-1 header: intent_code)

Similar to DataType, data intent (i.e. the Intent subfield in NIFTIHeader) can be represented by a string instead of an integer code. The below table maps the NIFTI data intent codes to the acceptable intent strings.

NIFTI-1/2 Data Intent Type Code JNIfTI Intent String
Unknown data intent
Correlation coefficient R (1 param)
Student t statistic (1 param): p1 = DOF
Fisher F statistic (2 params)
Standard normal (0 params): Density = N(0,1)
Chi-squared (1 param): p1 = DOF
Beta distribution (2 params): p1=a, p2=b
Binomial distribution (2 params)
Gamma distribution (2 params)
Poisson distribution (1 param): p1 = mean
Normal distribution (2 params)
Noncentral F statistic (3 params)
Noncentral chi-squared statistic (2 params)
Logistic distribution (2 params)
Laplace distribution (2 params)
Uniform distribution: p1=lower end,p2=upper end
Noncentral t statistic (2 params)
Weibull distribution (3 params)
Chi distribution (1 param): p1 = DOF
Inverse Gaussian (2 params)
Extreme value type I (2 params)
Data is a 'p-value' (no params)
Data is ln(p-value) (no params)
Data is log10(p-value) (no params)
NIFTI_INTENT_LOG10PVAL 24 "log10pvalue"
Data is an estimate of some parameter
Data is an index into a set of labels
Data is an index into the NeuroNames labels
NIFTI_INTENT_NEURONAME 1003 "neuronames"
To store an M x N matrix at each voxel
To store an NxN symmetric matrix at each voxel
Each voxel is a displacement vector
Specifically for displacements
Any other type of vector
Each voxel is really a triple
Each voxel is a quaternion
Dimensionless value - no params
NIFTI_INTENT_DIMLESS 1011 "unitless"
Each data point is a time series
Each data point is a node index
Each data point is an RGB triplet
Each data point is a 4 valued RGBA
Each data point is a shape value

SliceType (NIFTI-1 header: slice_code)

Similar to DataType, the slice type (i.e. the SliceType subfield in NIFTIHeader) can be represented as a string instead of an integer code. The below table maps the NIFTI data slice codes to the acceptable slice strings.

NIFTI-1/2 Slice Code Name Code JNIfTI SliceType Key
Unknown slice type
Slice sequential increasing
Slice sequential decreasing
Slice alternating increasing
Slice alternating decreasing
Slice alternating increasing type 2
Slice alternating decreasing type 2

NIIFormat (NIFTI-1 header: magic)

The "NIIFormat" field stores the original NIFTI-1 format identifier, and is designed for compatibility purposes only. The use of this field is deprecated.

NIIHeaderSize (NIFTI-1 header: sizeof_hdr)

The "NIIHeaderSize" field stores the original NIFTI-1 header size, and is designed for compatibility purposes only. The use of this field is deprecated.

NIIByteOffset (NIFTI-1 header: vox_offset)

The "NIIByteOffset" field stores the original NIFTI-1 voxel data starting position offset, and is designed for compatibility purposes only. The use of this field is deprecated.

Other depreciated subfields

All Analyze 7.5 header fields that have been deprecated in NIFTI-1/2 formats remains deprecated in JNIfTI files. These subfields include

  • data_type -> A75DataTypeName
  • db_name -> A75DBName
  • extents -> A75Extends
  • session_error -> A75SessionError
  • regular -> A75Regular
  • glmax -> A75GlobalMax
  • glmin -> A75GlobalMin

The use of these subfields are strictly for compatibility purposes and we highly recommended not to include them in JNIfTI files.


The primary data carried within a NIFTI-1/2 file is a numerical array of dimensions and types specified by the dim and datatype records in the NIFTI-1 header, respectively. In JNIfTI, we use the "NIFTIData" record to store such information. It can additionally be expanded upon to store supplemental auxiliary data or metadata.

The NIFTIData record can be either an array object or a structure.

Array form

If stored as an array, the NIFTIData shall contain the same data as the NIFTI-1/2 primary data serialized using the JData specification.

For example, a 3-D array of dimension Nx-by-Ny-by-Nz (v_ijk where i=1,2,...,Nx, j=1,2,...,Ny, k=1,2,...,Nz) can be stored in the direct array format as

 "NIFTIData": [
   [ [v_111,v_112,v_113,...,v_11Nz], [v_121,v_122,v_123,...,v_12Nz],...,[v_1Ny1,v_1Ny2,v_1Ny3,...,v_1NyNz] ], 
   [ [v_211,v_212,v_113,...,v_21Nz], [v_221,v_222,v_223,...,v_22Nz],...,[v_2Ny1,v_2Ny2,v_2Ny3,...,v_2NyNz] ], 
   [ [v_Nx11,v_Nx12,v_Nx13,...,v_Nx1Nz],[v_Nx21,v_Nx22,v_Nx23,...,v_Nx2Nz],...,[v_NxNy1,v_NxNy2,...,v_NxNyNz] ]

or as the "annotated array format" as

 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "datatype",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz],
       "_ArrayData_": [v_111,v_112,...,v_11Nz,v_121,v_122,...,v_NxNyNz]

One can also apply data compression to reduce file sizes. In this case

 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "datatype",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz],
       "_ArrayZipType_": "zlib",
       "_ArrayZipSize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz],
       "_ArrayZipData_": "<base64-encoded zlib-compressed byte stream>"

Please note that all composite data types (marked by "*" in Table 2) can not be stored in the direct form and therefore must be stored using the annotated array format.

NIfTI-1/2 stores raw data values in the column-major element order (meaning that the left-most index (dim[1]) is the fastest index while the right-most index is the slowest) while JData _ArrayData_ construct by default stores data elements in the row-major order (i.e. the right-most index is the fastest index). As a result, if one has to directly copy the NIfTI data buffer to the _ArrayData_ element, one must add "_ArrayOrder_" : "c" or "_ArrayOrder_" : "col" before _ArrayData_ or _ArrayZipData_ entries in the above annotated NIFTIData forms. Alternatively, if _ArrayOrder_ is not specified (which suggests "row-major" order), one must perform an N-D transpose operation to the NIfTI image data buffer before serializing those to _ArrayData_.

All three of the above forms are valid JSON formats, and thus can be converted to the corresponding BJData formats when a binary JNIfTI file is desired. Using the optimized N-D array header defined in the JData specification, the binary storage of the direct-form array can be efficiently written as

[U][10][NIFTIData] [[] [$][datatype][#] [[] [$][l][#][U][3][Nx][Ny][Nz] [v_111,v_112,...,v_121,v_122,...,v_NxNyNz]
|----------------| |--------------------------------------------------| |----------------------------------------|
      name          optimized array container header for N-D array       row-major-order serialized N-D array data

Data compression can also be applied to the binary JNIfTI NIFTIData by converting the above corresponding annotated array into BJData form. For example, for a uint8 formatted 256x256x256 3D volume, one can use

    [U][14][_ArrayZipData_][H][L][lengh][... zlib-compressed byte stream ...]

Structure form

Using the structure form of NIFTIData allows for the storage of additional imaging-data-related metadata or auxiliary data, if desired. The structure shall have the below format

 "NIFTIData": {
      "Properties": {

The three subfields are

  • Data : this is the only required subfield and its value must be the same as the array data format described in the above subsection;
  • Properties: this optional subfield can store additional auxiliary data using either an array or structure;
  • _DataInfo_: this optional subfield is the JData-compatible metadata record which, if present, must be located as the 1st element of NIFTIData.

The NIFTIData structure can accommodate additional user-defined subfields which will be treated as auxiliary data.

Composite data types

From Table 2, six of the data types are composite data types and must be stored using the annotated array format (for both text and binary forms).

Note that double128 and complex256 are stored by first type-casting to uint8 buffers of the same length. The parsing of these data structures is application dependent.

 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "single",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz],
       "_ArrayIsComplex_": true,
       "_ArrayData_": [
         [Nx*Ny*Nz singles for the real part],
         [Nx*Ny*Nz singles for the imaginary part]
 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "double",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz],
       "_ArrayIsComplex_": true,
       "_ArrayData_": [
         [Nx*Ny*Nz doubles for the real part],
         [Nx*Ny*Nz doubles for the imaginary part]
 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "uint8",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz,3],
       "_ArrayData_": [ Nx*Ny*Nz*3 integers ]
 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "uint8",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz,4],
       "_ArrayData_": [ Nx*Ny*Nz*4 integers ]
 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "uint8",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz,16],
       "_ArrayData_": [ Nx*Ny*Nz*16 uint8 numbers ]
 "NIFTIData": {
       "_ArrayType_": "uint8",
       "_ArraySize_": [Nx,Ny,Nz,32],
       "_ArrayData_": [ Nx*Ny*Nz*32 uint8 numbers ]


In the NIFTI-1/2 format, if extensions[0] in the nifti1_extender structure is non-zero, NIFTI-1 stores one or multiple raw data buffers as the extension data. If these extension data buffers are present, one may use the NIFTIExtension container to store these data buffers for compatibility purposes only.

The NIFTIExtension must be an array object, with each element containing a NIFTI-1 extension buffer in the order it is presented.

        "Size": <i>,
        "Type": <i>|"s",
        "_ByteStream_":"base64-encoded byte stream for the 1st extension buffer"
        "Size": <i>,
        "Type": <i>|"s",
        "_ByteStream_":"base64-encoded byte stream for the 2nd extension buffer"

The "Type" field must be one of the 3 values according to the NIFTI-1 specification:

  • 0 or "" - for unknown or private format
  • 1 or "dicom" - for DICOM formatted data buffer
  • 2 or "afni" - for AFNI group formatted data buffer

"_ByteStream_" is a JData keyword to store raw byte-stream buffers. For text-based JNIfTI/JData files, its value must be a base64-encoded string; no base64 encoding is needed when storing in the binary format. For details, please see the JData specification "Generic byte-stream data" section.

Again, because the extension data buffer has very little semantic information, the use of such a buffer is not recommended. Please consider converting the data to meaningful JData structures and storing it in the JNIfTI document as auxiliary data.

Data Organization and Grouping

To facilitate the organization of multiple neuroimaging datasets, JNIfTI supports optional data grouping mechanisms similar to those defined in the JData specification.

In a JNIfTI document, one can use "NIFTIGroup" and "NIFTIObject" to organize datasets in a hierarchical form. They are equivalent to the "_DataGroup_" and "_DataSet_" constructs, respectively, as defined in the JData specification, but are specifically applicable to neuroimaging data. The format of "NIFTIGroup" and "NIFTIObject" are identical to the JData data grouping tags, i.e, they can be either an array or structure with an optional unique name (within the current document) via "NIFTIGroup(unique name)" and "NIFTIObject(unique name)"

For example, the below JNIfTI snippet defines two data groups, each containing multiple NIFTI datasets. Here we also show examples on how to store multiple NIFTIHeader and NIFTIData records under a common parent, as well as on the use of "_DataLink_" as defined in the JData specification for flexible data referencing.

    "NIFTIGroup(studyname1)": {
           "NIFTIObject(subj1)": {
               "NIFTIHeader":{ ... },
               "NIFTIData":[ ... ]
           "NIFTIObject(subj2)": {
               "NIFTIHeader":{ ... },
               "NIFTIData":[ ... ]
           "NIFTIObject(subj3)": {
               "NIFTIHeader(visit1)":{ ... },
               "NIFTIData(visit1)":[ ... ],
               "NIFTIHeader(visit2)":{ ... },
               "NIFTIData(visit2)":[ ... ]
    "NIFTIGroup(studyname2)": {
           "NIFTIObject(subj1)": {
               "NIFTIHeader":{ ... },
               "NIFTIData":[ ... ]
           "NIFTIObject(subj2)": {
               "NIFTIData":[ ... ]
           "NIFTIObject(subj3)": {
               "_DataLink_": "file:///space/test/jnifti/study2subj3.jnii"

Recommended File Specifiers

For the text-based JNIfTI file, the recommended file suffix is ".jnii"; for the binary JNIfTI file, the recommended file suffix is ".bnii".

The MIME type for the text-based JNIfTI document is "application/jnifti-text"; that for the binary JNIfTI document is "application/jnifti-binary"


In summary, this specification defines a pair of new file formats - the text and binary JNIfTI formats - to efficiently store and exchange neuroimaging scans, along with associated metadata and auxiliary measurements. Any previously generated NIFTI-1/2 file can be fully mapped to a JNIfTI document without losing any information. However, JNIfTI greatly expands upon the flexibility of the NIFTI-1/2 formats by removing a few key, inherent limitations, thereby allowing storage of multiple datasets, data compression, flexible data grouping, and user-defined metadata fields.

By using JSON-/BJData-compatible JData constructs, JNIfTI provides a highly portable, versatile, and extensible framework to store a large variety of neuroanatomical and functional imaging data. These constructs also confer user-readability in both text and binary formats through self-explanatory keywords. The widespread availability of JSON and BJData parsers provides the groundwork for easily sharing, processing, and processing JNIfTI data files without imposing an extensive programming overhead. The underlying JData specification offers greater flexibility in data organization and referencing mechanisms, which, in conjunction with a simple and highly readable human syntax, enables JNIfTI to record and share large-scale, complex neuroimaging datasets among researchers, clinicians, and data scientists alike.