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1.3b1 (2010-10-25)


  • The paster template named bfg_routesalchemy has been updated to use SQLAlchemy declarative syntax. Thanks to Ergo^.

Bug Fixes

  • When a renderer factory could not be found, a misleading error message was raised if the renderer name was not a string.


  • The ""bfgwiki2" (SQLAlchemy + url dispatch) tutorial has been updated slightly. In particular, the source packages no longer attempt to use a private index, and the recommended Python version is now 2.6. It was also updated to take into account the changes to the bfg_routesalchemy template used to set up an environment.
  • The "bfgwiki" (ZODB + traversal) tutorial has been updated slightly. In particular, the source packages no longer attempt to use a private index, and the recommended Python version is now 2.6.

1.3a15 (2010-09-30)


  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.traversal_path API now eagerly attempts to encode a Unicode path into ASCII before attempting to split it and decode its segments. This is for convenience, effectively to allow a (stored-as-Unicode-in-a-database, or retrieved-as-Unicode-from-a-request-parameter) Unicode path to be passed to find_model, which eventually internally uses the traversal_path function under the hood. In version 1.2 and prior, if the path was Unicode, that Unicode was split on slashes and each resulting segment value was Unicode. An inappropriate call to the decode() method of a resulting Unicode path segment could cause a UnicodeDecodeError to occur even if the Unicode representation of the path contained no 'high order' characters (it effectively did a "double decode"). By converting the Unicode path argument to ASCII before we attempt to decode and split, genuine errors will occur in a more obvious place while also allowing us to handle (for convenience) the case that it's a Unicode representation formed entirely from ASCII-compatible characters.

1.3a14 (2010-09-14)

Bug Fixes

  • If an exception view was registered through the legacy set_notfound_view or set_forbidden_view APIs, the context sent to the view was incorrect (could be None inappropriately).


  • Compatibility with WebOb 1.0.


  • Now requires WebOb >= 1.0.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Due to changes introduced WebOb 1.0, the repoze.bfg.request.make_request_ascii event subscriber no longer works, so it has been removed. This subscriber was meant to be used in a deployment so that code written before BFG 0.7.0 could run unchanged. At this point, such code will need to be rewritten to expect Unicode from request.GET, request.POST and request.params or it will need to be changed to use request.str_POST, request.str_GET and/or request.str_params instead of the non-str versions of same, as the non-str versions of the same APIs always now perform decoding to Unicode.


  • A prior changelog entry asserted that the INewResponse event was not sent to listeners if the response was not "valid" (if a view or renderer returned a response object that did not have a status/headers/app_iter). This is not true in this release, nor was it true in 1.3a13.

1.3a13 (2010-09-14)

Bug Fixes

  • The traverse route predicate could not successfully generate a traversal path.


  • In support of making it easier to configure applications which are "secure by default", a default permission feature was added. If supplied, the default permission is used as the permission string to all view registrations which don't otherwise name a permission. These APIs are in support of that:
    • A new constructor argument was added to the Configurator: default_permission.
    • A new method was added to the Configurator: set_default_permission.
    • A new ZCML directive was added: default_permission.
  • Add a new request API: request.add_finished_callback. Finished callbacks are called by the router unconditionally near the very end of request processing. See the "Using Finished Callbacks" section of the "Hooks" narrative chapter of the documentation for more information.
  • A request.matched_route attribute is now added to the request when a route has matched. Its value is the "route" object that matched (see the IRoute interface within repoze.bfg.interfaces API documentation for the API of a route object).
  • The exception attribute of the request is now set slightly earlier and in a slightly different set of scenarios, for benefit of "finished callbacks" and "response callbacks". In previous versions, the exception attribute of the request was not set at all if an exception view was not found. In this version, the request.exception attribute is set immediately when an exception is caught by the router, even if an exception view could not be found.
  • The add_route method of a Configurator now accepts a pregenerator argument. The pregenerator for the resulting route is called by route_url in order to adjust the set of arguments passed to it by the user for special purposes, such as Pylons 'subdomain' support. It will influence the URL returned by route_url. See the repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRoutePregenerator interface for more information.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The router no longer sets the value wsgiorg.routing_args into the environ when a route matches. The value used to be something like ((), matchdict). This functionality was only ever obliquely referred to in change logs; it was never documented as an API.
  • The exception attribute of the request now defaults to None. In prior versions, the request.exception attribute did not exist if an exception was not raised by user code during request processing; it only began existence once an exception view was found.


  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.IWSGIApplicationCreatedEvent event interface was renamed to repoze.bfg.interfaces.IApplicationCreated. Likewise, the class was renamed to The older aliases will continue to work indefinitely.
  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAfterTraversal event interface was renamed to repoze.bfg.interfaces.IContextFound. Likewise, the class was renamed to The older aliases will continue to work indefinitely.
  • References to the WSGI environment values bfg.routes.matchdict and bfg.routes.route were removed from documentation. These will stick around internally for several more releases, but it is request.matchdict and request.matched_route are now the "official" way to obtain the matchdict and the route object which resulted in the match.


  • Added documentation for the default_permission ZCML directive.
  • Added documentation for the default_permission constructor value and the set_default_permission method in the Configurator API documentation.
  • Added a new section to the "security" chapter named "Setting a Default Permission".
  • Document renderer_globals_factory and request_factory arguments to Configurator constructor.
  • Added two sections to the "Hooks" chapter of the documentation: "Using Response Callbacks" and "Using Finished Callbacks".
  • Added documentation of the request.exception attribute to the repoze.bfg.request.Request API documentation.
  • Added glossary entries for "response callback" and "finished callback".
  • The "Request Processing" narrative chapter has been updated to note finished and response callback steps.
  • New interface in interfaces API documentation: IRoutePregenerator.
  • Added a "The Matched Route" section to the URL Dispatch narrative docs chapter, detailing the matched_route attribute.

1.3a12 (2010-09-08)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix a bug in repoze.bfg.url.static_url URL generation: if two resource specifications were used to create two separate static views, but they shared a common prefix, it was possible that static_url would generate an incorrect URL.
  • Fix another bug in repoze.bfg.static_url URL generation: too many slashes in generated URL.
  • Prevent a race condition which could result in a RuntimeError when rendering a Chameleon template that has not already been rendered once. This would usually occur directly after a restart, when more than one person or thread is trying to execute the same view at the same time:


  • The argument to repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route which was previously called path is now called pattern for better explicability. For backwards compatibility purposes, passing a keyword argument named path to add_route will still work indefinitely.
  • The path attribute to the ZCML route directive is now named pattern for better explicability. The older path attribute will continue to work indefinitely.


  • All narrative, API, and tutorial docs which referred to a route pattern as a path have now been updated to refer to them as a pattern.
  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces API documentation page is now rendered via repoze.sphinx.autointerface.
  • The URL Dispatch narrative chapter now refers to the interfaces chapter to explain the API of an IRoute object.

Paster Templates

  • The routesalchemy template has been updated to use pattern in its route declarations rather than path.


  • tests_require now includes repoze.sphinx.autointerface as a dependency.


  • Add an API to the Configurator named get_routes_mapper. This returns an object implementing the IRoutesMapper interface.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesMapper object now has a get_route method which returns a single Route object or None.
  • A new interface repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRoute was added. The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.Route object implements this interface.
  • The canonical attribute for accessing the routing pattern from a route object is now pattern rather than path.
  • Use hash() rather than id() when computing the "phash" of a custom route/view predicate in order to allow the custom predicate some control over which predicates are "equal".
  • Use response.headerlist.append instead of response.headers.add in repoze.bfg.request.add_global_response_headers in case the response is not a WebOb response.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.Route constructor (not an API) now accepts a different ordering of arguments. Previously it was (pattern, name, factory=None, predicates=()). It is now (name, pattern, factory=None, predicates=()). This is in support of consistency with configurator.add_route.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesMapper.connect method (not an API) now accepts a different ordering of arguments. Previously it was (pattern, name, factory=None, predicates=()). It is now (name, pattern, factory=None, predicates=()). This is in support of consistency with configurator.add_route.

1.3a11 (2010-09-05)

Bug Fixes

  • Process the response callbacks and the NewResponse event earlier, to enable mutations to the response to take effect.

1.3a10 (2010-09-05)


  • A new repoze.bfg.request.Request.add_response_callback API has been added. This method is documented in the new repoze.bfg.request API chapter. It can be used to influence response values before a concrete response object has been created.

  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.INewResponse interface now includes a request attribute; as a result, a handler for INewResponse now has access to the request which caused the response.

  • Each of the follow methods of the Configurator now allow the below-named arguments to be passed as "dotted name strings" (e.g. "") rather than as actual implementation objects that must be imported:


    root_factory, authentication_policy, authorization_policy, debug_logger, locale_negotiator, request_factory, renderer_globals_factory


    subscriber, iface




    view, for_, context, request_type, containment


    view, view_for, factory, for_, view_context

















Bug Fixes

  • The route pattern registered internally for a local "static view" (either via the static ZCML directive or via the add_static_view method of the configurator) was incorrect. It was regsistered for e.g. static*traverse, while it should have been registered for static/*traverse. Symptom: two static views could not reliably be added to a system when they both shared the same path prefix (e.g. /static and /static2).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The INewResponse event is now not sent to listeners if the response returned by view code (or a renderer) is not a "real" response (e.g. if it does not have .status, .headerlist and .app_iter attribtues).


  • Add an API chapter for the repoze.bfg.request module, which includes documentation for the repoze.bfg.request.Request class (the "request object").
  • Modify the "Request and Response" narrative chapter to reference the new repoze.bfg.request API chapter. Some content was moved from this chapter into the API documentation itself.
  • Various changes to denote that Python dotted names are now allowed as input to Configurator methods.


  • The (internal) feature which made it possible to attach a global_response_headers attribute to the request (which was assumed to contain a sequence of header key/value pairs which would later be added to the response by the router), has been removed. The functionality of repoze.bfg.request.Request.add_response_callback takes its place.
  • The class's construct has changed: it now must be created with (request, response) rather than simply (response).

1.3a9 (2010-08-22)


  • The Configurator now accepts a dotted name string to a package as a package constructor argument. The package argument was previously required to be a package object (not a dotted name string).
  • The repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.with_package method was added. This method returns a new Configurator using the same application registry as the configurator object it is called upon. The new configurator is created afresh with its package constructor argument set to the value passed to with_package. This feature will make it easier for future BFG versions to allow dotted names as arguments in places where currently only object references are allowed (the work to allow dotted names isntead of object references everywhere has not yet been done, however).
  • The new repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.maybe_dotted method resolves a Python dotted name string supplied as its dotted argument to a global Python object. If the value cannot be resolved, a repoze.bfg.configuration.ConfigurationError is raised. If the value supplied as dotted is not a string, the value is returned unconditionally without any resolution attempted.
  • The new repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.absolute_resource_spec method resolves a potentially relative "resource specification" string into an absolute version. If the value supplied as relative_spec is not a string, the value is returned unconditionally without any resolution attempted.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The functions in repoze.bfg.renderers named render and render_to_response introduced in 1.3a6 previously took a set of **values arguments for the values to be passed to the renderer. This was wrong, as renderers don't need to accept only dictionaries (they can accept any type of object). Now, the value sent to the renderer must be supplied as a positional argument named value. The request argument is still a keyword argument, however.
  • The functions in repoze.bfg.renderers named render and render_to_response now accept an additonal keyword argument named package.
  • The get_renderer API in repoze.bfg.renderers now accepts a package argument.


  • The ZCML include directive docs were incorrect: they specified filename rather than (the correct) file as an allowable attribute.


  • The repoze.bfg.resource.resolve_resource_spec function can now accept a package object as its pname argument instead of just a package name.
  • The _renderer_factory_from_name and _renderer_from_name methods of the Configurator were removed. These were never APIs.
  • The _render, _render_to_response and _make_response functions with repoze.bfg.render (added in 1.3a6) have been removed.
  • A new helper class repoze.bfg.renderers.RendererHelper was added.
  • The _map_view function of repoze.bfg.configuration now takes only a renderer_name argument instead of both a renderer and renderer``_name argument. It also takes a ``package argument now.
  • Use imp.get_suffixes indirection in repoze.bfg.path.package_name instead of hardcoded .py .pyc and .pyo to use for comparison when attemtping to decide if a directory is a package.
  • Make tests runnable again under Jython (although they do not all pass currently).
  • The reify decorator now maintains the docstring of the function it wraps.

1.3a8 (2010-08-08)


  • New public interface: repoze.bfg.exceptions.IExceptionResponse. This interface is provided by all internal exception classes (such as repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound and repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden), instances of which are both exception objects and can behave as WSGI response objects. This interface is made public so that exception classes which are also valid WSGI response factories can be configured to implement them or exception instances which are also or response instances can be configured to provide them.

  • New API class: repoze.bfg.view.AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory.

    There can only be one Not Found view in any repoze.bfg application. Even if you use repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view as the Not Found view, repoze.bfg still must generate a 404 Not Found response when it cannot redirect to a slash-appended URL; this not found response will be visible to site users.

    If you don't care what this 404 response looks like, and you only need redirections to slash-appended route URLs, you may use the repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view object as the Not Found view. However, if you wish to use a custom notfound view callable when a URL cannot be redirected to a slash-appended URL, you may wish to use an instance of the repoze.bfg.view.AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory class as the Not Found view, supplying the notfound view callable as the first argument to its constructor. For instance:

    from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
    from repoze.bfg.view import AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory
    def notfound_view(context, request):
        return HTTPNotFound('It aint there, stop trying!')
    custom_append_slash = AppendSlashNotFoundViewFactory(notfound_view)
    config.add_view(custom_append_slash, context=NotFound)

    The notfound_view supplied must adhere to the two-argument view callable calling convention of (context, request) (context will be the exception object).


  • Expanded the "Cleaning Up After a Request" section of the URL Dispatch narrative chapter.
  • Expanded the "Redirecting to Slash-Appended Routes" section of the URL Dispatch narrative chapter.


  • Previously, two default view functions were registered at Configurator setup (one for repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound named default_notfound_view and one for repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden named default_forbidden_view) to render internal exception responses. Those default view functions have been removed, replaced with a generic default view function which is registered at Configurator setup for the repoze.bfg.interfaces.IExceptionResponse interface that simply returns the exception instance; the NotFound and Forbidden classes are now still exception factories but they are also response factories which generate instances that implement the new repoze.bfg.interfaces.IExceptionResponse interface.

1.3a7 (2010-08-01)


  • The repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route API now returns the route object that was added.
  • A decorator was added. This decorator decorates module-scope functions, which are then treated as event listeners after a scan() is performed. See the Events narrative documentation chapter and the module documentation for more information.

Bug Fixes

  • When adding a view for a route which did not yet exist ("did not yet exist" meaning, temporally, a view was added with a route name for a route which had not yet been added via add_route), the value of the custom_predicate argument to add_view was lost. Symptom: wrong view matches when using URL dispatch and custom view predicates together.
  • Pattern matches for a :segment marker in a URL dispatch route pattern now always match at least one character. See "Backwards Incompatibilities" below in this changelog.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • A bug existed in the regular expression to do URL matching. As an example, the URL matching machinery would cause the pattern /{foo} to match the root URL / resulting in a match dictionary of {'foo':u''} or the pattern /{fud}/edit might match the URL ``//edit resulting in a match dictionary of {'fud':u''}. It was always the intent that :segment markers in the pattern would need to match at least one character, and never match the empty string. This, however, means that in certain circumstances, a routing match which your application inadvertently depended upon may no longer happen.


  • Added description of the decorator to the Events narrative chapter.
  • Added API documentation to API docs.
  • Added a section named "Zope 3 Enforces 'TTW' Authorization Checks By Default; BFG Does Not" to the "Design Defense" chapter.

1.3a6 (2010-07-25)


  • New argument to repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route and the route ZCML directive: traverse. If you would like to cause the context to be something other than the root object when this route matches, you can spell a traversal pattern as the traverse argument. This traversal pattern will be used as the traversal path: traversal will begin at the root object implied by this route (either the global root, or the object returned by the factory associated with this route).

    The syntax of the traverse argument is the same as it is for path. For example, if the path provided is articles/:article/edit, and the traverse argument provided is /:article, when a request comes in that causes the route to match in such a way that the article match value is '1' (when the request URI is /articles/1/edit), the traversal path will be generated as /1. This means that the root object's __getitem__ will be called with the name 1 during the traversal phase. If the 1 object exists, it will become the context of the request. The Traversal narrative has more information about traversal.

    If the traversal path contains segment marker names which are not present in the path argument, a runtime error will occur. The traverse pattern should not contain segment markers that do not exist in the path.

    A similar combining of routing and traversal is available when a route is matched which contains a *traverse remainder marker in its path. The traverse argument allows you to associate route patterns with an arbitrary traversal path without using a *traverse remainder marker; instead you can use other match information.

    Note that the traverse argument is ignored when attached to a route that has a *traverse remainder marker in its path.

  • A new method of the Configurator exists: set_request_factory. If used, this method will set the factory used by the repoze.bfg router to create all request objects.

  • The Configurator constructor takes an additional argument: request_factory. If used, this argument will set the factory used by the repoze.bfg router to create all request objects.

  • The Configurator constructor takes an additional argument: request_factory. If used, this argument will set the factory used by the repoze.bfg router to create all request objects.

  • A new method of the Configurator exists: set_renderer_globals_factory. If used, this method will set the factory used by the repoze.bfg router to create renderer globals.

  • A new method of the Configurator exists: get_settings. If used, this method will return the current settings object (performs the same job as the repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings API).

  • The Configurator constructor takes an additional argument: renderer_globals_factory. If used, this argument will set the factory used by the repoze.bfg router to create renderer globals.

  • Add repoze.bfg.renderers.render, repoze.bfg.renderers.render_to_response and repoze.bfg.renderers.get_renderer functions. These are imperative APIs which will use the same rendering machinery used by view configurations with a renderer= attribute/argument to produce a rendering or renderer. Because these APIs provide a central API for all rendering, they now form the preferred way to perform imperative template rendering. Using functions named render_* from modules such as repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt and repoze.bfg.chameleon_text is now discouraged (although not deprecated). The code the backing older templating-system-specific APIs now calls into the newer repoze.bfg.renderer code.

  • The repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.testing_add_template has been renamed to testing_add_renderer. A backwards compatibility alias is present using the old name.


  • The Hybrid narrative chapter now contains a description of the traverse route argument.
  • The Hooks narrative chapter now contains sections about changing the request factory and adding a renderer globals factory.
  • The API documentation includes a new module: repoze.bfg.renderers.
  • The Templates chapter was updated; all narrative that used templating-specific APIs within examples to perform rendering (such as the repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.render_template_to_response method) was changed to use repoze.bfg.renderers.render_* functions.

Bug Fixes

  • The header predicate (when used as either a view predicate or a route predicate) had a problem when specified with a name/regex pair. When the header did not exist in the headers dictionary, the regex match could be fed None, causing it to throw a TypeError: expected string or buffer exception. Now, the predicate returns False as intended.


  • The repoze.bfg.renderers.rendered_response function was never an official API, but may have been imported by extensions in the wild. It is officially deprecated in this release. Use repoze.bfg.renderers.render_to_response instead.

  • The following APIs are documentation deprecated (meaning they are officially deprecated in documentation but do not raise a deprecation error upon their usage, and may continue to work for an indefinite period of time):

    In the repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt module: get_renderer, get_template, render_template, render_template_to_response. The suggested alternatives are documented within the docstrings of those methods (which are still present in the documentation).

    In the repoze.bfg.chameleon_text module: get_renderer, get_template, render_template, render_template_to_response. The suggested alternatives are documented within the docstrings of those methods (which are still present in the documentation).

    In general, to perform template-related functions, one should now use the various methods in the repoze.bfg.renderers module.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • A new internal exception class (not an API) named repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch now exists. This exception is currently raised when no constituent view of a multiview can be called (due to no predicate match). Previously, in this situation, a repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound was raised. We provide backwards compatibility for code that expected a NotFound to be raised when no predicates match by causing repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch to inherit from NotFound. This will cause any exception view registered for NotFound to be called when a predicate mismatch occurs, as was the previous behavior.

    There is however, one perverse case that will expose a backwards incompatibility. If 1) you had a view that was registered as a member of a multiview 2) this view explicitly raised a NotFound exception in order to proceed to the next predicate check in the multiview, that code will now behave differently: rather than skipping to the next view match, a NotFound will be raised to the top-level exception handling machinery instead. For code to be depending upon the behavior of a view raising NotFound to proceed to the next predicate match, would be tragic, but not impossible, given that NotFound is a public interface. repoze.bfg.exceptions.PredicateMismatch is not a public API and cannot be depended upon by application code, so you should not change your view code to raise PredicateMismatch. Instead, move the logic which raised the NotFound exception in the view out into a custom view predicate.

  • If, when you run your application's unit test suite under BFG 1.3, a KeyError naming a template or a ValueError indicating that a 'renderer factory' is not registered may is raised (e.g. ValueError: No factory for renderer named '.pt' when looking up karl.views:templates/, you may need to perform some extra setup in your test code.

    The best solution is to use the repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.testing_add_renderer (or, alternately the deprecated repoze.bfg.testing.registerTemplateRenderer or registerDummyRenderer) API within the code comprising each individual unit test suite to register a "dummy" renderer for each of the templates and renderers used by code under test. For example:

    config = Configurator()

    This will register a basic dummy renderer for this particular missing template. The testing_add_renderer API actually returns the renderer, but if you don't care about how the render is used, you don't care about having a reference to it either.

    A more rough way to solve the issue exists. It causes the "real" template implementations to be used while the system is under test, which is suboptimal, because tests will run slower, and unit tests won't actually be unit tests, but it is easier. Always ensure you call the setup_registry() method of the Configurator . Eg:

    reg = MyRegistry()
    config = Configurator(registry=reg)

    Calling setup_registry only has an effect if you're passing in a registry argument to the Configurator constructor. setup_registry is called by the course of normal operations anyway if you do not pass in a registry.

    If your test suite isn't using a Configurator yet, and is still using the older repoze.bfg.testing APIs name setUp or cleanUp, these will register the renderers on your behalf.

    A variant on the symptom for this theme exists: you may already be dutifully registering a dummy template or renderer for a template used by the code you're testing using testing_register_renderer or registerTemplateRenderer, but (perhaps unbeknownst to you) the code under test expects to be able to use a "real" template renderer implementation to retrieve or render another template that you forgot was being rendered as a side effect of calling the code you're testing. This happened to work because it found the real template while the system was under test previously, and now it cannot. The solution is the same.

    It may also help reduce confusion to use a resource specification to specify the template path in the test suite and code rather than a relative path in either. A resource specification is unambiguous, while a relative path needs to be relative to "here", where "here" isn't always well-defined ("here" in a test suite may or may not be the same as "here" in the code under test).

1.3a5 (2010-07-14)


  • New internal exception: repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError. This URL is a subclass of the built-in Python exception named UnicodeDecodeError.
  • When decoding a URL segment to Unicode fails, the exception raised is now repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError instead of UnicodeDecodeError. This makes it possible to register an exception view invoked specifically when repoze.bfg cannot decode a URL.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix regression in repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_static_view. Before 1.3a4, view names that contained a slash were supported as route prefixes. 1.3a4 broke this by trying to treat them as full URLs.


  • The repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError exception was added to the exceptions chapter of the API documentation.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • in previous releases, when a URL could not be decoded from UTF-8 during traversal, a TypeError was raised. Now the error which is raised is a repoze.bfg.exceptions.URLDecodeError.

1.3a4 (2010-07-03)


  • Undocumented hook: make get_app and get_root of the repoze.bfg.paster.BFGShellCommand hookable in cases where endware may interfere with the default versions.

  • In earlier versions, a custom route predicate associated with a url dispatch route (each of the predicate functions fed to the custom_predicates argument of repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_route) has always required a 2-positional argument signature, e.g. (context, request). Before this release, the context argument was always None.

    As of this release, the first argument passed to a predicate is now a dictionary conventionally named info consisting of route, and match. match is a dictionary: it represents the arguments matched in the URL by the route. route is an object representing the route which was matched.

    This is useful when predicates need access to the route match. For example:

    def any_of(segment_name, *args):
        def predicate(info, request):
            if info['match'][segment_name] in args:
                return True
        return predicate
    num_one_two_or_three = any_of('num, 'one', 'two', 'three')
    add_route('num', '/:num', custom_predicates=(num_one_two_or_three,))

    The route object is an object that has two useful attributes: name and path. The name attribute is the route name. The path attribute is the route pattern. An example of using the route in a set of route predicates:

    def twenty_ten(info, request):
        if info['route'].name in ('ymd', 'ym', 'y'):
            return info['match']['year'] == '2010'
    add_route('y', '/:year', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))
    add_route('ym', '/:year/:month', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))
    add_route('ymd', '/:year/:month:/day', custom_predicates=(twenty_ten,))
  • The repoze.bfg.url.route_url API has changed. If a keyword _app_url is present in the arguments passed to route_url, this value will be used as the protocol/hostname/port/leading path prefix of the generated URL. For example, using an _app_url of would cause the URL to be returned from this function if the expansion of the route pattern associated with the route_name expanded to /fleeb/flub.

  • It is now possible to use a URL as the name argument fed to repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.add_static_view. When the name argument is a URL, the repoze.bfg.url.static_url API will generate join this URL (as a prefix) to a path including the static file name. This makes it more possible to put static media on a separate webserver for production, while keeping static media package-internal and served by the development webserver during development.


  • The authorization chapter of the ZODB Wiki Tutorial (docs/tutorials/bfgwiki) was changed to demonstrate authorization via a group rather than via a direct username (thanks to Alex Marandon).
  • The authorization chapter of the SQLAlchemy Wiki Tutorial (docs/tutorials/bfgwiki2) was changed to demonstrate authorization via a group rather than via a direct username.
  • Redirect requests for tutorial sources to and respectively.
  • A section named Custom Route Predicates was added to the URL Dispatch narrative chapter.
  • The Static Resources chapter has been updated to mention using static_url to generate URLs to external webservers.


  • Removed repoze.bfg.static.StaticURLFactory in favor of a new abstraction revolving around the (still-internal) repoze.bfg.static.StaticURLInfo helper class.

1.3a3 (2010-05-01)

Paster Templates

  • The bfg_alchemy and bfg_routesalchemy templates no longer register a handle_teardown event listener which calls DBSession.remove. This was found by Chris Withers to be unnecessary.


  • The "bfgwiki2" (URL dispatch wiki) tutorial code and documentation was changed to remove the handle_teardown event listener which calls DBSession.remove.
  • Any mention of the handle_teardown event listener as used by the paster templates was removed from the URL Dispatch narrative chapter.
  • A section entitled Detecting Available Languages was added to the i18n narrative docs chapter.

1.3a2 (2010-04-28)


  • A locale negotiator no longer needs to be registered explicitly. The default locale negotiator at repoze.bfg.i18n.default_locale_negotiator is now used unconditionally as... um, the default locale negotiator.
  • The default locale negotiator has become more complex.
    • First, the negotiator looks for the _LOCALE_ attribute of the request object (possibly set by a view or an event listener).
    • Then it looks for the request.params['_LOCALE_'] value.
    • Then it looks for the request.cookies['_LOCALE_'] value.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The default locale negotiator now looks for the parameter named _LOCALE_ rather than a parameter named locale in request.params.

Behavior Changes

  • A locale negotiator may now return None, signifying that the default locale should be used.


  • Documentation concerning locale negotiation in the Internationalizationa and Localization chapter was updated.
  • Expanded portion of i18n narrative chapter docs which discuss working with gettext files.

1.3a1 (2010-04-26)


  • Added "exception views". When you use an exception (anything that inherits from the Python Exception builtin) as view context argument, e.g.:

    from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
    from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
    from webob.exc import HTTPNotFound
    def notfound_view(request):
        return HTTPNotFound()

    For the above example, when the repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound exception is raised by any view or any root factory, the notfound_view view callable will be invoked and its response returned.

    Other normal view predicates can also be used in combination with an exception view registration:

    from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
    from repoze.bfg.exceptions import NotFound
    from webob.exc import HTTPNotFound
    @bfg_view(context=NotFound, route_name='home')
    def notfound_view(request):
        return HTTPNotFound()

    The above exception view names the route_name of home, meaning that it will only be called when the route matched has a name of home. You can therefore have more than one exception view for any given exception in the system: the "most specific" one will be called when the set of request circumstances which match the view registration. The only predicate that cannot be not be used successfully is name. The name used to look up an exception view is always the empty string.

    Existing (pre-1.3) normal views registered against objects inheriting from Exception will continue to work. Exception views used for user-defined exceptions and system exceptions used as contexts will also work.

    The feature can be used with any view registration mechanism (@bfg_view decorator, ZCML, or imperative config.add_view styles).

    This feature was kindly contributed by Andrey Popp.

  • Use "Venusian" ( to perform bfg_view decorator scanning rather than relying on a BFG-internal decorator scanner. (Truth be told, Venusian is really just a generalization of the BFG-internal decorator scanner).

  • Internationalization and localization features as documented in the narrative documentation chapter entitled Internationalization and Localization.

  • A new deployment setting named default_locale_name was added. If this string is present as a Paster .ini file option, it will be considered the default locale name. The default locale name is used during locale-related operations such as language translation.

  • It is now possible to turn on Chameleon template "debugging mode" for all Chameleon BFG templates by setting a BFG-related Paster .ini file setting named debug_templates. The exceptions raised by Chameleon templates when a rendering fails are sometimes less than helpful. debug_templates allows you to configure your application development environment so that exceptions generated by Chameleon during template compilation and execution will contain more helpful debugging information. This mode is on by default in all new projects.

  • Add a new method of the Configurator named derive_view which can be used to generate a BFG view callable from a user-supplied function, instance, or class. This useful for external framework and plugin authors wishing to wrap callables supplied by their users which follow the same calling conventions and response conventions as objects that can be supplied directly to BFG as a view callable. See the derive_view method in the repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator docs.


  • Add a translationdir ZCML directive to support localization.
  • Add a localenegotiator ZCML directive to support localization.


  • The exception views feature replaces the need for the set_notfound_view and set_forbidden_view methods of the Configurator as well as the notfound and forbidden ZCML directives. Those methods and directives will continue to work for the foreseeable future, but they are deprecated in the documentation.


  • A new install-time dependency on the venusian distribution was added.
  • A new install-time dependency on the translationstring distribution was added.
  • Chameleon 1.2.3 or better is now required (internationalization and per-template debug settings).


  • View registrations and lookups are now done with three "requires" arguments instead of two to accomodate orthogonality of exception views.
  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenView and repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView interfaces were removed; they weren't APIs and they became vestigial with the addition of exception views.
  • Remove and import alias repoze.bfg.compat.walk_packages. These were only required by internal scanning machinery; Venusian replaced the internal scanning machinery, so these are no longer required.


  • Exception view documentation was added to the Hooks narrative chapter.
  • A new narrative chapter entitled Internationalization and Localization was added.
  • The "Environment Variables and ini File Settings" chapter was changed: documentation about the default_locale_name setting was added.
  • A new API chapter for the repoze.bfg.i18n module was added.
  • Documentation for the new translationdir and localenegotiator ZCML directives were added.
  • A section was added to the Templates chapter entitled "Nicer Exceptions in Templates" describing the result of setting debug_templates = true.

Paster Templates

  • All paster templates now create a setup.cfg which includes commands related to nose testing and Babel message catalog extraction/compilation.
  • A default_locale_name = en setting was added to each existing paster template.
  • A debug_templates = true setting was added to each existing paster template.


  • The Edgewall (BSD) license was added to the LICENSES.txt file, as some code in the repoze.bfg.i18n derives from Babel source.

1.2 (2010-02-10)

  • No changes from 1.2b6.

1.2b6 (2010-02-06)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Remove magical feature of repoze.bfg.url.model_url which prepended a fully-expanded urldispatch route URL before a the model's path if it was noticed that the request had matched a route. This feature was ill-conceived, and didn't work in all scenarios.

Bug Fixes

  • More correct conversion of provided renderer values to resource specification values (internal).

1.2b5 (2010-02-04)

Bug Fixes

  • 1.2b4 introduced a bug whereby views added via a route configuration that named a view callable and also a view_attr became broken. Symptom: MyViewClass is not callable or the __call__ of a class was being called instead of the method named via view_attr.
  • Fix a bug whereby a renderer argument to the @bfg_view decorator that provided a package-relative template filename might not have been resolved properly. Symptom: inappropriate Missing template resource errors.

1.2b4 (2010-02-03)


  • Update GAE tutorial to use Chameleon instead of Jinja2 (now that it's possible).

Bug Fixes

  • Ensure that secure flag for AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor does what it's documented to do (merge Daniel Holth's fancy-cookies-2 branch).


  • Add path and http_only options to AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor (merge Daniel Holth's fancy-cookies-2 branch).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Remove view_header, view_accept, view_xhr, view_path_info, view_request_method, view_request_param, and view_containment predicate arguments from the Configurator.add_route argument list. These arguments were speculative. If you need the features exposed by these arguments, add a view associated with a route using the route_name argument to the add_view method instead.
  • Remove view_header, view_accept, view_xhr, view_path_info, view_request_method, view_request_param, and view_containment predicate arguments from the route ZCML directive attribute set. These attributes were speculative. If you need the features exposed by these attributes, add a view associated with a route using the route_name attribute of the view ZCML directive instead.


  • Remove dependency on sourcecodegen (not depended upon by Chameleon 1.1.1+).

1.2b3 (2010-01-24)

Bug Fixes

  • When "hybrid mode" (both traversal and urldispatch) is in use, default to finding route-related views even if a non-route-related view registration has been made with a more specific context. The default used to be to find views with a more specific context first. Use the new use_global_views argument to the route definition to get back the older behavior.


  • Add use_global_views argument to add_route method of Configurator. When this argument is true, views registered for no route will be found if no more specific view related to the route is found.
  • Add use_global_views attribute to ZCML <route> directive (see above).


  • When registering a view, register the view adapter with the "requires" interfaces as (request_type, context_type) rather than (context_type, request_type). This provides for saner lookup, because the registration will always be made with a specific request interface, but registration may not be made with a specific context interface. In general, when creating multiadapters, you want to order the requires interfaces so that the elements which are more likely to be registered using specific interfaces are ordered before those which are less likely.

1.2b2 (2010-01-21)

Bug Fixes

  • When the Configurator is passed an instance of zope.component.registry.Components as a registry constructor argument, fix the instance up to have the attributes we expect of an instance of repoze.bfg.registry.Registry when setup_registry is called. This makes it possible to use the global Zope component registry as a BFG application registry.
  • When WebOb was used, a deprecation warning was issued for the class attribute named charset within repoze.bfg.request.Request. BFG now requires WebOb >= 0.9.7, and code was added so that this deprecation warning has disappeared.
  • Fix a view lookup ordering bug whereby a view with a larger number of predicates registered first (literally first, not "earlier") for a triad would lose during view lookup to one registered with fewer.
  • Make sure views with exactly N custom predicates are always called before views with exactly N non-custom predicates given all else is equal in the view configuration.


  • Change renderings of ZCML directive documentation.
  • Add a narrative documentation chapter: "Using the Zope Component Architecture in repoze.bfg".


  • Require WebOb >= 0.9.7

1.2b1 (2010-01-18)

Bug Fixes

  • In bfg_routesalchemy, bfg_alchemy paster templates and the bfgwiki2 tutorial, clean up the SQLAlchemy connection by registering a callback instead of relying on a __del__ method of a Cleanup class added to the WSGI environment. The __del__ strategy was fragile and caused problems in the wild. Thanks to Daniel Holth for testing.


  • Read logging configuration from PasteDeploy config file loggers section (and related) when paster bfgshell is invoked.


  • Major rework in preparation for book publication.

1.2a11 (2010-01-05)

Bug Fixes

  • Make paster bfgshell and paster create -t bfg_xxx work on Jython (fix minor incompatibility with treatment of __doc__ at the class level).
  • Updated dependency on WebOb to require a version which supports features now used in tests.


  • Jython compatibility (at least when repoze.bfg.jinja2 is used as the templating engine; Chameleon does not work under Jython).
  • Show the derived abspath of template resource specifications in the traceback when a renderer template cannot be found.
  • Show the original traceback when a Chameleon template cannot be rendered due to a platform incompatibility.

1.2a10 (2010-01-04)


  • The Configurator.add_view method now accepts an argument named context. This is an alias for the older argument named for_; it is preferred over for_, but for_ will continue to be supported "forever".
  • The view ZCML directive now accepts an attribute named context. This is an alias for the older attribute named for; it is preferred over for, but for will continue to be supported "forever".
  • The Configurator.add_route method now accepts an argument named view_context. This is an alias for the older argument named view_for; it is preferred over view_for, but view_for will continue to be supported "forever".
  • The route ZCML directive now accepts an attribute named view_context. This is an alias for the older attribute named view_for; it is preferred over view_for, but view_for will continue to be supported "forever".

Documentation and Paster Templates

  • LaTeX rendering tweaks.
  • All uses of the Configurator.add_view method that used its for_ argument now use the context argument instead.
  • All uses of the Configurator.add_route method that used its view_for argument now use the view_context argument instead.
  • All uses of the view ZCML directive that used its for attribute now use the context attribute instead.
  • All uses of the route ZCML directive that used its view_for attribute now use the view_context attribute instead.
  • Add a (minimal) tutorial dealing with use of repoze.catalog in a repoze.bfg application.

Documentation Licensing

1.2a9 (2009-12-27)

Documentation Licensing

  • The documentation (the result of make <html|latex|htmlhelp> within the docs directory) in this release is now offered under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License as described by . This is only a licensing change for the documentation; the repoze.bfg software continues to be offered under the Repoze Public License at (BSD-like).


  • Added manual index entries to generated index.
  • Document the previously existing (but non-API) repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.setup_registry method as an official API of a Configurator.
  • Fix syntax errors in various documentation code blocks.
  • Created new top-level documentation section: "ZCML Directives". This section contains detailed ZCML directive information, some of which was removed from various narrative chapters.
  • The LaTeX rendering of the documentation has been improved.
  • Added a "Fore-Matter" section with author, copyright, and licensing information.

1.2a8 (2009-12-24)


  • Add a **kw arg to the Configurator.add_settings API.
  • Add hook_zca and unhook_zca methods to the Configurator API.
  • The repoze.bfg.testing.setUp method now returns a Configurator instance which can be used to do further configuration during unit tests.

Bug Fixes

  • The json renderer failed to set the response content type to application/json. It now does, by setting request.response_content_type unless this attribute is already set.
  • The string renderer failed to set the response content type to text/plain. It now does, by setting request.response_content_type unless this attribute is already set.


  • General documentation improvements by using better Sphinx roles such as "class", "func", "meth", and so on. This means that there are many more hyperlinks pointing to API documentation for API definitions in all narrative, tutorial, and API documentation elements.
  • Added a description of imperative configuration in various places which only described ZCML configuration.
  • A syntactical refreshing of various tutorials.
  • Added the repoze.bfg.authentication, repoze.bfg.authorization, and repoze.bfg.interfaces modules to API documentation.


  • The repoze.bfg.testing.registerRoutesMapper API (added in an early 1.2 alpha) was deprecated. Its import now generates a deprecation warning.

1.2a7 (2009-12-20)


  • Add four new testing-related APIs to the repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator class: testing_securitypolicy, testing_models, testing_add_subscriber, and testing_add_template. These were added in order to provide more direct access to the functionality of the repoze.bfg.testing APIs named registerDummySecurityPolicy, registerModels, registerEventListener, and registerTemplateRenderer when a configurator is used. The testing APIs named are nominally deprecated (although they will likely remain around "forever", as they are in heavy use in the wild).
  • Add a new API to the repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator class: add_settings. This API can be used to add "settings" (information returned within via the repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings API) after the configurator has been initially set up. This is most useful for testing purposes.
  • Add a custom_predicates argument to the Configurator add_view method, the bfg_view decorator and the attribute list of the ZCML view directive. If custom_predicates is specified, it must be a sequence of predicate callables (a predicate callable accepts two arguments: context and request and returns True or False). The associated view callable will only be invoked if all custom predicates return True. Use one or more custom predicates when no existing predefined predicate is useful. Predefined and custom predicates can be mixed freely.
  • Add a custom_predicates argument to the Configurator add_route and the attribute list of the ZCML route directive. If custom_predicates is specified, it must be a sequence of predicate callables (a predicate callable accepts two arguments: context and request and returns True or False). The associated route will match will only be invoked if all custom predicates return True, else route matching continues. Note that the value context will always be None when passed to a custom route predicate. Use one or more custom predicates when no existing predefined predicate is useful. Predefined and custom predicates can be mixed freely.


  • Remove the repoze.bfg.testing.registerTraverser function. This function was never an API.


  • Doc-deprecated most helper functions in the repoze.bfg.testing module. These helper functions likely won't be removed any time soon, nor will they generate a warning any time soon, due to their heavy use in the wild, but equivalent behavior exists in methods of a Configurator.

1.2a6 (2009-12-18)


  • The Configurator object now has two new methods: begin and end. The begin method is meant to be called before any "configuration" begins (e.g. before add_view, et. al are called). The end method is meant to be called after all "configuration" is complete.

    Previously, before there was imperative configuration at all (1.1 and prior), configuration begin and end was invariably implied by the process of loading a ZCML file. When a ZCML load happened, the threadlocal data structure containing the request and registry was modified before the load, and torn down after the load, making sure that all framework code that needed get_current_registry for the duration of the ZCML load was satisfied.

    Some API methods called during imperative configuration, (such as Configurator.add_view when a renderer is involved) end up for historical reasons calling get_current_registry. However, in 1.2a5 and below, the Configurator supplied no functionality that allowed people to make sure that get_current_registry returned the registry implied by the configurator being used. begin now serves this purpose. Inversely, end pops the thread local stack, undoing the actions of begin.

    We make this boundary explicit to reduce the potential for confusion when the configurator is used in different circumstances (e.g. in unit tests and app code vs. just in initial app setup).

    Existing code written for 1.2a1-1.2a5 which does not call begin or end continues to work in the same manner it did before. It is however suggested that this code be changed to call begin and end to reduce the potential for confusion in the future.

  • All paster templates which generate an application skeleton now make use of the new begin and end methods of the Configurator they use in their respective copies of and


  • All documentation that makes use of a Configurator object to do application setup and test setup now makes use of the new begin and end methods of the configurator.

Bug Fixes

  • When a repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound or repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden class (as opposed to instance) was raised as an exception within a root factory (or route root factory), the exception would not be caught properly by the repoze.bfg. Router and it would propagate to up the call stack, as opposed to rendering the not found view or the forbidden view as would have been expected.
  • When Chameleon page or text templates used as renderers were added imperatively (via Configurator.add_view or some derivative), they too-eagerly attempted to look up the reload_templates setting via get_settings, meaning they were always registered in non-auto-reload-mode (the default). Each now waits until its respective template attribute is accessed to look up the value.
  • When a route with the same name as a previously registered route was added, the old route was not removed from the mapper's routelist. Symptom: the old registered route would be used (and possibly matched) during route lookup when it should not have had a chance to ever be used.

1.2a5 (2009-12-10)


  • When the repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound or repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden error is raised from within a custom root factory or the factory of a route, the appropriate response is now sent to the requesting user agent (the result of the notfound view or the forbidden view, respectively). When these errors are raised from within a root factory, the context passed to the notfound or forbidden view will be None. Also, the request will not be decorated with view_name, subpath, context, etc. as would normally be the case if traversal had been allowed to take place.


  • The exception class representing the error raised by various methods of a Configurator is now importable as repoze.bfg.exceptions.ConfigurationError.


  • General documentation freshening which takes imperative configuration into account in more places and uses glossary references more liberally.
  • Remove explanation of changing the request type in a new request event subscriber, as other predicates are now usually an easier way to get this done.
  • Added "Thread Locals" narrative chapter to documentation, and added a API chapter documenting the repoze.bfg.threadlocals module.
  • Added a "Special Exceptions" section to the "Views" narrative documentation chapter explaining the effect of raising repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound and repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden from within view code.


  • A new dependency on the twill package was added to the tests_require argument (Twill will only be downloaded when repoze.bfg test or nosetests is invoked).

1.2a4 (2009-12-07)


  • repoze.bfg.testing.DummyModel now accepts a new constructor keyword argument: __provides__. If this constructor argument is provided, it should be an interface or a tuple of interfaces. The resulting model will then provide these interfaces (they will be attached to the constructed model via zope.interface.alsoProvides).

Bug Fixes

  • Operation on GAE was broken, presumably because the repoze.bfg.configuration module began to attempt to import the repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt and repoze.bfg.chameleon_text modules, and these cannot be used on non-CPython platforms. It now tolerates startup time import failures for these modules, and only raise an import error when a template from one of these packages is actually used.

1.2a3 (2009-12-02)

Bug Fixes

  • The repoze.bfg.url.route_url function inappropriately passed along _query and/or _anchor arguments to the mapper.generate function, resulting in blowups.
  • When two views were registered with differering for interfaces or classes, and the for of first view registered was a superclass of the second, the repoze.bfg view machinery would incorrectly associate the two views with the same "multiview". Multiviews are meant to be collections of views that have exactly the same for/request/viewname values, without taking inheritance into account. Symptom: wrong view callable found even when you had correctly specified a for_ interface/class during view configuration for one or both view configurations.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The repoze.bfg.templating module has been removed; it had been deprecated in 1.1 and never actually had any APIs in it.

1.2a2 (2009-11-29)

Bug Fixes

  • The long description of this package (as shown on PyPI) was not valid reStructuredText, and so was not renderable.
  • Trying to use an HTTP method name string such as GET as a request_type predicate argument caused a startup time failure when it was encountered in imperative configuration or in a decorator (symptom: Type Error: Required specification must be a specification). This now works again, although request_method is now the preferred predicate argument for associating a view configuration with an HTTP request method.


  • Fixed "Startup" narrative documentation chapter; it was explaining "the old way" an application constructor worked.

1.2a1 (2009-11-28)


  • An imperative configuration mode.

    A repoze.bfg application can now begin its life as a single Python file. Later, the application might evolve into a set of Python files in a package. Even later, it might start making use of other configuration features, such as ZCML. But neither the use of a package nor the use of non-imperative configuration is required to create a simple repoze.bfg application any longer.

    Imperative configuration makes repoze.bfg competetive with "microframeworks" such as Bottle and Tornado. repoze.bfg has a good deal of functionality that most microframeworks lack, so this is hopefully a "best of both worlds" feature.

    The simplest possible repoze.bfg application is now:

    from webob import Response
    from wsgiref import simple_server
    from repoze.bfg.configuration import Configurator
    def hello_world(request):
        return Response('Hello world!')
    if __name__ == '__main__':
        config = Configurator()
        app = config.make_wsgi_app()
        simple_server.make_server('', 8080, app).serve_forever()
  • A new class now exists: repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator. This class forms the basis for sharing machinery between "imperatively" configured applications and traditional declaratively-configured applications.

  • The repoze.bfg.testing.setUp function now accepts three extra optional keyword arguments: registry, request and hook_zca.

    If the registry argument is not None, the argument will be treated as the registry that is set as the "current registry" (it will be returned by repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry) for the duration of the test. If the registry argument is None (the default), a new registry is created and used for the duration of the test.

    The value of the request argument is used as the "current request" (it will be returned by repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_request) for the duration of the test; it defaults to None.

    If hook_zca is True (the default), the zope.component.getSiteManager function will be hooked with a function that returns the value of registry (or the default-created registry if registry is None) instead of the registry returned by zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager, causing the Zope Component Architecture API (getSiteManager, getAdapter, getUtility, and so on) to use the testing registry instead of the global ZCA registry.

  • The repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown function now accepts an unhook_zca argument. If this argument is True (the default), zope.component.getSiteManager.reset() will be called. This will cause the result of the zope.component.getSiteManager function to be the global ZCA registry (the result of zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager) once again.

  • The module in various repoze.bfg paster templates now use a repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator class instead of the (now-legacy) repoze.bfg.router.make_app function to produce a WSGI application.


  • The documentation now uses the "request-only" view calling convention in most examples (as opposed to the context, request convention). This is a documentation-only change; the context, request convention is also supported and documented, and will be "forever".
  • repoze.bfg.configuration API documentation has been added.
  • A narrative documentation chapter entitled "Creating Your First repoze.bfg Application" has been added. This chapter details usage of the new repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator class, and demonstrates a simplified "imperative-mode" configuration; doing repoze.bfg application configuration imperatively was previously much more difficult.
  • A narrative documentation chapter entitled "Configuration, Decorations and Code Scanning" explaining ZCML- vs. imperative- vs. decorator-based configuration equivalence.
  • The "ZCML Hooks" chapter has been renamed to "Hooks"; it documents how to override hooks now via imperative configuration and ZCML.
  • The explanation about how to supply an alternate "response factory" has been removed from the "Hooks" chapter. This feature may be removed in a later release (it still works now, it's just not documented).
  • Add a section entitled "Test Set Up and Tear Down" to the unittesting chapter.

Bug Fixes

  • The ACL authorization policy debugging output when debug_authorization console debugging output was turned on wasn't as clear as it could have been when a view execution was denied due to an authorization failure resulting from the set of principals passed never having matched any ACE in any ACL in the lineage. Now in this case, we report <default deny> as the ACE value and either the root ACL or <No ACL found on any object in model lineage> if no ACL was found.
  • When two views were registered with the same accept argument, but were otherwise registered with the same arguments, if a request entered the application which had an Accept header that accepted either of the media types defined by the set of views registered with predicates that otherwise matched, a more or less "random" one view would "win". Now, we try harder to use the view callable associated with the view configuration that has the most specific accept argument. Thanks to Alberto Valverde for an initial patch.


  • The routes mapper is no longer a root factory wrapper. It is now consulted directly by the router.

  • The repoze.bfg.registry.make_registry callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.map_view callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.owrap_view callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.predicate_wrap callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.secure_view callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.authdebug_view callable has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.renderer_from_name callable has been removed. Use repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.renderer_from_name instead (still not an API, however).

  • The repoze.bfg.view.derive_view callable has been removed. Use repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator.derive_view instead (still not an API, however).

  • The repoze.bfg.settings.get_options callable has been removed. Its job has been subsumed by the repoze.bfg.settings.Settings class constructor.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.requestonly function has been moved to repoze.bfg.configuration.requestonly.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.rendered_response function has been moved to repoze.bfg.configuration.rendered_response.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.decorate_view function has been moved to repoze.bfg.configuration.decorate_view.

  • The repoze.bfg.view.MultiView class has been moved to repoze.bfg.configuration.MultiView.

  • The repoze.bfg.zcml.Uncacheable class has been removed.

  • The repoze.bfg.resource.resource_spec function has been removed.

  • All ZCML directives which deal with attributes which are paths now use the path method of the ZCML context to resolve a relative name to an absolute one (imperative configuration requirement).

  • The repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root API now uses a 'real' WebOb request rather than a FakeRequest when it sets up the request as a threadlocal.

  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.traverse API now uses a 'real' WebOb request rather than a FakeRequest when it calls the traverser.

  • The repoze.bfg.request.FakeRequest class has been removed.

  • Most uses of the ZCA threadlocal API (the getSiteManager, getUtility, getAdapter, getMultiAdapter threadlocal API) have been removed from the core. Instead, when a threadlocal is necessary, the core uses the repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry API to obtain the registry.

  • The internal ILogger utility named repoze.bfg.debug is now just an IDebugLogger unnamed utility. A named utility with the old name is registered for b/w compat.

  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory interface was removed; it has become unused.

  • Instead of depending on the martian package to do code scanning, we now just use our own scanning routines.

  • We now no longer have a dependency on repoze.zcml package; instead, the repoze.bfg package includes implementations of the adapter, subscriber and utility directives.

  • Relating to the following functions:












    Each of these functions now expects to be called with a request object that has a registry attribute which represents the current repoze.bfg registry. They fall back to obtaining the registry from the threadlocal API.

Backwards Incompatibilites

  • Unit tests which use zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp for the purpose of isolating tests from one another may now begin to fail due to lack of isolation between tests.

    Here's why: In repoze.bfg 1.1 and prior, the registry returned by repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry when no other registry had been pushed on to the threadlocal stack was the zope.component.globalregistry.base global registry (aka the result of zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()). In repoze.bfg 1.2+, however, the registry returned in this situation is the new module-scope repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry object. The zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp function clears the zope.component.globalregistry.base global registry unconditionally. However, it does not know about the repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry object, so it does not clear it.

    If you use the zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp function in the setUp of test cases in your unit test suite instead of using the (more correct as of 1.1) repoze.bfg.testing.setUp, you will need to replace all calls to zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp with a call to repoze.bfg.testing.setUp.

    If replacing all calls to zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp with a call to repoze.bfg.testing.setUp is infeasible, you can put this bit of code somewhere that is executed exactly once (not for each test in a test suite; in the ```` of your package or your package's tests subpackage would be a reasonable place):

    import zope.testing.cleanup
    from repoze.bfg.testing import setUp
  • When there is no "current registry" in the repoze.bfg.threadlocal.manager threadlocal data structure (this is the case when there is no "current request" or we're not in the midst of a r.b.testing.setUp-bounded unit test), the .get method of the manager returns a data structure containing a global registry. In previous releases, this function returned the global Zope "base" registry: the result of zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager, which is an instance of the zope.component.registry.Component class. In this release, however, the global registry returns a globally importable instance of the repoze.bfg.registry.Registry class. This registry instance can always be imported as repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry.

    Effectively, this means that when you call repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry when no request or setUp bounded unit test is in effect, you will always get back the global registry that lives in repoze.bfg.registry.global_registry. It also means that repoze.bfg APIs that call get_current_registry will use this registry.

    This change was made because repoze.bfg now expects the registry it uses to have a slightly different API than a bare instance of zope.component.registry.Components.

  • View registration no longer registers a repoze.bfg.interfaces.IViewPermission adapter (it is no longer checked by the framework; since 1.1, views have been responsible for providing their own security).

  • The repoze.bfg.router.make_app callable no longer accepts the authentication_policy nor the authorization_policy arguments. This feature was deprecated in version 1.0 and has been removed.

  • Obscure: the machinery which configured views with a request_type and a route_name would ignore the request interface implied by route_name registering a view only for the interface implied by request_type. In the unlikely event that you were trying to use these two features together, the symptom would have been that views that named a request_type but which were also associated with routes were not found when the route matched. Now if a view is configured with both a request_type and a route_name, an error is raised.

  • The route ZCML directive now no longer accepts the request_type or view_request_type attributes. These attributes didn't actually work in any useful way (see entry above this one).

  • Because the repoze.bfg package now includes implementations of the adapter, subscriber and utility ZCML directives, it is now an error to have <include package="repoze.zcml" file="meta.zcml"/> in the ZCML of a repoze.bfg application. A ZCML conflict error will be raised if your ZCML does so. This shouldn't be an issue for "normal" installations; it has always been the responsibility of the repoze.bfg.includes ZCML to include this file in the past; it now just doesn't.

  • The repoze.bfg.testing.zcml_configure API was removed. Use the Configurator.load_zcml API instead.


  • The repoze.bfg.router.make_app function is now nominally deprecated. Its import and usage does not throw a warning, nor will it probably ever disappear. However, using a repoze.bfg.configuration.Configurator class is now the preferred way to generate a WSGI application.

    Note that make_app calls zope.component.getSiteManager.sethook( repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry) on the caller's behalf, hooking ZCA global API lookups, for backwards compatibility purposes. If you disuse make_app, your calling code will need to perform this call itself, at least if your application uses the ZCA global API (getSiteManager, getAdapter, etc).


  • A dependency on the martian package has been removed (its functionality is replaced internally).
  • A dependency on the repoze.zcml package has been removed (its functionality is replaced internally).

1.1.1 (2009-11-21)

Bug Fixes

  • "Hybrid mode" applications (applications which explicitly used traversal after url dispatch via <route> paths containing the *traverse element) were broken in 1.1-final and all 1.1 alpha and beta releases. Views registered without a route_name route shadowed views registered with a route_name inappropriately.

1.1 (2009-11-15)


  • Remove dead IRouteRequirement interface from repoze.bfg.zcml module.


  • Improve the "Extending an Existing Application" narrative chapter.
  • Add more sections to the "Defending Design" chapter.

1.1b4 (2009-11-12)

Bug Fixes

  • Use alsoProvides in the urldispatch module to attach an interface to the request rather than directlyProvides to avoid disturbing interfaces set in a NewRequest event handler.


  • Move 1.0.1 and previous changelog to HISTORY.txt.
  • Add examples to repoze.bfg.url.model_url docstring.
  • Add "Defending BFG Design" chapter to frontpage docs.


  • Remove and its import from all paster templates, samples, and tutorials for distribute compatibility. The documentation already explains how to install virtualenv (which will include some setuptools package), so these files, imports and usages were superfluous.


  • The options kw arg to the repoze.bfg.router.make_app function is deprecated. In its place is the keyword argument settings. The options keyword continues to work, and a deprecation warning is not emitted when it is detected. However, the paster templates, code samples, and documentation now make reference to settings rather than options. This change/deprecation was mainly made for purposes of clarity and symmetry with the get_settings() API and dicussions of "settings" in various places in the docs: we want to use the same name to refer to the same thing everywhere.

1.1b3 (2009-11-06)


  • repoze.bfg.testing.registerRoutesMapper testing facility added. This testing function registers a routes "mapper" object in the registry, for tests which require its presence. This function is documented in the repoze.bfg.testing API documentation.

Bug Fixes

  • Compound statements that used an assignment entered into in an interactive IPython session invoked via paster bfgshell no longer fail to mutate the shell namespace correctly. For example, this set of statements used to fail:

    In [2]: def bar(x): return x
    In [3]: list(bar(x) for x in 'abc')
    Out[3]: NameError: 'bar'

    In this release, the bar function is found and the correct output is now sent to the console. Thanks to Daniel Holth for the patch.

  • The bfgshell command did not function properly; it was still expecting to be able to call the root factory with a bare environ rather than a request object.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root function now expects a request object as its second argument rather than an environ.

1.1b2 (2009-11-02)

Bug Fixes

  • Prevent PyPI installation failure due to easy_install trying way too hard to guess the best version of Paste. When easy_install pulls from PyPI it reads links off various pages to determine "more up to date" versions. It incorrectly picks up a link for an ancient version of a package named "Paste-Deploy-0.1" (note the dash) when trying to find the "Paste" distribution and somehow believes it's the latest version of "Paste". It also somehow "helpfully" decides to check out a version of this package from SVN. We pin the Paste dependency version to a version greater than 1.7 to work around this easy_install bug.


  • Fix "Hybrid" narrative chapter: stop claiming that <view> statements that mention a route_name need to come afer (in XML order) the <route> statement which creates the route. This hasn't been true since 1.1a1.
  • "What's New in repoze.bfg 1.1" document added to narrative documentation.


  • Add a new event type: Events of this type will be sent after traversal is completed, but before any view code is invoked. Like, This event will have a single attribute: request representing the current request. Unlike the request attribute of however, during an AfterTraversal event, the request object will possess attributes set by the traverser, most notably context, which will be the context used when a view is found and invoked. The interface can be used to subscribe to the event. For example:

    <subscriber for="repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAfterTraversal"

    Like any framework event, a subscriber function should expect one parameter: event.


  • Rather than depending on chameleon.core and chameleon.zpt distributions individually, depend on Malthe's repackaged Chameleon distribution (which includes both chameleon.core and chameleon.zpt).

1.1b1 (2009-11-01)

Bug Fixes

  • The routes root factory called route factories and the default route factory with an environ rather than a request. One of the symptoms of this bug: applications generated using the bfg_zodb paster template in 1.1a9 did not work properly.
  • Reinstate renderer alias for view_renderer in the <route> ZCML directive (in-the-wild 1.1a bw compat).
  • bfg_routesalchemy paster template: change <route> declarations: rename renderer attribute to view_renderer.
  • Header values returned by the authtktauthenticationpolicy remember and forget methods would be of type unicode. This violated the WSGI spec, causing a TypeError to be raised when these headers were used under mod_wsgi.
  • If a BFG app that had a route matching the root URL was mounted under a path in modwsgi, ala WSGIScriptAlias /myapp /Users/chrism/projects/modwsgi/env/bfg.wsgi, the home route (a route with the path of '/' or '') would not match when the path /myapp was visited (only when the path /myapp/ was visited). This is now fixed: if the urldispatch root factory notes that the PATH_INFO is empty, it converts it to a single slash before trying to do matching.


  • In <route> declarations in tutorial ZCML, rename renderer attribute to view_renderer (fwd compat).
  • Fix various tutorials broken by 1.1a9 <route> directive changes.


  • Deal with a potential circref in the traversal module.

1.1a9 (2009-10-31)

Bug Fixes

  • An incorrect ZCML conflict would be encountered when the request_param predicate attribute was used on the ZCML view directive if any two otherwise same-predicated views had the combination of a predicate value with an = sign and one without (e.g. a vs. a=123).


  • In previous versions of BFG, the "root factory" (the get_root callable passed to make_app or a function pointed to by the factory attribute of a route) was called with a "bare" WSGI environment. In this version, and going forward, it will be called with a request object. The request object passed to the factory implements dictionary-like methods in such a way that existing root factory code which expects to be passed an environ will continue to work.
  • The __call__ of a plugin "traverser" implementation (registered as an adapter for ITraverser or ITraverserFactory) will now receive a request as the single argument to its __call__ method. In previous versions it was passed a WSGI environ object. The request object passed to the factory implements dictionary-like methods in such a way that existing traverser code which expects to be passed an environ will continue to work.
  • The ZCML route directive's attributes xhr, request_method, path_info, request_param, header and accept are now route predicates rather than view predicates. If one or more of these predicates is specified in the route configuration, all of the predicates must return true for the route to match a request. If one or more of the route predicates associated with a route returns False when checked during a request, the route match fails, and the next match in the routelist is tried. This differs from the previous behavior, where no route predicates existed and all predicates were considered view predicates, because in that scenario, the next route was not tried.


  • Various changes were made to narrative and API documentation supporting the change from passing a request rather than an environ to root factories and traversers.


  • The request implements dictionary-like methods that mutate and query the WSGI environ. This is only for the purpose of backwards compatibility with root factories which expect an environ rather than a request.
  • The repoze.bfg.request.create_route_request_factory function, which returned a request factory was removed in favor of a repoze.bfg.request.route_request_interface function, which returns an interface.
  • The repoze.bfg.request.Request class, which is a subclass of webob.Request now defines its own __setattr__, __getattr__ and __delattr__ methods, which override the default WebOb behavior. The default WebOb behavior stores attributes of the request in self.environ['webob.adhoc_attrs'], and retrieves them from that dictionary during a __getattr__. This behavior was undesirable for speed and "expectation" reasons. Now attributes of the request are stored in request.__dict__ (as you otherwise might expect from an object that did not override these methods).
  • The router no longer calls repoze.bfg.traversal._traverse and does its work "inline" (speed).
  • Reverse the order in which the router calls the request factory and the root factory. The request factory is now called first; the resulting request is passed to the root factory.
  • The repoze.bfg.request.request_factory function has been removed. Its functionality is no longer required.
  • The "routes root factory" that wraps the default root factory when there are routes mentioned in the configuration now attaches an interface to the request via zope.interface.directlyProvides. This replaces logic in the (now-gone) repoze.bfg.request.request_factory function.
  • The route and view ZCML directives now register an interface as a named utility (retrieved from repoze.bfg.request.route_request_interface) rather than a request factory (the previous return value of the now-missing repoze.bfg.request.create_route_request_factory.
  • The repoze.bfg.functional module was renamed to repoze.bfg.compat.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Explicitly revert the feature introduced in 1.1a8: where the name root is available as an attribute of the request before a NewRequest event is emitted. This makes some potential future features impossible, or at least awkward (such as grouping traversal and view lookup into a single adapter lookup).
  • The containment, attr and renderer attributes of the route ZCML directive were removed.

1.1a8 (2009-10-27)


  • Add path_info view configuration predicate.
  • paster bfgshell now supports IPython if it's available for import. Thanks to Daniel Holth for the initial patch.
  • Add repoze.bfg.testing.registerSettings API, which is documented in the "repoze.bfg.testing" API chapter. This allows for registration of "settings" values obtained via repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings() for use in unit tests.
  • The name root is available as an attribute of the request slightly earlier now (before a NewRequest event is emitted). root is the result of the application "root factory".
  • Added max_age parameter to authtktauthenticationpolicy ZCML directive. If this value is set, it must be an integer representing the number of seconds which the auth tkt cookie will survive. Mainly, its existence allows the auth_tkt cookie to survive across browser sessions.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix bug encountered during "scan" (when <scan ..> directive is used in ZCML) introduced in 1.1a7. Symptom: AttributeError: object has no attribute __provides__ raised at startup time.
  • The reissue_time argument to the authtktauthenticationpolicy ZCML directive now actually works. When it is set to an integer value, an authticket set-cookie header is appended to the response whenever a request requires authentication and 'now' minus the authticket's timestamp is greater than reissue_time seconds.


  • Add a chapter titled "Request and Response" to the narrative documentation, content cribbed from the WebOb documentation.
  • Call out predicate attributes of ZCML directive within "Views" chapter.
  • Fix route_url documentation (_query argument documented as query and _anchor argument documented as anchor).

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The authtkt authentication policy remember method now no longer honors token or userdata keyword arguments.


  • Change how bfg_view decorator works when used as a class method decorator. In 1.1a7, the``scan``directive actually tried to grope every class in scanned package at startup time, calling dir against each found class, and subsequently invoking getattr against each thing found by dir to see if it was a method. This led to some strange symptoms (e.g. AttributeError: object has no attribute __provides__), and was generally just a bad idea. Now, instead of groping classes for methods at startup time, we just cause the bfg_view decorator itself to populate the method's class' __dict__ when it is used as a method decorator. This also requires a nasty _getframe thing but it's slightly less nasty than the startup time groping behavior. This is essentially a reversion back to 1.1a6 "grokking" behavior plus some special magic for using the bfg_view decorator as method decorator inside the bfg_view class itself.
  • The router now checks for a global_response_headers attribute of the request object before returning a response. If this value exists, it is presumed to be a sequence of two-tuples, representing a set of headers to append to the 'normal' response headers. This feature is internal, rather than exposed externally, because it's unclear whether it will stay around in the long term. It was added to support the reissue_time feature of the authtkt authentication policy.
  • The interface ITraverserFactory is now just an alias for ITraverser.

1.1a7 (2009-10-18)


  • More than one @bfg_view decorator may now be stacked on top of any number of others. Each invocation of the decorator registers a single view configuration. For instance, the following combination of decorators and a function will register two view configurations for the same view callable:

    from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
    def edit(context, request):

    This makes it possible to associate more than one view configuration with a single callable without requiring any ZCML.

  • The @bfg_view decorator can now be used against a class method:

    from webob import Response
    from repoze.bfg.view import bfg_view
    class MyView(object):
        def __init__(self, context, request):
            self.context = context
            self.request = request
        def amethod(self):
            return Response('hello from %s!' % self.context)

    When the bfg_view decorator is used against a class method, a view is registered for the class (it's a "class view" where the "attr" happens to be the name of the method it is attached to), so the class it's defined within must have a suitable constructor: one that accepts context, request or just request.


  • Added Changing the Traverser and Changing How :mod:`repoze.bfg.url.model_url` Generates a URL to the "Hooks" narrative chapter of the docs.


  • Remove and imports of it within In the new world, and as per virtualenv setup instructions, people will already have either setuptools or distribute.

1.1a6 (2009-10-15)


  • Add xhr, accept, and header view configuration predicates to ZCML view declaration, ZCML route declaration, and bfg_view decorator. See the Views narrative documentation chapter for more information about these predicates.
  • Add setUp and tearDown functions to the repoze.bfg.testing module. Using setUp in a test setup and tearDown in a test teardown is now the recommended way to do component registry setup and teardown. Previously, it was recommended that a single function named repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp be called in both the test setup and tear down. repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp still exists (and will exist "forever" due to its widespread use); it is now just an alias for repoze.bfg.testing.setUp and is nominally deprecated.
  • The BFG component registry is now available in view and event subscriber code as an attribute of the request ie. request.registry. This fact is currently undocumented except for this note, because BFG developers never need to interact with the registry directly anywhere else.
  • The BFG component registry now inherits from dict, meaning that it can optionally be used as a simple dictionary. Component registrations performed against it via e.g. registerUtility, registerAdapter, and similar API methods are kept in a completely separate namespace than its dict members, so using the its component API methods won't effect the keys and values in the dictionary namespace. Likewise, though the component registry "happens to be" a dictionary, use of mutating dictionary methods such as __setitem__ will have no influence on any component registrations made against it. In other words, the registry object you obtain via e.g. repoze.bfg.threadlocal.get_current_registry or request.registry happens to be both a component registry and a dictionary, but using its component-registry API won't impact data added to it via its dictionary API and vice versa. This is a forward compatibility move based on the goals of "marco".
  • Expose and document repoze.bfg.testing.zcml_configure API. This function populates a component registry from a ZCML file for testing purposes. It is documented in the "Unit and Integration Testing" chapter.


  • Virtual hosting narrative docs chapter updated with info about mod_wsgi.
  • Point all index URLs at the literal 1.1 index (this alpha cycle may go on a while).
  • Various tutorial test modules updated to use repoze.bfg.testing.setUp and repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown methods in order to encourage this as best practice going forward.
  • Added "Creating Integration Tests" section to unit testing narrative documentation chapter. As a result, the name of the unittesting chapter is now "Unit and Integration Testing".

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Importing getSiteManager and get_registry from repoze.bfg.registry is no longer supported. These imports were deprecated in repoze.bfg 1.0. Import of getSiteManager should be done as from zope.component import getSiteManager. Import of get_registry should be done as from repoze.bfg.threadlocal import get_current_registry. This was done to prevent a circular import dependency.
  • Code bases which alternately invoke both zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp and repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp (treating them equivalently, using them interchangeably) in the setUp/tearDown of unit tests will begin to experience test failures due to lack of test isolation. The "right" mechanism is repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp (or the combination of repoze.bfg.testing.setUp and repoze.bfg.testing.tearDown). but a good number of legacy codebases will use zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp instead. We support zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp but not in combination with repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp in the same codebase. You should use one or the other test cleanup function in a single codebase, but not both.


  • Created new repoze.bfg.configuration module which assumes responsibilities previously held by the repoze.bfg.registry and repoze.bfg.router modules (avoid a circular import dependency).
  • The result of the zope.component.getSiteManager function in unit tests set up with repoze.bfg.testing.cleanUp or repoze.bfg.testing.setUp will be an instance of repoze.bfg.registry.Registry instead of the global zope.component.globalregistry.base registry. This also means that the threadlocal ZCA API functions such as getAdapter and getUtility as well as internal BFG machinery (such as model_url and route_url) will consult this registry within unit tests. This is a forward compatibility move based on the goals of "marco".
  • Removed repoze.bfg.testing.addCleanUp function and associated module-scope globals. This was never an API.

1.1a5 (2009-10-10)


  • Change "Traversal + ZODB" and "URL Dispatch + SQLAlchemy" Wiki tutorials to make use of the new-to-1.1 "renderer" feature (return dictionaries from all views).
  • Add tests to the "URL Dispatch + SQLAlchemy" tutorial after the "view" step.
  • Added a diagram of model graph traversal to the "Traversal" narrative chapter of the documentation.
  • An exceptions API chapter was added, documenting the new repoze.bfg.exceptions module.
  • Describe "request-only" view calling conventions inside the urldispatch narrative chapter, where it's most helpful.
  • Add a diagram which explains the operation of the BFG router to the "Router" narrative chapter.


  • Add a new repoze.bfg.testing API: registerRoute, for registering routes to satisfy calls to e.g. repoze.bfg.url.route_url in unit tests.
  • The notfound and forbidden ZCML directives now accept the following addtional attributes: attr, renderer, and wrapper. These have the same meaning as they do in the context of a ZCML view directive.
  • For behavior like Django's APPEND_SLASH=True, use the repoze.bfg.view.append_slash_notfound_view view as the Not Found view in your application. When this view is the Not Found view (indicating that no view was found), and any routes have been defined in the configuration of your application, if the value of PATH_INFO does not already end in a slash, and if the value of PATH_INFO plus a slash matches any route's path, do an HTTP redirect to the slash-appended PATH_INFO. Note that this will lose POST data information (turning it into a GET), so you shouldn't rely on this to redirect POST requests.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.location.lineage slightly.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.encode.urlencode (nee' repoze.bfg.url.urlencode) slightly.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple slightly.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.traversal.traverse slightly.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.url.model_url slightly.
  • Speed up repoze.bfg.url.route_url slightly.
  • Sped up repoze.bfg.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser:__call__ slightly.
  • Minor speedup of repoze.bfg.router.Router.__call__.
  • New repoze.bfg.exceptions module was created to house exceptions that were previously sprinkled through various modules.


  • Move repoze.bfg.traversal._url_quote into repoze.bfg.encode as url_quote.


  • The import of repoze.bfg.view.NotFound is deprecated in favor of repoze.bfg.exceptions.NotFound. The old location still functions, but emits a deprecation warning.
  • The import of is deprecated in favor of repoze.bfg.exceptions.Forbidden. The old location still functions but emits a deprecation warning. The rename from Unauthorized to Forbidden brings parity to the name of the exception and the system view it invokes when raised.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • We previously had a Unicode-aware wrapper for the urllib.urlencode function named repoze.bfg.url.urlencode which delegated to the stdlib function, but which marshalled all unicode values to utf-8 strings before calling the stdlib version. A newer replacement now lives in repoze.bfg.encode The replacement does not delegate to the stdlib.

    The replacement diverges from the stdlib implementation and the previous repoze.bfg.url url implementation inasmuch as its doseq argument is now a decoy: it always behaves in the doseq=True way (which is the only sane behavior) for speed purposes.

    The old import location (repoze.bfg.url.urlencode) still functions and has not been deprecated.

  • In 0.8a7, the return value expected from an object implementing ITraverserFactory was changed from a sequence of values to a dictionary containing the keys context, view_name, subpath, traversed, virtual_root, virtual_root_path, and root. Until now, old-style traversers which returned a sequence have continued to work but have generated a deprecation warning. In this release, traversers which return a sequence instead of a dictionary will no longer work.

1.1a4 (2009-09-23)

Bug Fixes

  • On 64-bit Linux systems, views that were members of a multiview (orderings of views with predicates) were not evaluated in the proper order. Symptom: in a configuration that had two views with the same name but one with a request_method=POST predicate and one without, the one without the predicate would be called unconditionally (even if the request was a POST request). Thanks much to Sebastien Douche for providing the buildbots that pointed this out.


  • Added a tutorial which explains how to use repoze.session (ZODB-based sessions) in a ZODB-based repoze.bfg app.
  • Added a tutorial which explains how to add ZEO to a ZODB-based repoze.bfg application.
  • Added a tutorial which explains how to run a repoze.bfg application under mod_wsgi. See "Running a repoze.bfg Application under mod_wsgi" in the tutorials section of the documentation.


  • Add a repoze.bfg.url.static_url API which is capable of generating URLs to static resources defined by the <static> ZCML directive. See the "Views" narrative chapter's section titled "Generating Static Resource URLs" for more information.
  • Add a string renderer. This renderer converts a non-Response return value of any view callble into a string. It is documented in the "Views" narrative chapter.
  • Give the route ZCML directive the view_attr and view_renderer parameters (bring up to speed with 1.1a3 features). These can also be spelled as attr and renderer.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • An object implementing the IRenderer interface (and ITemplateRenderer`, which is a subclass of ``IRenderer) must now accept an extra system argument in its __call__ method implementation. Values computed by the system (as opposed to by the view) are passed by the system in the system parameter, which will always be a dictionary. Keys in the dictionary include: view (the view object that returned the value), renderer_name (the template name or simple name of the renderer), context (the context object passed to the view), and request (the request object passed to the view). Previously only ITemplateRenderers received system arguments as elements inside the main value dictionary.


  • The way bfg_view declarations are scanned for has been modified. This should have no external effects.
  • Speed: do not register an ITraverserFactory in configure.zcml; instead rely on queryAdapter and a manual default to ModelGraphTraverser.
  • Speed: do not register an IContextURL in configure.zcml; instead rely on queryAdapter and a manual default to TraversalContextURL.
  • General speed microimprovements for helloworld benchmark: replace try/excepts with statements which use 'in' keyword.

1.1a3 (2009-09-16)


  • The "Views" narrative chapter in the documentation has been updated extensively to discuss "renderers".


  • A renderer attribute has been added to view configurations, replacing the previous (1.1a2) version's template attribute. A "renderer" is an object which accepts the return value of a view and converts it to a string. This includes, but is not limited to, templating systems.
  • A new interface named IRenderer was added. The existing interface, ITemplateRenderer now derives from this new interface. This interface is internal.
  • A new interface named IRendererFactory was added. An existing interface named ITemplateRendererFactory now derives from this interface. This interface is internal.
  • The view attribute of the view ZCML directive is no longer required if the ZCML directive also has a renderer attribute. This is useful when the renderer is a template renderer and no names need be passed to the template at render time.
  • A new zcml directive renderer has been added. It is documented in the "Views" narrative chapter of the documentation.
  • A ZCML view directive (and the associated bfg_view decorator) can now accept a "wrapper" value. If a "wrapper" value is supplied, it is the value of a separate view's name attribute. When a view with a wrapper attribute is rendered, the "inner" view is first rendered normally. Its body is then attached to the request as "wrapped_body", and then a wrapper view name is looked up and rendered (using repoze.bfg.render_view_to_response), passed the request and the context. The wrapper view is assumed to do something sensible with request.wrapped_body, usually inserting its structure into some other rendered template. This feature makes it possible to specify (potentially nested) "owrap" relationships between views using only ZCML or decorators (as opposed always using ZPT METAL and analogues to wrap view renderings in outer wrappers).


  • When used under Python < 2.6, BFG now has an installation time dependency on the simplejson package.


  • The repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer API has been deprecated in favor of repoze.bfg.testing.registerTemplateRenderer. A deprecation warning is not issued at import time for the former name; it will exist "forever"; its existence has been removed from the documentation, however.
  • The repoze.bfg.templating.renderer_from_cache function has been moved to repoze.bfg.renderer.template_renderer_factory. This was never an API, but code in the wild was spotted that used it. A deprecation warning is issued at import time for the former.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The ITemplateRenderer interface has been changed. Previously its __call__ method accepted **kw. It now accepts a single positional parameter named kw (REVISED: it accepts two positional parameters as of 1.1a4: value and system). This is mostly an internal change, but it was exposed in APIs in one place: if you've used the repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer API in your tests with a custom "renderer" argument with your own renderer implementation, you will need to change that renderer implementation to accept kw instead of **kw in its __call__ method (REVISED: make it accept value and system positional arguments as of 1.1a4).
  • The ITemplateRendererFactory interface has been changed. Previously its __call__ method accepted an auto_reload keyword parameter. Now its __call__ method accepts no keyword parameters. Renderers are now themselves responsible for determining details of auto-reload. This is purely an internal change. This interface was never external.
  • The template_renderer ZCML directive introduced in 1.1a2 has been removed. It has been replaced by the renderer directive.
  • The previous release (1.1a2) added a view configuration attribute named template. In this release, the attribute has been renamed to renderer. This signifies that the attribute is more generic: it can now be not just a template name but any renderer name (ala json).
  • In the previous release (1.1a2), the Chameleon text template renderer was used if the system didn't associate the template view configuration value with a filename with a "known" extension. In this release, you must use a renderer attribute which is a path that ends with a .txt extension (e.g. templates/foo.txt) to use the Chameleon text renderer.

1.1a2 (2009-09-14)


  • A ZCML view directive (and the associated bfg_view decorator) can now accept an "attr" value. If an "attr" value is supplied, it is considered a method named of the view object to be called when the response is required. This is typically only good for views that are classes or instances (not so useful for functions, as functions typically have no methods other than __call__).
  • A ZCML view directive (and the associated bfg_view decorator) can now accept a "template" value. If a "template" value is supplied, and the view callable returns a dictionary, the associated template is rendered with the dictionary as keyword arguments. See the section named "Views That Have a template" in the "Views" narrative documentation chapter for more information.

1.1a1 (2009-09-06)

Bug Fixes

  • "tests" module removed from the bfg_alchemy paster template; these tests didn't work.
  • Bugfix: the discriminator for the ZCML "route" directive was incorrect. It was possible to register two routes that collided without the system spitting out a ConfigurationConflictError at startup time.


  • Feature addition: view predicates. These are exposed as the request_method, request_param, and containment attributes of a ZCML view declaration, or the respective arguments to a @bfg_view decorator. View predicates can be used to register a view for a more precise set of environment parameters than was previously possible. For example, you can register two views with the same name with different request_param attributes. If the request.params dict contains 'foo' (request_param="foo"), one view might be called; if it contains 'bar' (request_param="bar"), another view might be called. request_param can also name a key/value pair ala foo=123. This will match only when the foo key is in the request.params dict and it has the value '123'. This particular example makes it possible to write separate view functions for different form submissions. The other predicates, containment and request_method work similarly. containment is a view predicate that will match only when the context's graph lineage has an object possessing a particular class or interface, for example. request_method is a view predicate that will match when the HTTP REQUEST_METHOD equals some string (eg. 'POST').
  • The @bfg_view decorator now accepts three additional arguments: request_method, request_param, and containment. request_method is used when you'd like the view to match only a request with a particular HTTP REQUEST_METHOD; a string naming the REQUEST_METHOD can also be supplied as request_type for backwards compatibility. request_param is used when you'd like a view to match only a request that contains a particular request.params key (with or without a value). containment is used when you'd like to match a request that has a context that has some class or interface in its graph lineage. These are collectively known as "view predicates".
  • The route ZCML directive now honors view_request_method, view_request_param and view_containment attributes, which pass along these values to the associated view if any is provided. Additionally, the request_type attribute can now be spelled as view_request_type, and permission can be spelled as view_permission. Any attribute which starts with view_ can now be spelled without the view_ prefix, so view_for can be spelled as for now, etc. Both forms are documented in the urldispatch narraitve documentation chapter.
  • The request_param ZCML view directive attribute (and its bfg_view decorator cousin) can now specify both a key and a value. For example, request_param="foo=123" means that the foo key must have a value of 123 for the view to "match".
  • Allow repoze.bfg.traversal.find_interface API to use a class object as the argument to compare against the model passed in. This means you can now do find_interface(model, SomeClass) and the first object which is found in the lineage which has SomeClass as its class (or the first object found which has SomeClass as any of its superclasses) will be returned.
  • Added static ZCML directive which registers a route for a view that serves up files in a directory. See the "Views" narrative documentation chapter's "Serving Static Resources Using a ZCML Directive" section for more information.
  • The repoze.bfg.view.static class now accepts a string as its first argument ("root_dir") that represents a package-relative name e.g. somepackage:foo/bar/static. This is now the preferred mechanism for spelling package-relative static paths using this class. A package_name keyword argument has been left around for backwards compatibility. If it is supplied, it will be honored.
  • The API repoze.bfg.testing.registerView now takes a permission argument. Use this instead of using repoze.bfg.testing.registerViewPermission.
  • The ordering of route declarations vs. the ordering of view declarations that use a "route_name" in ZCML no longer matters. Previously it had been impossible to use a route_name from a route that had not yet been defined in ZCML (order-wise) within a "view" declaration.
  • The repoze.bfg router now catches both and repoze.bfg.view.NotFound exceptions while rendering a view. When the router catches an Unauthorized, it returns the registered forbidden view. When the router catches a NotFound, it returns the registered notfound view.


  • Change urldispatch internals: Route object is now constructed using a path, a name, and a factory instead of a name, a matcher, a generator, and a factory.
  • Move (non-API) default_view, default_forbidden_view, and default_notfound_view functions into the repoze.bfg.view module (moved from repoze.bfg.router).
  • Removed ViewPermissionFactory from View permission checking is now done by registering and looking up an ISecuredView.
  • The static ZCML directive now uses a custom root factory when constructing a route.
  • The interface IRequestFactories was removed from the repoze.bfg.interfaces module. This interface was never an API.
  • The function named named_request_factories and the data structure named DEFAULT_REQUEST_FACTORIES have been removed from the repoze.bfg.request module. These were never APIs.
  • The IViewPermissionFactory interface has been removed. This was never an API.


  • Request-only-convention examples in the "Views" narrative documentation were broken.
  • Fixed documentation bugs related to forget and remember in security API docs.
  • Fixed documentation for repoze.bfg.view.static (in narrative Views chapter).


  • The API repoze.bfg.testing.registerViewPermission has been deprecated.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The interfaces IPOSTRequest, IGETRequest, IPUTRequest, IDELETERequest, and IHEADRequest have been removed from the repoze.bfg.interfaces module. These were not documented as APIs post-1.0. Instead of using one of these, use a request_method ZCML attribute or request_method bfg_view decorator parameter containing an HTTP method name (one of GET, POST, HEAD, PUT, DELETE) instead of one of these interfaces if you were using one explicitly. Passing a string in the set (GET, HEAD, PUT, POST, DELETE) as a request_type argument will work too. Rationale: instead of relying on interfaces attached to the request object, BFG now uses a "view predicate" to determine the request type.

  • Views registered without the help of the ZCML view directive are now responsible for performing their own authorization checking.

  • The registry_manager backwards compatibility alias importable from "repoze.bfg.registry", deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9 has been removed. If you are tring to use the registry manager within a debug script of your own, use a combination of the "repoze.bfg.paster.get_app" and "repoze.bfg.scripting.get_root" APIs instead.

  • The INotFoundAppFactory interface has been removed; it has been deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9. If you have something like the following in your configure.zcml:

    <utility provides="repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory"

    Replace it with something like:


    See "Changing the Not Found View" in the "Hooks" chapter of the documentation for more information.

  • The IUnauthorizedAppFactory interface has been removed; it has been deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9. If you have something like the following in your configure.zcml:

    <utility provides="repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory"

    Replace it with something like:


    See "Changing the Forbidden View" in the "Hooks" chapter of the documentation for more information.

  • ISecurityPolicy-based security policies, deprecated since repoze.bfg 0.9, have been removed. If you have something like this in your configure.zcml, it will no longer work:


    If ZCML like the above exists in your application, you will receive an error at startup time. Instead of the above, you'll need something like:


    This is just an example. See the "Security" chapter of the repoze.bfg documentation for more information about configuring security policies.

  • Custom ZCML directives which register an authentication or authorization policy (ala "authtktauthenticationpolicy" or "aclauthorizationpolicy") should register the policy "eagerly" in the ZCML directive instead of from within a ZCML action. If an authentication or authorization policy is not found in the component registry by the view machinery during deferred ZCML processing, view security will not work as expected.

1.0.1 (2009-07-22)

  • Added support for has_resource, resource_isdir, and resource_listdir to the resource "OverrideProvider"; this fixes a bug with a symptom that a file could not be overridden in a resource directory unless a file with the same name existed in the original directory being overridden.
  • Fixed documentation bug showing invalid test for values from the matchdict: they are stored as attributes of the Article, rather than subitems.
  • Fixed documentation bug showing wrong environment key for the matchdict produced by the matching route.
  • Added a workaround for a bug in Python 2.6, 2.6.1, and 2.6.2 having to do with a recursion error in the mimetypes module when trying to serve static files from Paste's FileApp: Symptom: File "/usr/lib/python2.6/", line 244, in guess_type return guess_type(url, strict) RuntimeError: maximum recursion depth exceeded. Thanks to Armin Ronacher for identifying the symptom and pointing out a fix.
  • Minor edits to tutorials for accuracy based on feedback.
  • Declared Paste and PasteDeploy dependencies.

1.0 (2009-07-05)

  • Retested and added some content to GAE tutorial.
  • Edited "Extending" narrative docs chapter.
  • Added "Deleting the Database" section to the "Defining Models" chapter of the traversal wiki tutorial.
  • Spell checking of narratives and tutorials.

1.0b2 (2009-07-03)

  • remoteuserauthenticationpolicy ZCML directive didn't work without an environ_key directive (didn't match docs).
  • Fix configure_zcml filespec check on Windows. Previously if an absolute filesystem path including a drive letter was passed as filename (or as configure_zcml in the options dict) to repoze.bfg.router.make_app, it would be treated as a package:resource_name specification.
  • Fix inaccuracies and import errors in bfgwiki (traversal+ZODB) and bfgwiki2 (urldispatch+SA) tutorials.
  • Use bfgsite index for all tutorial setup.cfg files.
  • Full documentation grammar/style/spelling audit.

1.0b1 (2009-07-02)


  • Allow a Paste config file (configure_zcml) value or an environment variable (BFG_CONFIGURE_ZCML) to name a ZCML file (optionally package-relative) that will be used to bootstrap the application. Previously, the integrator could not influence which ZCML file was used to do the boostrapping (only the original application developer could do so).


  • Added a "Resources" chapter to the narrative documentation which explains how to override resources within one package from another package.
  • Added an "Extending" chapter to the narrative documentation which explains how to extend or modify an existing BFG application using another Python package and ZCML.

1.0a9 (2009-07-01)


  • Make it possible to pass strings in the form "package_name:relative/path" to APIs like render_template, render_template_to_response, and get_template. Sometimes the package in which a caller lives is a direct namespace package, so the module which is returned is semi-useless for navigating from. In this way, the caller can control the horizontal and vertical of where things get looked up from.

1.0a8 (2009-07-01)


  • Deprecate the authentication_policy and authorization_policy arguments to repoze.bfg.router.make_app. Instead, developers should use the various authentication policy ZCML directives (repozewho1authenticationpolicy, remoteuserauthenticationpolicy and authtktauthenticationpolicy) and the aclauthorizationpolicy` authorization policy directive as described in the changes to the "Security" narrative documenation chapter and the wiki tutorials.


  • Add three new ZCML directives which configure authentication policies:
    • repozewho1authenticationpolicy
    • remoteuserauthenticationpolicy
    • authtktauthenticationpolicy
  • Add a new ZCML directive which configures an ACL authorization policy named aclauthorizationpolicy.

Bug Fixes

  • Bug fix: when a repoze.bfg.resource.PackageOverrides class was instantiated, and the package it was overriding already had a __loader__ attribute, it would fail at startup time, even if the __loader__ attribute was another PackageOverrides instance. We now replace any __loader__ that is also a PackageOverrides instance. Symptom: ConfigurationExecutionError: <type 'exceptions.TypeError'>: Package <module 'karl.views' from '/Users/chrism/projects/osi/bfgenv/src/karl/karl/views/__init__.pyc'> already has a __loader__ (probably a module in a zipped egg).

1.0a7 (2009-06-30)


  • Add a reload_resources configuration file setting (aka the BFG_RELOAD_RESOURCES environment variable). When this is set to true, the server never needs to be restarted when moving files between directory resource overrides (esp. for templates currently).
  • Add a reload_all configuration file setting (aka the BFG_RELOAD_ALL environment variable) that implies both reload_resources and reload_templates.
  • The static helper view class now uses a PackageURLParser in order to allow for the overriding of static resources (CSS / logo files, etc) using the resource ZCML directive. The PackageURLParser class was added to a (new) static module in BFG; it is a subclass of the StaticURLParser class in paste.urlparser.
  • The repoze.bfg.templating.renderer_from_cache function now checks for the reload_resources setting; if it's true, it does not register a template renderer (it won't use the registry as a template renderer cache).


  • Add pkg_resources to the glossary.
  • Update the "Environment" docs to note the existence of reload_resources and reload_all.
  • Updated the bfg_alchemy paster template to include two views: the view on the root shows a list of links to records; the view on a record shows the details for that object.


  • Use a colon instead of a tab as the separator between package name and relpath to form the "spec" when register a ITemplateRenderer.
  • Register a repoze.bfg.resource.OverrideProvider as a pkg_resources provider only for modules which are known to have overrides, instead of globally, when a <resource> directive is used (performance).

1.0a6 (2009-06-29)

Bug Fixes

  • Use caller_package function instead of caller_module function within templating to avoid needing to name the caller module in resource overrides (actually match docs).
  • Make it possible to override templates stored directly in a module with templates in a subdirectory of the same module, stored directly within another module, or stored in a subdirectory of another module (actually match docs).

1.0a5 (2009-06-28)


  • A new ZCML directive exists named "resource". This ZCML directive allows you to override Chameleon templates within a package (both directories full of templates and individual template files) with other templates in the same package or within another package. This allows you to "fake out" a view's use of a template, causing it to retrieve a different template than the one actually named by a relative path to a call like render_template_to_response('templates/'). For example, you can override a template file by doing:


    The string passed to "to_override" and "override_with" is named a "specification". The colon separator in a specification separates the package name from a package-relative directory name. The colon and the following relative path are optional. If they are not specified, the override attempts to resolve every lookup into a package from the directory of another package. For example:


    Individual subdirectories within a package can also be overridden:


    If you wish to override a directory with another directory, you must make sure to attach the slash to the end of both the to_override specification and the override_with specification. If you fail to attach a slash to the end of a specification that points a directory, you will get unexpected results. You cannot override a directory specification with a file specification, and vice versa (a startup error will occur if you try).

    You cannot override a resource with itself (a startup error will occur if you try).

    Only individual package resources may be overridden. Overrides will not traverse through subpackages within an overridden package. This means that if you want to override resources for both some.package:templates, and some.package.views:templates, you will need to register two overrides.

    The package name in a specification may start with a dot, meaning that the package is relative to the package in which the ZCML file resides. For example:


    Overrides for the same to_overrides specification can be named multiple times within ZCML. Each override_with path will be consulted in the order defined within ZCML, forming an override search path.

    Resource overrides can actually override resources other than templates. Any software which uses the pkg_resources get_resource_filename, get_resource_stream or get_resource_string APIs will obtain an overridden file when an override is used. However, the only built-in facility which uses the pkg_resources API within BFG is the templating stuff, so we only call out template overrides here.

  • Use the pkg_resources API to locate template filenames instead of dead-reckoning using the os.path module.

  • The repoze.bfg.templating module now uses pkg_resources to locate and register template files instead of using an absolute path name.

1.0a4 (2009-06-25)


  • Cause :segment matches in route paths to put a Unicode-decoded and URL-dequoted value in the matchdict for the value matched. Previously a non-decoded non-URL-dequoted string was placed in the matchdict as the value.
  • Cause *remainder matches in route paths to put a tuple in the matchdict dictionary in order to be able to present Unicode-decoded and URL-dequoted values for the traversal path. Previously a non-decoded non-URL-dequoted string was placed in the matchdict as the value.
  • Add optional max_age keyword value to the remember method of repoze.bfg.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy; if this value is passed to remember, the generated cookie will have a corresponding Max-Age value.


  • Add information to the URL Dispatch narrative documentation about path pattern matching syntax.

Bug Fixes

  • Make route_url URL-quote segment replacements during generation. Remainder segments are not quoted.

1.0a3 (2009-06-24)

Implementation Changes

  • repoze.bfg no longer relies on the Routes package to interpret URL paths. All known existing path patterns will continue to work with the reimplemented logic, which lives in repoze.bfg.urldispatch. <route> ZCML directives which use certain attributes (uncommon ones) may not work (see "Backwards Incompatibilities" below).

Bug Fixes

  • model_url when passed a request that was generated as a result of a route match would fail in a call to route.generate.
  • BFG-on-GAE didn't work due to a corner case bug in the fallback Python implementation of threading.local (symptom: "Initialization arguments are not supported"). Thanks to Michael Bernstein for the bug report.


  • Added a "corner case" explanation to the "Hybrid Apps" chapter explaining what to do when "the wrong" view is matched.
  • Use repoze.bfg.url.route_url API in tutorials rather than Routes url_for API.


  • Added the repoze.bfg.url.route_url API. This API allows you to generate URLs based on <route> declarations. See the URL Dispatch narrative chapter and the "repoze.bfg.url" module API documentation for more information.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • As a result of disusing Routes, using the Routes url_for API inside a BFG application (as was suggested by previous iterations of tutorials) will no longer work. Use the repoze.bfg.url.route_url method instead.
  • The following attributes on the <route> ZCML directive no longer work: encoding, static, filter, condition_method, condition_subdomain, condition_function, explicit, or subdomains. These were all Routes features.
  • The <route> ZCML directive no longer supports the <requirement> subdirective. This was a Routes feature.

1.0a2 (2009-06-23)

Bug Fixes

  • The bfg_routesalchemy paster template app tests failed due to a mismatch between test and view signatures.


  • Add a view_for attribute to the route ZCML directive. This attribute should refer to an interface or a class (ala the for attribute of the view ZCML directive).


  • Conditional documentation in installation section ("how to install a Python interpreter").

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The callback argument of the repoze.bfg.authentication authentication policies named RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy, RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy, and AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now must accept two positional arguments: the orginal argument accepted by each (userid or identity) plus a second argument, which will be the current request. Apologies, this is required to service finding groups when there is no "global" database connection.

1.0a1 (2009-06-22)


  • A new ZCML directive was added named notfound. This ZCML directive can be used to name a view that should be invoked when the request can't otherwise be resolved to a view callable. For example:

  • A new ZCML directive was added named forbidden. This ZCML directive can be used to name a view that should be invoked when a view callable for a request is found, but cannot be invoked due to an authorization failure. For example:

  • Allow views to be optionally defined as callables that accept only a request object, instead of both a context and a request (which still works, and always will). The following types work as views in this style:

    • functions that accept a single argument request, e.g.:

      def aview(request):
    • new and old-style classes that have an __init__ method that accepts self, request, e.g.:

      def View(object):
          __init__(self, request):
    • Arbitrary callables that have a __call__ method that accepts self, request, e.g.:

      def AView(object):
          def __call__(self, request):
      view = AView()

    This likely should have been the calling convention all along, as the request has context as an attribute already, and with views called as a result of URL dispatch, having the context in the arguments is not very useful. C'est la vie.

  • Cache the absolute path in the caller's package globals within repoze.bfg.path to get rid of repeated (expensive) calls to os.path.abspath.

  • Add reissue_time and timeout parameters to repoze.bfg.authentication.AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy constructor. If these are passed, cookies will be reset every so often (cadged from the same change to repoze.who lately).

  • The matchdict related to the matching of a Routes route is available on the request as the matchdict attribute: request.matchdict. If no route matched, this attribute will be None.

  • Make 404 responses slightly cheaper by showing environ["PATH_INFO"] on the notfound result page rather than the fullly computed URL.

  • Move LRU cache implementation into a separate package (repoze.lru).

  • The concepts of traversal and URL dispatch have been unified. It is now possible to use the same sort of factory as both a traversal "root factory" and what used to be referred to as a urldispatch "context factory".

  • When the root factory argument (as a first argument) passed to repoze.bfg.router.make_app is None, a default root factory is used. This is in support of using routes as "root finders"; it supplants the idea that there is a default IRoutesContextFactory.

  • The view` ZCML statement and the repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view decorator now accept an extra argument: route_name. If a route_name is specified, it must match the name of a previously defined route statement. When it is specified, the view will only be called when that route matches during a request.

  • It is now possible to perfom traversal after a route has matched. Use the pattern *traverse in a <route> path attribute within ZCML, and the path remainder which it matches will be used as a traversal path.

  • When any route defined matches, the WSGI environment will now contain a key bfg.routes.route (the Route object which matched), and a key bfg.routes.matchdict (the result of calling route.match).


  • Utility registrations against repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView and repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenView are now deprecated. Use the notfound and forbidden ZCML directives instead (see the "Hooks" chapter for more information). Such registrations will continue to work, but the notfound and forbidden directives do "extra work" to ensure that the callable named by the directive can be called by the router even if it's a class or request-argument-only view.


  • The IRoutesContext, IRoutesContextFactory, and IContextNotFound interfaces were removed from repoze.bfg.interfaces. These were never APIs.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContextNotFound, repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser and repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContextURL classes were removed. These were also never APIs.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Moved the repoze.bfg.push module, which implemented the pushpage decorator, into a separate distribution, repoze.bfg.pushpage. Applications which used this decorator should continue to work after adding that distribution to their installation requirements.
  • Changing the default request factory via an IRequestFactory utility registration (as used to be documented in the "Hooks" chapter's "Changing the request factory" section) is no longer supported. The dance to manufacture a request is complicated as a result of unifying traversal and url dispatch, making it highly unlikely for anyone to be able to override it properly. For those who just want to decorate or modify a request, use a NewRequestEvent subscriber (see the Events chapter in the documentation).
  • The repoze.bfg.IRequestFactory interface was removed. See the bullet above for why.
  • Routes "context factories" (spelled as the factory argument to a route statement in ZCML) must now expect the WSGI environ as a single argument rather than a set of keyword arguments. They can obtain the match dictionary by asking for environ['bfg.routes.matchdict']. This is the same set of keywords that used to be passed to urldispatch "context factories" in BFG 0.9 and below.
  • Using the @zope.component.adapter decorator on a bfg view function no longer works. Use the @repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view decorator instead to mark a function (or a class) as a view.
  • The name under which the matching route object is found in the environ was changed from bfg.route to bfg.routes.route.
  • Finding the root is now done before manufacturing a request object (and sending a new request event) within the router (it used to be performed afterwards).
  • Adding *path_info to a route no longer changes the PATH_INFO for a request that matches using URL dispatch. This feature was only there to service the repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp2 decorator and it did it wrong; use *subpath instead now.
  • The values of subpath, traversed, and virtual_root_path attached to the request object are always now tuples instead of lists (performance).

Bug Fixes

  • The bfg_alchemy Paster template named "" in its pipeline rather than "repoze.tm2", causing the startup to fail.
  • Move BBB logic for registering an IAuthenticationPolicy/IForbiddenView/INotFoundView based on older concepts from the router module's make_app function into the repoze.bfg.zcml.zcml_configure callable, to service compatibility with scripts that use "zope.configuration.xmlconfig" (replace with repoze.bfg.zml.zcml_configure as necessary to get BBB logic)


  • Add interface docs related to how to create authentication policies and authorization policies to the "Security" narrative chapter.
  • Added a (fairly sad) "Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch" chapter to the narrative documentation. This explains the usage of *traverse and *subpath in routes URL patters.
  • A "router" chapter explaining the request/response lifecycle at a high level was added.
  • Replaced all mentions and explanations of a routes "context factory" with equivalent explanations of a "root factory" (context factories have been disused).
  • Updated Routes bfgwiki2 tutorial to reflect the fact that context factories are now no longer used.

0.9.1 (2009-06-02)


  • Add API named repoze.bfg.settings.get_settings which retrieves a derivation of values passed as the options value of repoze.bfg.router.make_app. This API should be preferred instead of using getUtility(ISettings). I added a new repoze.bfg.settings API document as well.

Bug Fixes

  • Restored missing entry point declaration for bfg_alchemy paster template, which was accidentally removed in 0.9.


  • Fix a reference to wsgiapp in the wsgiapp2 API documentation within the repoze.bfg.wsgi module.

API Removals

  • The repoze.bfg.location.locate API was removed: it didn't do enough to be very helpful and had a misleading name.

0.9 (2009-06-01)

Bug Fixes

  • It was not possible to register a custom IRoutesContextFactory for use as a default context factory as documented in the "Hooks" chapter.


  • The request_type argument of ZCML view declarations and bfg_view decorators can now be one of the strings GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, or HEAD instead of a reference to the respective interface type imported from repoze.bfg.interfaces.
  • The route ZCML directive now accepts request_type as an alias for its condition_method argument for symmetry with the view directive.
  • The bfg_routesalchemy paster template now provides a unit test and actually uses the database during a view rendering.


  • Remove repoze.bfg.threadlocal.setManager. It was only used in unit tests.
  • Remove repoze.bfg.wsgi.HTTPException, repoze.bfg.wsgi.NotFound, and repoze.bfg.wsgi.Unauthorized. These classes were disused with the introduction of the IUnauthorizedView and INotFoundView machinery.


  • Add description to narrative templating chapter about how to use Chameleon text templates.
  • Changed Views narrative chapter to use method strings rather than interface types, and moved advanced interface type usage to Events narrative chapter.
  • Added a Routes+SQLAlchemy wiki tutorial.

0.9a8 (2009-05-31)


  • It is now possible to register a custom repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView for a given application. This feature replaces the repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory feature previously described in the Hooks chapter. The INotFoundView will be called when the framework detects that a view lookup done as a result of a request fails; it should accept a context object and a request object; it should return an IResponse object (a webob response, basically). See the Hooks narrative chapter of the BFG docs for more info.
  • The error presented when a view invoked by the router returns a non-response object now includes the view's name for troubleshooting purposes.

Bug Fixes

  • A "new response" event is emitted for forbidden and notfound views.


  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundAppFactory interface has been deprecated in favor of using the new repoze.bfg.interfaces.INotFoundView mechanism.


  • Renamed repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory to repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenView.

0.9a7 (2009-05-30)


  • Remove "context" argument from effective_principals and authenticated_userid function APIs in, effectively a doing reversion to 0.8 and before behavior. Both functions now again accept only the request parameter.

0.9a6 (2009-05-29)


  • Changed "BFG Wiki" tutorial to use AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy rather than repoze.who.


  • Add an AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy. This policy retrieves credentials from an auth_tkt cookie managed by the application itself (instead of relying on an upstream data source for authentication data). See the Security API chapter of the documentation for more info.
  • Allow RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy and RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy to accept various constructor arguments. See the Security API chapter of the documentation for more info.

0.9a5 (2009-05-28)


  • Add a get_app API functions to the paster module. This obtains a WSGI application from a config file given a config file name and a section name. See the repoze.bfg.paster API docs for more information.
  • Add a new module named scripting. It contains a get_root API function, which, provided a Router instance, returns a traversal root object and a "closer". See the repoze.bfg.scripting API docs for more info.

0.9a4 (2009-05-27)

Bug Fixes

  • Try checking for an "old style" security policy after we parse ZCML (thinko).

0.9a3 (2009-05-27)


  • Allow IAuthenticationPolicy and IAuthorizationPolicy to be overridden via ZCML registrations (do ZCML parsing after registering these in


  • Added "BFG Wiki" tutorial to documentation; it describes step-by-step how to create a traversal-based ZODB application with authentication.


  • Added deprecations for imports of ACLSecurityPolicy, InheritingACLSecurityPolicy, RemoteUserACLSecurityPolicy, RemoteUserInheritingACLSecurityPolicy, WhoACLSecurityPolicy, and WhoInheritingACLSecurityPolicy from the module; for the meantime (for backwards compatibility purposes) these live in the repoze.bfg.secpols module. Note however, that the entire concept of a "security policy" is deprecated in BFG in favor of separate authentication and authorization policies, so any use of a security policy will generate additional deprecation warnings even if you do start using repoze.bfg.secpols. repoze.bfg.secpols will disappear in a future release of repoze.bfg.

Deprecated Import Alias Removals

  • Remove repoze.bfg.template module. All imports from this package have been deprecated since 0.3.8. Instead, import get_template, render_template, and render_template_to_response from the repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt module.
  • Remove backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.traversal.split_path (deprecated since 0.6.5). This must now be imported as repoze.bfg.traversal.traversal_path).
  • Remove backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContext (deprecated since 0.6.5). This must now be imported as repoze.bfg.urldispatch.DefaultRoutesContext.
  • Removed backwards compatibility import aliases for repoze.bfg.router.get_options and repoze.bfg.router.Settings (deprecated since 0.6.2). These both must now be imported from repoze.bfg.settings.
  • Removed backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootPolicy (deprecated since 0.6.2). It must be imported as repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootFactory now.
  • Removed backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplate (deprecated since 0.4.4). It must be imported as repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer now.
  • Removed backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateFactory (deprecated since 0.4.4). It must be imported as repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory now.
  • Removed backwards compatibility import alias for repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateFactory (deprecated since 0.4.4). This must be imported as repoze.bfg.ZPTTemplateRenderer now.

0.9a2 (2009-05-27)


  • A paster command has been added named "bfgshell". This command can be used to get an interactive prompt with your BFG root object in the global namespace. E.g.:

    bin/paster bfgshell /path/to/myapp.ini myapp

    See the Project chapter in the BFG documentation for more information.


  • The name repoze.bfg.registry.registry_manager was never an API, but scripts in the wild were using it to set up an environment for use under a debug shell. A backwards compatibility shim has been added for this purpose, but the feature is deprecated.

0.9a1 (2009-5-27)


  • New API functions named forget and remember are available in the security module. The forget function returns headers which will cause the currently authenticated user to be logged out when set in a response. The remember function (when passed the proper arguments) will return headers which will cause a principal to be "logged in" when set in a response. See the Security API chapter of the docs for more info.

  • New keyword arguments to the repoze.bfg.router.make_app call have been added: authentication_policy and authorization_policy. These should, respectively, be an implementation of an authentication policy (an object implementing the repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAuthenticationPolicy interface) and an implementation of an authorization policy (an object implementing repoze.bfg.interfaces.IAuthorizationPolicy). Concrete implementations of authentication policies exist in repoze.bfg.authentication. Concrete implementations of authorization policies exist in repoze.bfg.authorization.

    Both authentication_policy and authorization_policy default to None.

    If authentication_policy is None, but authorization_policy is not None, then authorization_policy is ignored (the ability to do authorization depends on authentication).

    If the authentication_policy argument is not None, and the authorization_policy argument is None, the authorization policy defaults to an authorization implementation that uses ACLs (repoze.bfg.authorization.ACLAuthorizationPolicy).

    We no longer encourage configuration of "security policies" using ZCML, as previously we did for ISecurityPolicy. This is because it's not uncommon to need to configure settings for concrete authorization or authentication policies using paste .ini parameters; the app entry point for your application is the natural place to do this.

  • Two new abstractions have been added in the way of adapters used by the system: an IAuthorizationPolicy and an IAuthenticationPolicy. A combination of these (as registered by the securitypolicy ZCML directive) take the place of the ISecurityPolicy abstraction in previous releases of repoze.who. The API functions in (such as authentication_userid, effective_principals, has_permission, and so on) have been changed to try to make use of these new adapters. If you're using an older ISecurityPolicy adapter, the system will still work, but it will print deprecation warnings when such a policy is used.

  • The way the (internal) IViewPermission utilities registered via ZCML are invoked has changed. They are purely adapters now, returning a boolean result, rather than returning a callable. You shouldn't have been using these anyway. ;-)

  • New concrete implementations of IAuthenticationPolicy have been added to the repoze.bfg.authentication module: RepozeWho1AuthenticationPolicy which uses repoze.who identity to retrieve authentication data from and RemoteUserAuthenticationPolicy, which uses the REMOTE_USER value in the WSGI environment to retrieve authentication data.

  • A new concrete implementation of IAuthorizationPolicy has been added to the repoze.bfg.authorization module: ACLAuthorizationPolicy which uses ACL inheritance to do authorization.

  • It is now possible to register a custom repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory for a given application. This feature replaces the repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory feature previously described in the Hooks chapter. The IForbiddenResponseFactory will be called when the framework detects an authorization failure; it should accept a context object and a request object; it should return an IResponse object (a webob response, basically). Read the below point for more info and see the Hooks narrative chapter of the BFG docs for more info.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Custom NotFound and Forbidden (nee' Unauthorized) WSGI applications (registered as a utility for INotFoundAppFactory and IUnauthorizedAppFactory) could rely on an environment key named message describing the circumstance of the response. This key has been renamed to repoze.bfg.message (as per the WSGI spec, which requires environment extensions to contain dots).


  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.IUnauthorizedAppFactory interface has been deprecated in favor of using the new repoze.bfg.interfaces.IForbiddenResponseFactory mechanism.
  • The view_execution_permitted API should now be imported from the module instead of the repoze.bfg.view module.
  • The authenticated_userid and effective_principals APIs in used to only take a single argument (request). They now accept two arguments (context and request). Calling them with a single argument is still supported but issues a deprecation warning. (NOTE: this change was reverted in 0.9a7; meaning the 0.9 versions of these functions again accept request only, just like 0.8 and before).
  • Use of "old-style" security policies (those base on ISecurityPolicy) is now deprecated. See the "Security" chapter of the docs for info about activating an authorization policy and an authentication poicy.

0.8.1 (2009-05-21)


  • Class objects may now be used as view callables (both via ZCML and via use of the bfg_view decorator in Python 2.6 as a class decorator). The calling semantics when using a class as a view callable is similar to that of using a class as a Zope "browser view": the class' __init__ must accept two positional parameters (conventionally named context, and request). The resulting instance must be callable (it must have a __call__ method). When called, the instance should return a response. For example:

     from webob import Response
     class MyView(object):
         def __init__(self, context, request):
             self.context = context
             self.request = request
         def __call__(self):
             return Response('hello from %s!' % self.context)
    See the "Views" chapter in the documentation and the
    ``repoze.bfg.view`` API documentation for more information.
  • Removed the pickling of ZCML actions (the code that wrote configure.zcml.cache next to configure.zcml files in projects). The code which managed writing and reading of the cache file was a source of subtle bugs when users switched between imperative (e.g. @bfg_view) registrations and declarative registrations (e.g. the view directive in ZCML) on the same project. On a moderately-sized project (535 ZCML actions and 15 ZCML files), executing actions read from the pickle was saving us only about 200ms (2.5 sec vs 2.7 sec average). On very small projects (1 ZCML file and 4 actions), startup time was comparable, and sometimes even slower when reading from the pickle, and both ways were so fast that it really just didn't matter anyway.

0.8 (2009-05-18)


  • Added a traverse function to the repoze.bfg.traversal module. This function may be used to retrieve certain values computed during path resolution. See the Traversal API chapter of the documentation for more information about this function.


  • Internal: ITraverser callables should now return a dictionary rather than a tuple. Up until 0.7.0, all ITraversers were assumed to return a 3-tuple. In 0.7.1, ITraversers were assumed to return a 6-tuple. As (by evidence) it's likely we'll need to add further information to the return value of an ITraverser callable, 0.8 assumes that an ITraverser return a dictionary with certain elements in it. See the repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITraverser interface for the list of keys that should be present in the dictionary. ITraversers which return tuples will still work, although a deprecation warning will be issued.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • If your code used the ITraverser interface directly (not via an API function such as find_model) via an adapter lookup, you'll need to change your code to expect a dictionary rather than a 3- or 6-tuple if your code ever gets return values from the default ModelGraphTraverser or RoutesModelTraverser adapters.

0.8a7 (2009-05-16)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The RoutesMapper class in repoze.bfg.urldispatch has been removed, as well as its documentation. It had been deprecated since 0.6.3. Code in repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser which catered to it has also been removed.

  • The semantics of the route ZCML directive have been simplified. Previously, it was assumed that to use a route, you wanted to map a route to an externally registered view. The new route directive instead has a view attribute which is required, specifying the dotted path to a view callable. When a route directive is processed, a view is registered using the name attribute of the route directive as its name and the callable as its value. The view_name and provides attributes of the route directive are therefore no longer used. Effectively, if you were previously using the route directive, it means you must change a pair of ZCML directives that look like this:


    To a ZCML directive that looks like this:


    In other words, to make old code work, remove the view directives that were only there to serve the purpose of backing route directives, and move their view= attribute into the route directive itself.

    This change also necessitated that the name attribute of the route directive is now required. If you were previously using route directives without a name attribute, you'll need to add one (the name is arbitrary, but must be unique among all route and view statements).

    The provides attribute of the route directive has also been removed. This directive specified a sequence of interface types that the generated context would be decorated with. Since route views are always generated now for a single interface (repoze.bfg.IRoutesContext) as opposed to being looked up arbitrarily, there is no need to decorate any context to ensure a view is found.


  • Added API docs for the repoze.bfg.testing methods registerAdapter, registerUtiity, registerSubscriber, and cleanUp.
  • Added glossary entry for "root factory".
  • Noted existence of repoze.bfg.pagetemplate template bindings in "Available Add On Template System Bindings" in Templates chapter in narrative docs.
  • Update "Templates" narrative chapter in docs (expand to show a sample template and correct macro example).


  • Courtesty Carlos de la Guardia, added an alchemy Paster template. This paster template sets up a BFG project that uses SQAlchemy (with SQLite) and uses traversal to resolve URLs. (no Routes areused). This template can be used via paster create -t bfg_alchemy.
  • The Routes Route object used to resolve the match is now put into the environment as bfg.route when URL dispatch is used.
  • You can now change the default Routes "context factory" globally. See the "ZCML Hooks" chapter of the documentation (in the "Changing the Default Routes Context Factory" section).

0.8a6 (2009-05-11)


  • Added a routesalchemy Paster template. This paster template sets up a BFG project that uses SQAlchemy (with SQLite) and uses Routes exclusively to resolve URLs (no traversal root factory is used). This template can be used via paster create -t bfg_routesalchemy.


  • Added documentation to the URL Dispatch chapter about how to catch the root URL using a ZCML route directive.
  • Added documentation to the URL Dispatch chapter about how to perform a cleanup function at the end of a request (e.g. close the SQL connection).

Bug Fixes

  • In version 0.6.3, passing a get_root callback (a "root factory") to repoze.bfg.router.make_app became optional if any route declaration was made in ZCML. The intent was to make it possible to disuse traversal entirely, instead relying entirely on URL dispatch (Routes) to resolve all contexts. However a compound set of bugs prevented usage of a Routes-based root view (a view which responds to "/"). One bug existed in repoze.bfg.urldispatch`, another existed in Routes itself.

    To resolve this issue, the urldispatch module was fixed, and a fork of the Routes trunk was put into the "dev" index named Routes-1.11dev-chrism-home. The source for the fork exists at (broken link); its contents have been merged into the Routes trunk (what will be Routes 1.11).

0.8a5 (2009-05-08)


  • Two new security policies were added: RemoteUserInheritingACLSecurityPolicy and WhoInheritingACLSecurityPolicy. These are security policies which take into account all ACLs defined in the lineage of a context rather than stopping at the first ACL found in a lineage. See the "Security" chapter of the API documentation for more information.
  • The API and narrative documentation dealing with security was changed to introduce the new "inheriting" security policy variants.
  • Added glossary entry for "lineage".


  • The security policy previously named RepozeWhoIdentityACLSecurityPolicy now has the slightly saner name of WhoACLSecurityPolicy. A deprecation warning is emitted when this policy is imported under the "old" name; usually this is due to its use in ZCML within your application. If you're getting this deprecation warning, change your ZCML to use the new name, e.g. change:




0.8a4 (2009-05-04)


  • zope.testing is no longer a direct dependency, although our dependencies (such as zope.interface, repoze.zcml, etc) still depend on it.
  • Tested on Google App Engine. Added a tutorial to the documentation explaining how to deploy a BFG app to GAE.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Applications which rely on zope.testing.cleanup.cleanUp in unit tests can still use that function indefinitely. However, for maximum forward compatibility, they should import cleanUp from repoze.bfg.testing instead of from zope.testing.cleanup. The BFG paster templates and docs have been changed to use this function instead of the zope.testing.cleanup version.

0.8a3 (2009-05-03)


  • Don't require a successful import of zope.testing at BFG application runtime. This allows us to get rid of zope.testing on platforms like GAE which have file limits.

0.8a2 (2009-05-02)


  • We no longer include the configure.zcml of the chameleon.zpt package within the configure.zcml of the "repoze.bfg.includes" package. This has been a no-op for some time now.
  • The repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt package no longer imports from chameleon.zpt at module scope, deferring the import until later within a method call. The chameleon.zpt package can't be imported on platforms like GAE.

0.8a1 (2009-05-02)

Deprecation Warning and Import Alias Removals

  • Since version 0.6.1, a deprecation warning has been emitted when the name model_url is imported from the repoze.bfg.traversal module. This import alias (and the deprecation warning) has been removed. Any import of the model_url function will now need to be done from repoze.bfg.url; any import of the name model_url from repoze.bfg.traversal will now fail. This was done to remove a dependency on zope.deferredimport.
  • Since version 0.6.5, a deprecation warning has been emitted when the name RoutesModelTraverser is imported from the repoze.bfg.traversal module. This import alias (and the deprecation warning) has been removed. Any import of the RoutesModelTraverser class will now need to be done from repoze.bfg.urldispatch; any import of the name RoutesModelTraverser from repoze.bfg.traversal will now fail. This was done to remove a dependency on zope.deferredimport.


  • This release of repoze.bfg is "C-free". This means it has no hard dependencies on any software that must be compiled from C source at installation time. In particular, repoze.bfg no longer depends on the lxml package.

    This change has introduced some backwards incompatibilities, described in the "Backwards Incompatibilities" section below.

  • This release was tested on Windows XP. It appears to work fine and all the tests pass.

Backwards Incompatibilities

Incompatibilities related to making repoze.bfg "C-free":

  • Removed the repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi module, and thus support for Genshi-style chameleon templates. Genshi-style Chameleon templates depend upon lxml, which is implemented in C (as opposed to pure Python) and the repoze.bfg core is "C-free" as of this release. You may get Genshi-style Chameleon support back by installing the repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi package availalable from (also available in the index at All existing code that depended on the chameleon_genshi module prior to this release of repoze.bfg should work without change after this addon is installed.
  • Removed the repoze.bfg.xslt module and thus support for XSL templates. The repoze.bfg.xslt module depended upon lxml, which is implemented in C, and the repoze.bfg core is "C-free" as of this release. You bay get XSL templating back by installing the repoze.bfg.xslt package available from (also available in the index at All existing code that depended upon the xslt module prior to this release of repoze.bfg should work without modification after this addon is installed.
  • Removed the repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplateRenderer interface and the an old b/w compat aliases from that interface to repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplate. This interface must now be imported from the repoze.bfg.xslt.interfaces package after installation of the repoze.bfg.xslt addon package described above as repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplateRenderer. This interface was never part of any public API.

Other backwards incompatibilities:

  • The render_template function in repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt returns Unicode instead of a string. Likewise, the individual values returned by the iterable created by the render_template_to_iterable function are also each Unicode. This is actually a backwards incompatibility inherited from our new use of the combination of chameleon.core 1.0b32 (the non-lxml-depending version) and chameleon.zpt 1.0b16+ ; the chameleon.zpt PageTemplateFile implementation used to return a string, but now returns Unicode.

0.7.1 (2009-05-01)


  • The canonical package index location for repoze.bfg has changed. The "old" index ( has been superseded by a new index location ( The installation documentation has been updated as well as the setup.cfg file in this package. The "lemonade" index still exists, but it is not guaranteed to have the latest BFG software in it, nor will it be maintained in the future.


  • The "paster create" templates have been modified to use links to the new "" and "" websites.

  • Added better documentation for virtual hosting at a URL prefix within the virtual hosting docs chapter.

  • The interface for repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITraverser and the built-in implementations that implement the interface (repoze.bfg.traversal.ModelGraphTraverser, and repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser) now expect the __call__ method of an ITraverser to return 3 additional arguments: traversed, virtual_root, and virtual_root_path (the old contract was that the __call__ method of an ITraverser returned; three arguments, the contract new is that it returns six). traversed will be a sequence of Unicode names that were traversed (including the virtual root path, if any) or None if no traversal was performed, virtual_root will be a model object representing the virtual root (or the physical root if traversal was not performed), and virtual_root_path will be a sequence representing the virtual root path (a sequence of Unicode names) or None if traversal was not performed.

    Six arguments are now returned from BFG ITraversers. They are returned in this order: context, view_name, subpath, traversed, virtual_root, and virtual_root_path.

    Places in the BFG code which called an ITraverser continue to accept a 3-argument return value, although BFG will generate and log a warning when one is encountered.

  • The request object now has the following attributes: traversed (the sequence of names traversed or None if traversal was not performed), virtual_root (the model object representing the virtual root, including the virtual root path if any), and virtual_root_path (the seuquence of names representing the virtual root path or None if traversal was not performed).

  • A new decorator named wsgiapp2 was added to the repoze.bfg.wsgi module. This decorator performs the same function as repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp except it fixes up the SCRIPT_NAME, and PATH_INFO environment values before invoking the WSGI subapplication.

  • The repoze.bfg.testing.DummyRequest object now has default attributes for traversed, virtual_root, and virtual_root_path.

  • The RoutesModelTraverser now behaves more like the Routes "RoutesMiddleware" object when an element in the match dict is named path_info (usually when there's a pattern like http://foo/*path_info). When this is the case, the PATH_INFO environment variable is set to the value in the match dict, and the SCRIPT_NAME is appended to with the prefix of the original PATH_INFO not including the value of the new variable.

  • The notfound debug now shows the traversed path, the virtual root, and the virtual root path too.

  • Speed up / clarify 'traversal' module's 'model_path', 'model_path_tuple', and '_model_path_list' functions.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • In previous releases, the repoze.bfg.url.model_url, repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path and repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple functions always ignored the __name__ argument of the root object in a model graph ( effectively replacing it with a leading / in the returned value) when a path or URL was generated. The code required to perform this operation was not efficient. As of this release, the root object in a model graph must have a __name__ attribute that is either None or the empty string ('') for URLs and paths to be generated properly from these APIs. If your root model object has a __name__ argument that is not one of these values, you will need to change your code for URLs and paths to be generated properly. If your model graph has a root node with a string __name__ that is not null, the value of __name__ will be prepended to every path and URL generated.

  • The repoze.bfg.location.LocationProxy class and the repoze.bfg.location.ClassAndInstanceDescr class have both been removed in order to be able to eventually shed a dependency on zope.proxy. Neither of these classes was ever an API.

  • In all previous releases, the repoze.bfg.location.locate function worked like so: if a model did not explicitly provide the repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation interface, locate returned a LocationProxy object representing model with its __parent__ attribute assigned to parent and a __name__ attribute assigned to __name__. In this release, the repoze.bfg.location.locate function simply jams the __name__ and __parent__ attributes on to the supplied model unconditionally, no matter if the object implements ILocation or not, and it never returns a proxy. This was done because the LocationProxy behavior has now moved into an add-on package (repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper), in order to eventually be able to shed a dependency on zope.proxy.

  • In all previous releases, by default, if traversal was used (as opposed to URL-dispatch), and the root object supplied the``repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation`` interface, but the children returned via its __getitem__ returned an object that did not implement the same interface, repoze.bfg provided some implicit help during traversal. This traversal feature wrapped subobjects from the root (and thereafter) that did not implement ILocation in proxies which automatically provided them with a __name__ and __parent__ attribute based on the name being traversed and the previous object traversed. This feature has now been removed from the base repoze.bfg package for purposes of eventually shedding a dependency on zope.proxy.

    In order to re-enable the wrapper behavior for older applications which cannot be changed, register the "traversalwrapper" ModelGraphTraverser as the traversal policy, rather than the default ModelGraphTraverser. To use this feature, you will need to install the repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper package (an add-on package, available at Then change your application's configure.zcml to include the following stanza:


    factory="repoze.bfg.traversalwrapper.ModelGraphTraverser" provides="repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITraverserFactory" for="*" />

    When this ITraverserFactory is used instead of the default, no object in the graph (even the root object) must supply a __name__ or __parent__ attribute. Even if subobjects returned from the root do implement the ILocation interface, these will still be wrapped in proxies that override the object's "real" __parent__ and __name__ attributes.

    See also changes to the "Models" chapter of the documentation (in the "Location-Aware Model Instances") section.

0.7.0 (2009-04-11)

Bug Fixes

  • Fix a bug in repoze.bfg.wsgi.HTTPException: the content length was returned as an int rather than as a string.
  • Add explicit dependencies on zope.deferredimport, zope.deprecation, and zope.proxy for forward compatibility reasons (zope.component will stop relying on zope.deferredimport soon and although we use it directly, it's only a transitive dependency, and ''zope.deprecation`` and zope.proxy are used directly even though they're only transitive dependencies as well).
  • Using model_url or model_path against a broken model graph (one with models that had a non-root model with a __name__ of None) caused an inscrutable error to be thrown: ( if not _must_quote[cachekey].search(s): TypeError: expected string or buffer). Now URLs and paths generated against graphs that have None names in intermediate nodes will replace the None with the empty string, and, as a result, the error won't be raised. Of course the URL or path will still be bogus.


  • Make it possible to have testing.DummyTemplateRenderer return some nondefault string representation.
  • Added a new anchor keyword argument to model_url. If anchor is present, its string representation will be used as a named anchor in the generated URL (e.g. if anchor is passed as foo and the model URL is, the generated URL will be

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The default request charset encoding is now utf-8. As a result, the request machinery will attempt to decode values from the utf-8 encoding to Unicode automatically when they are obtained via request.params, request.GET, and request.POST. The previous behavior of BFG was to return a bytestring when a value was accessed in this manner. This change will break form handling code in apps that rely on values from those APIs being considered bytestrings. If you are manually decoding values from form submissions in your application, you'll either need to change the code that does that to expect Unicode values from request.params, request.GET and request.POST, or you'll need to explicitly reenable the previous behavior. To reenable the previous behavior, add the following to your application's configure.zcml:

    <subscriber for="repoze.bfg.interfaces.INewRequest"

    See also the documentation in the "Views" chapter of the BFG docs entitled "Using Views to Handle Form Submissions (Unicode and Character Set Issues)".


  • Add a section to the narrative Views chapter entitled "Using Views to Handle Form Submissions (Unicode and Character Set Issues)" explaining implicit decoding of form data values.

0.6.9 (2009-02-16)

Bug Fixes

  • lru cache was unstable under concurrency (big surprise!) when it tried to redelete a key in the cache that had already been deleted. Symptom: line 64 in put:del data[oldkey]:KeyError: '/some/path'. Now we just ignore the key error if we can't delete the key (it has already been deleted).
  • Empty location names in model paths when generating a URL using repoze.bfg.model_url based on a model obtained via traversal are no longer ignored in the generated URL. This means that if a non-root model object has a __name__ of '', the URL will reflect it (e.g. model_url will generate http://foo/bar//baz if an object with the __name__ of '' is a child of bar and the parent of baz). URLs generated with empty path segments are, however, still irresolveable by the model graph traverser on request ingress (the traverser strips empty path segment names).


  • Microspeedups of repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path, repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple, repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment, and repoze.bfg.url.urlencode.
  • add zip_safe = false to setup.cfg.


  • Add a note to the repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment API docs about caching of computed values.

Implementation Changes

  • Simplification of repoze.bfg.traversal.TraversalContextURL.__call__ (it now uses repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path instead of rolling its own path-generation).

0.6.8 (2009-02-05)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path API now returns a quoted string rather than a string represented by series of unquoted elements joined via / characters. Previously it returned a string or unicode object representing the model path, with each segment name in the path joined together via / characters, e.g. /foo /bar. Now it returns a string, where each segment is a UTF-8 encoded and URL-quoted element e.g. /foo%20/bar. This change was (as discussed briefly on the repoze-dev maillist) necessary to accomodate model objects which themselves have __name__ attributes that contain the / character.

    For people that have no models that have high-order Unicode __name__ attributes or __name__ attributes with values that require URL-quoting with in their model graphs, this won't cause any issue. However, if you have code that currently expects model_path to return an unquoted string, or you have an existing application with data generated via the old method, and you're too lazy to change anything, you may wish replace the BFG-imported model_path in your code with this function (this is the code of the "old" model_path implementation):

    from repoze.bfg.location import lineage
    def i_am_too_lazy_to_move_to_the_new_model_path(model, *elements):
        rpath = []
        for location in lineage(model):
            if location.__name__:
        path = '/' + '/'.join(reversed(rpath))
        if elements:
            suffix = '/'.join(elements)
            path = '/'.join([path, suffix])
        return path
  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model API no longer implicitly converts unicode representations of a full path passed to it as a Unicode object into a UTF-8 string. Callers should either use prequoted path strings returned by repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path, or tuple values returned by the result of repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple or they should use the guidelines about passing a string path argument described in the find_model API documentation.


  • Each argument contained in elements passed to repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path will now have any / characters contained within quoted to %2F in the returned string. Previously, / characters in elements were left unquoted (a bug).


  • A repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path_tuple API was added. This API is an alternative to model_path (which returns a string); model_path_tuple returns a model path as a tuple (much like Zope's getPhysicalPath).
  • A repoze.bfg.traversal.quote_path_segment API was added. This API will quote an individual path segment (string or unicode object). See the repoze.bfg.traversal API documentation for more information.
  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model API now accepts "path tuples" (see the above note regarding model_path_tuple) as well as string path representations (from repoze.bfg.traversal.model_path) as a path argument.
  • Add ` renderer` argument (defaulting to None) to repoze.bfg.testing.registerDummyRenderer. This makes it possible, for instance, to register a custom renderer that raises an exception in a unit test.

Implementation Changes

  • Moved _url_quote function back to repoze.bfg.traversal from repoze.bfg.url. This is not an API.

0.6.7 (2009-01-27)


  • The repoze.bfg.url.model_url API now works against contexts derived from Routes URL dispatch (Routes.util.url_for is called under the hood).
  • "Virtual root" support for traversal-based applications has been added. Virtual root support is useful when you'd like to host some model in a repoze.bfg model graph as an application under a URL pathname that does not include the model path itself. For more information, see the (new) "Virtual Hosting" chapter in the documentation.
  • A repoze.bfg.traversal.virtual_root API has been added. When called, it returns the virtual root object (or the physical root object if no virtual root has been specified).

Implementation Changes

  • repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser has been moved to repoze.bfg.urldispatch.
  • model_url URL generation is now performed via an adapter lookup based on the context and the request.
  • ZCML which registers two adapters for the IContextURL interface has been added to the configure.zcml in repoze.bfg.includes.

0.6.6 (2009-01-26)

Implementation Changes

  • There is an indirection in repoze.bfg.url.model_url now that consults a utility to generate the base model url (without extra elements or a query string). Eventually this will service virtual hosting; for now it's undocumented and should not be hooked.

0.6.5 (2009-01-26)


  • You can now override the NotFound and Unauthorized responses that repoze.bfg generates when a view cannot be found or cannot be invoked due to lack of permission. See the "ZCML Hooks" chapter in the docs for more information.
  • Added Routes ZCML directive attribute explanations in documentation.
  • Added a traversal_path API to the traversal module; see the "traversal" API chapter in the docs. This was a function previously known as split_path that was not an API but people were using it anyway. Unlike split_path, it now returns a tuple instead of a list (as its values are cached).

Behavior Changes

  • The repoze.bfg.view.render_view_to_response API will no longer raise a ValueError if an object returned by a view function it calls does not possess certain attributes (headerlist, app_iter, status). This API used to attempt to perform a check using the is_response function in repoze.bfg.view, and raised a ValueError if the is_response check failed. The responsibility is now the caller's to ensure that the return value from a view function is a "real" response.
  • WSGI environ dicts passed to repoze.bfg 's Router must now contain a REQUEST_METHOD key/value; if they do not, a KeyError will be raised (speed).
  • It is no longer permissible to pass a "nested" list of principals to repoze.bfg.ACLAuthorizer.permits (e.g. ['fred', ['larry', 'bob']]). The principals list must be fully expanded. This feature was never documented, and was never an API, so it's not a backwards incompatibility.
  • It is no longer permissible for a security ACE to contain a "nested" list of permissions (e.g. (Allow, Everyone, ['read', ['view', ['write', 'manage']]])`)`. The list must instead be fully expanded (e.g. ``(Allow, Everyone, ['read', 'view', 'write', 'manage])). This feature was never documented, and was never an API, so it's not a backwards incompatibility.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesRootFactory now injects the wsgiorg.routing_args environment variable into the environ when a route matches. This is a tuple of ((), routing_args) where routing_args is the value that comes back from the routes mapper match (the "match dict").
  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser class now wants to obtain the view_name and subpath from the wsgiorgs.routing_args environment variable. It falls back to obtaining these from the context for backwards compatibility.

Implementation Changes

  • Get rid of the ACLSecurityPolicy now does what it did inline.
  • Get rid of repoze.bfg.interfaces.NoAuthorizationInformation exception: it was used only by ACLAuthorizer.
  • Use a homegrown NotFound error instead of webob.exc.HTTPNotFound (the latter is slow).
  • Use a homegrown Unauthorized error instead of webob.exc.Unauthorized (the latter is slow).
  • the repoze.bfg.lru.lru_cached decorator now uses functools.wraps in order to make documentation of LRU-cached functions possible.
  • Various speed micro-tweaks.

Bug Fixes

  • repoze.bfg.testing.DummyModel did not have a get method; it now does.

0.6.4 (2009-01-23)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • The unicode_path_segments configuration variable and the BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS configuration variable have been removed. Path segments are now always passed to model __getitem__ methods as unicode. "True" has been the default for this setting since 0.5.4, but changing this configuration setting to false allowed you to go back to passing raw path element strings to model __getitem__ methods. Removal of this knob services a speed goal (we get about +80 req/s by removing the check), and it's clearer just to always expect unicode path segments in model __getitem__ methods.

Implementation Changes

  • repoze.bfg.traversal.split_path now also handles decoding path segments to unicode (for speed, because its results are cached).
  • repoze.bfg.traversal.step was made a method of the
  • Use "precooked" Request subclasses (e.g. repoze.bfg.request.GETRequest) that correspond to HTTP request methods within when constructing a request object rather than using alsoProvides to attach the proper interface to an unsubclassed webob.Request. This pattern is purely an optimization (e.g. preventing calls to alsoProvides means the difference between 590 r/s and 690 r/s on a MacBook 2GHz).
  • Tease out an extra 4% performance boost by changing the Router; instead of using imported ZCA APIs, use the same APIs directly against the registry that is an attribute of the Router.
  • The registry used by BFG is now a subclass of zope.component.registry.Components (defined as repoze.bfg.registry.Registry); it has a notify method, a registerSubscriptionAdapter and a registerHandler method. If no subscribers are registered via registerHandler or registerSubscriptionAdapter, notify is a noop for speed.
  • The Allowed and Denied classes in now are lazier about constructing the representation of a reason message for speed; repoze.bfg.view_execution_permitted takes advantage of this.
  • The is_response check was sped up by about half at the expense of making its code slightly uglier.

New Modules

  • repoze.bfg.lru implements an LRU cache class and a decorator for internal use.

0.6.3 (2009-01-19)

Bug Fixes

  • Readd root_policy attribute on Router object (as a property which returns the IRootFactory utility). It was inadvertently removed in 0.6.2. Code in the wild depended upon its presence (esp. scripts and "debug" helpers).


  • URL-dispatch has been overhauled: it is no longer necessary to manually create a RoutesMapper in your application's entry point callable in order to use URL-dispatch (aka Routes). A new route directive has been added to the available list of ZCML directives. Each route directive inserted into your application's configure.zcml establishes a Routes mapper connection. If any route declarations are made via ZCML within a particular application, the get_root callable passed in to repoze.bfg.router.make_app will automatically be wrapped in the equivalent of a RoutesMapper. Additionally, the new route directive allows the specification of a context_interfaces attribute for a route, this will be used to tag the manufactured routes context with specific interfaces when a route specifying a context_interfaces attribute is matched.
  • A new interface repoze.bfg.interfaces.IContextNotFound was added. This interface is attached to a "dummy" context generated when Routes cannot find a match and there is no "fallback" get_root callable that uses traversal.
  • The bfg_starter and bfg_zodb "paster create" templates now contain images and CSS which are displayed when the default page is displayed after initial project generation.
  • Allow the repoze.bfg.view.static helper to be passed a relative root_path name; it will be considered relative to the file in which it was called.
  • The functionality of repoze.bfg.convention has been merged into the core. Applications which make use of repoze.bfg.convention will continue to work indefinitely, but it is recommended that apps stop depending upon it. To do so, substitute imports of repoze.bfg.convention.bfg_view with imports of repoze.bfg.view.bfg_view, and change the stanza in ZCML from <convention package="."> to <scan package=".">. As a result of the merge, bfg has grown a new dependency: martian.
  • View functions which use the pushpage decorator are now pickleable (meaning their use won't prevent a configure.zcml.cache file from being written to disk).
  • Instead of invariably using webob.Request as the "request factory" (e.g. in the Router class) and webob.Response and the "response factory" (e.g. in render_template_to_response), allow both to be overridden via a ZCML utility hook. See the "Using ZCML Hooks" chapter of the documentation for more information.


  • The class repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesContext has been renamed to repoze.bfg.urldispatch.DefaultRoutesContext. The class should be imported by the new name as necessary (although in reality it probably shouldn't be imported from anywhere except internally within BFG, as it's not part of the API).

Implementation Changes

  • The repoze.bfg.wsgi.wsgiapp decorator now uses webob.Request.get_response to do its work rather than relying on homegrown WSGI code.
  • The repoze.bfg.view.static helper now uses webob.Request.get_response to do its work rather than relying on homegrown WSGI code.
  • The repoze.bfg.urldispatch.RoutesModelTraverser class has been moved to repoze.bfg.traversal.RoutesModelTraverser.
  • The repoze.bfg.registry.makeRegistry function was renamed to repoze.bfg.registry.populateRegistry and now accepts a registry argument (which should be an instance of zope.component.registry.Components).

Documentation Additions

  • Updated narrative urldispatch chapter with changes required by <route..> ZCML directive.
  • Add a section on "Using BFG Security With URL Dispatch" into the urldispatch chapter of the documentation.
  • Better documentation of security policy implementations that ship with repoze.bfg.
  • Added a "Using ZPT Macros in repoze.bfg" section to the narrative templating chapter.

0.6.2 (2009-01-13)


  • Tests can be run with coverage output if you've got nose installed in the interpreter which you use to run tests. Using an interpreter with nose installed, do python nosetests within a checkout of the repoze.bfg package to see test coverage output.
  • Added a post argument to the repoze.bfg.testing:DummyRequest constructor.
  • Added __len__ and __nonzero__ to repoze.bfg.testing:DummyModel.
  • The repoze.bfg.registry.get_options callable (now renamed to repoze.bfg.setings.get_options) used to return only framework-specific keys and values in the dictionary it returned. It now returns all the keys and values in the dictionary it is passed plus any framework-specific settings culled from the environment. As a side effect, all PasteDeploy application-specific config file settings are made available as attributes of the ISettings utility from within BFG.
  • Renamed the existing BFG paster template to bfg_starter. Added another template (bfg_zodb) showing default ZODB setup using repoze.zodbconn.
  • Add a method named assert_ to the DummyTemplateRenderer. This method accepts keyword arguments. Each key/value pair in the keyword arguments causes an assertion to be made that the renderer received this key with a value equal to the asserted value.
  • Projects generated by the paster templates now use the DummyTemplateRenderer.assert_ method in their view tests.
  • Make the (internal) thread local registry manager maintain a stack of registries in order to make it possible to call one BFG application from inside another.
  • An interface specific to the HTTP verb (GET/PUT/POST/DELETE/HEAD) is attached to each request object on ingress. The HTTP-verb-related interfaces are defined in repoze.bfg.interfaces and are IGETRequest, IPOSTRequest, IPUTRequest, IDELETERequest and IHEADRequest. These interfaces can be specified as the request_type attribute of a bfg view declaration. A view naming a specific HTTP-verb-matching interface will be found only if the view is defined with a request_type that matches the HTTP verb in the incoming request. The more general IRequest interface can be used as the request_type to catch all requests (and this is indeed the default). All requests implement IRequest. The HTTP-verb-matching idea was pioneered by repoze.bfg.restrequest . That package is no longer required, but still functions fine.

Bug Fixes

  • Fix a bug where the Paste configuration's unicode_path_segments (and os.environ's BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS) may have been defaulting to false in some circumstances. It now always defaults to true, matching the documentation and intent.
  • The repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model API did not work properly when passed a path argument which was unicode and contained high-order bytes when the unicode_path_segments or BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENTS configuration variables were "true".
  • A new module was added: repoze.bfg.settings. This contains deployment-settings-related code.

Implementation Changes

  • The make_app callable within repoze.bfg.router now registers the root_policy argument as a utility (unnamed, using the new repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootFactory as a provides interface) rather than passing it as the first argument to the repoze.bfg.router.Router class. As a result, the repoze.bfg.router.Router router class only accepts a single argument: registry. The repoze.bfg.router.Router class retrieves the root policy via a utility lookup now. The repoze.bfg.router.make_app API also now performs some important application registrations that were previously handled inside repoze.bfg.registry.makeRegistry.

New Modules

  • A repoze.bfg.settings module was added. It contains code related to deployment settings. Most of the code it contains was moved to it from the repoze.bfg.registry module.

Behavior Changes

  • The repoze.bfg.settings.Settings class (an instance of which is registered as a utility providing repoze.bfg.interfaces.ISettings when any application is started) now automatically calls repoze.bfg.settings.get_options on the options passed to its constructor. This means that usage of get_options within an application's make_app function is no longer required (the "raw" options dict or None may be passed).
  • Remove old cold which attempts to recover from trying to unpickle a template; Chameleon has been the templating engine for a good long time now. Running repoze.bfg against a sandbox that has pickled templates it will now just fail with an unpickling error, but can be fixed by deleting the template cache files.


  • Moved the repoze.bfg.registry.Settings class. This has been moved to repoze.bfg.settings.Settings. A deprecation warning is issued when it is imported from the older location.
  • Moved the repoze.bfg.registry.get_options function This has been moved to repoze.bfg.settings.get_options. A deprecation warning is issued when it is imported from the older location.
  • The repoze.bfg.interfaces.IRootPolicy interface was renamed within the interfaces package. It has been renamed to IRootFactory. A deprecation warning is issued when it is imported from the older location.

0.6.1 (2009-01-06)

New Modules

  • A new module repoze.bfg.url has been added. It contains the model_url API (moved from repoze.bfg.traversal) and an implementation of urlencode (like Python's urllib.urlencode) which can handle Unicode keys and values in parameters to the query argument.


  • The model_url function has been moved from repoze.bfg.traversal into repoze.bfg.url. It can still be imported from repoze.bfg.traversal but an import from repoze.bfg.traversal will emit a DeprecationWarning.


  • A static helper class was added to the repoze.bfg.views module. Instances of this class are willing to act as BFG views which return static resources using files on disk. See the repoze.bfg.view docs for more info.
  • The repoze.bfg.url.model_url API (nee' repoze.bfg.traversal.model_url) now accepts and honors a keyword argument named query. The value of this argument will be used to compose a query string, which will be attached to the generated URL before it is returned. See the API docs (in the docs directory or on the web) for more information.

0.6 (2008-12-26)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Rather than prepare the "stock" implementations of the ZCML directives from the zope.configuration package for use under repoze.bfg, repoze.bfg now makes available the implementations of directives from the repoze.zcml package (see As a result, the repoze.bfg package now depends on the repoze.zcml package, and no longer depends directly on the zope.component, zope.configuration, zope.interface, or zope.proxy packages.

    The primary reason for this change is to enable us to eventually reduce the number of inappropriate repoze.bfg Zope package dependencies, as well as to shed features of dependent package directives that don't make sense for repoze.bfg.

    Note that currently the set of requirements necessary to use bfg has not changed. This is due to inappropriate Zope package requirements in chameleon.zpt, which will hopefully be remedied soon. NOTE: in lemonade index a 1.0b8-repozezcml0 package exists which does away with these requirements.

  • BFG applications written prior to this release which expect the "stock" zope.component ZCML directive implementations (e.g. adapter, subscriber, or utility) to function now must either 1) include the meta.zcml file from zope.component manually (e.g. <include package="zope.component" file="meta.zcml">) and include the package as an install_requires dependency or 2) change the ZCML in their applications to use the declarations from repoze.zcml instead of the stock declarations. repoze.zcml only makes available the adapter, subscriber and utility directives.

    In short, if you've got an existing BFG application, after this update, if your application won't start due to an import error for "", the fastest way to get it working again is to add to the "install_requires" of your BFG application's, then add the following ZCML anywhere in your application's configure.zcml:

    <include package="zope.component" file="meta.zcml">

    Then develop or reinstall your application.

  • The XML namespace is now the default XML namespace in ZCML for paster-generated applications. The docs have been updated to reflect this.

  • The copies of BFG's meta.zcml and configure.zcml were removed from the root of the repoze.bfg package. In 0.3.6, a new package named repoze.bfg.includes was added, which contains the "correct" copies of these ZCML files; the ones that were removed were for backwards compatibility purposes.

  • The BFG view ZCML directive no longer calls zope.component.interface.provideInterface for the for interface. We don't support provideInterface in BFG because it mutates the global registry.


  • The minimum requirement for chameleon.core is now 1.0b13. The minimum requirement for chameleon.zpt is now 1.0b8. The minimum requirement for chameleon.genshi is now 1.0b2.
  • Updated paster template "" to one that requires setuptools 0.6c9.
  • Turn view_execution_permitted from the repoze.bfg.view module into a documented API.
  • Doc cleanups.
  • Documented how to create a view capable of serving static resources.

0.5.6 (2008-12-18)

  • Speed up traversal.model_url execution by using a custom url quoting function instead of Python's urllib.quote, by caching URL path segment quoting and encoding results, by disusing Python's urlparse.urljoin in favor of a simple string concatenation, and by using ob.__class__ is unicode rather than isinstance(ob, unicode) in one strategic place.

0.5.5 (2008-12-17)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • In the past, during traversal, the ModelGraphTraverser (the default traverser) always passed each URL path segment to any __getitem__ method of a model object as a byte string (a str object). Now, by default the ModelGraphTraverser attempts to decode the path segment to Unicode (a unicode object) using the UTF-8 encoding before passing it to the __getitem__ method of a model object. This makes it possible for model objects to be dumber in __getitem__ when trying to resolve a subobject, as model objects themselves no longer need to try to divine whether or not to try to decode the path segment passed by the traverser.

    Note that since 0.5.4, URLs generated by repoze.bfg's model_url API will contain UTF-8 encoded path segments as necessary, so any URL generated by BFG itself will be decodeable by the traverser. If another application generates URLs to a BFG application, to be resolved successully, it should generate the URL with UTF-8 encoded path segments to be successfully resolved. The decoder is not at all magical: if a non-UTF-8-decodeable path segment (e.g. one encoded using UTF-16 or some other insanity) is passed in the URL, BFG will raise a TypeError with a message indicating it could not decode the path segment.

    To turn on the older behavior, where path segments were not decoded to Unicode before being passed to model object __getitem__ by the traverser, and were passed as a raw byte string, set the unicode_path_segments configuration setting to a false value in your BFG application's section of the paste .ini file, for example:

    unicode_path_segments = False

    Or start the application using the BFG_UNICODE_PATH_SEGMENT envvar set to a false value:


0.5.4 (2008-12-13)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • URL-quote "extra" element names passed in as **elements to the traversal.model_url API. If any of these names is a Unicode string, encode it to UTF-8 before URL-quoting. This is a slight backwards incompatibility that will impact you if you were already UTF-8 encoding or URL-quoting the values you passed in as elements to this API.


  • UTF-8 encode each segment in the model path used to generate a URL before url-quoting it within the traversal.model_url API. This is a bugfix, as Unicode cannot always be successfully URL-quoted.


  • Make it possible to run unit tests using a buildout-generated Python "interpreter".
  • Add request.root to router.Router in order to have easy access to the application root.

0.5.3 (2008-12-07)

  • Remove the ITestingTemplateRenderer interface. When testing.registerDummyRenderer is used, it instead registers a dummy implementation using ITemplateRenderer interface, which is checked for when the built-in templating facilities do rendering. This change also allows developers to make explcit named utility registrations in the ZCML registry against ITemplateRenderer; these will be found before any on-disk template is looked up.

0.5.2 (2008-12-05)

  • The component registration handler for views (functions or class instances) now observes component adaptation annotations (see zope.component.adaptedBy) and uses them before the fallback values for for_ and request_type. This change does not affect existing code insomuch as the code does not rely on these defaults when an annotation is set on the view (unlikely). This means that for a new-style class you can do zope.component.adapts(ISomeContext, ISomeRequest) at class scope or at module scope as a decorator to a bfg view function you can do @zope.component.adapter(ISomeContext, ISomeRequest). This differs from r.bfg.convention inasmuch as you still need to put something in ZCML for the registrations to get done; it's only the defaults that will change if these declarations exist.
  • Strip all slashes from end and beginning of path in clean_path within traversal machinery.

0.5.1 (2008-11-25)

  • Add keys, items, and values methods to testing.DummyModel.
  • Add __delitem__ method to testing.DummyModel.

0.5.0 (2008-11-18)

  • Fix ModelGraphTraverser; don't try to change the __name__ or __parent__ of an object that claims it implements ILocation during traversal even if the __name__ or __parent__ of the object traversed does not match the name used in the traversal step or the or the traversal parent . Rationale: it was insane to do so. This bug was only found due to a misconfiguration in an application that mistakenly had intermediate persistent non-ILocation objects; traversal was causing a persistent write on every request under this setup.
  • repoze.bfg.location.locate now unconditionally sets __name__ and __parent__ on objects which provide ILocation (it previously only set them conditionally if they didn't match attributes already present on the object via equality).

0.4.9 (2008-11-17)

  • Add chameleon text template API (chameleon ${name} renderings where the template does not need to be wrapped in any containing XML).
  • Change docs to explain install in terms of a virtualenv (unconditionally).
  • Make pushpage decorator compatible with repoze.bfg.convention's bfg_view decorator when they're stacked.
  • Add content_length attribute to testing.DummyRequest.
  • Change paster template to include a true unit test. Retain old test as an integration test. Update documentation.
  • Document view registrations against classes and repoze.bfg.convention in context.
  • Change the default paster template to register its single view against a class rather than an interface.
  • Document adding a request type interface to the request via a subscriber function in the events narrative documentation.

0.4.8 (2008-11-12)

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • repoze.bfg.traversal.model_url now always appends a slash to all generated URLs unless further elements are passed in as the third and following arguments. Rationale: views often use model_url without the third-and-following arguments in order to generate a URL for a model in order to point at the default view of a model. The URL that points to the default view of the root model is technically http://mysite/ as opposed to http://mysite (browsers happen to ask for '/' implicitly in the GET request). Because URLs are never automatically generated for anything except models by model_url, and because the root model is not really special, we continue this pattern. The impact of this change is minimal (at most you will have too many slashes in your URL, which BFG deals with gracefully anyway).

0.4.7 (2008-11-11)


  • Allow testing.registerEventListener to be used with Zope 3 style "object events" (subscribers accept more than a single event argument). We extend the list with the arguments, rather than append.

0.4.6 (2008-11-10)

Bug Fixes

  • The model_path and model_url traversal APIs returned the wrong value for the root object (e.g. model_path returned '' for the root object, while it should have been returning '/').

0.4.5 (2008-11-09)


  • Added a clone method and a __contains__ method to the DummyModel testing object.
  • Allow DummyModel objects to receive extra keyword arguments, which will be attached as attributes.
  • The DummyTemplateRenderer now returns self as its implementation.

0.4.4 (2008-11-08)


  • Added a repoze.bfg.testing module to attempt to make it slightly easier to write unittest-based automated tests of BFG applications. Information about this module is in the documentation.
  • The default template renderer now supports testing better by looking for ITestingTemplateRenderer using a relative pathname. This is exposed indirectly through the API named registerTemplateRenderer in repoze.bfg.testing.


  • The names repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplate , repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateFactory and repoze.bfg.interfaces.INodeTemplate have been deprecated. These should now be imported as repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRenderer and repoze.bfg.interfaces.ITemplateRendererFactory, and INodeTemplateRenderer respectively.
  • The name repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateFactory is deprecated. Use repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt.ZPTTemplateRenderer.
  • The name repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi.GenshiTemplateFactory is deprecated. Use repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi.GenshiTemplateRenderer.
  • The name repoze.bfg.xslt.XSLTemplateFactory is deprecated. Use repoze.bfg.xslt.XSLTemplateRenderer.

0.4.3 (2008-11-02)

Bug Fixes

  • Not passing the result of "get_options" as the second argument of make_app could cause attribute errors when attempting to look up settings against the ISettings object (internal). Fixed by giving the Settings objects defaults for debug_authorization and debug_notfound.
  • Return an instance of Allowed (rather than True) from has_permission when no security policy is in use.
  • Fix bug where default deny in authorization check would throw a TypeError (use ACLDenied instead of Denied).

0.4.2 (2008-11-02)


  • Expose a single ILogger named "repoze.bfg.debug" as a utility; this logger is registered unconditionally and is used by the authorization debug machinery. Applications may also make use of it as necessary rather than inventing their own logger, for convenience.
  • The BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION envvar and the debug_authorization config file value now only imply debugging of view-invoked security checks. Previously, information was printed for every call to has_permission as well, which made output confusing. To debug has_permission checks and other manual permission checks, use the debugger and print statements in your own code.
  • Authorization debugging info is now only present in the HTTP response body oif debug_authorization is true.
  • The format of authorization debug messages was improved.
  • A new BFG_DEBUG_NOTFOUND envvar was added and a symmetric debug_notfound config file value was added. When either is true, and a NotFound response is returned by the BFG router (because a view could not be found), debugging information is printed to stderr. When this value is set true, the body of HTTPNotFound responses will also contain the same debugging information.
  • Allowed and Denied responses from the security machinery are now specialized into two types: ACL types, and non-ACL types. The ACL-related responses are instances of and The non-ACL-related responses are and The allowed-type responses continue to evaluate equal to things that themselves evaluate equal to the True boolean, while the denied-type responses continue to evaluate equal to things that themselves evaluate equal to the False boolean. The only difference between the two types is the information attached to them for debugging purposes.
  • Added a new BFG_DEBUG_ALL envvar and a symmetric debug_all config file value. When either is true, all other debug-related flags are set true unconditionally (e.g. debug_notfound and debug_authorization).


  • Added info about debug flag changes.
  • Added a section to the security chapter named "Debugging Imperative Authorization Failures" (for e.g. has_permssion).

Bug Fixes

  • Change default paster template generator to use Paste#http server rather than PasteScript#cherrpy server. The cherrypy server has a security risk in it when REMOTE_USER is trusted by the downstream application.

0.4.1 (2008-10-28)

Bug Fixes

  • If the render_view_to_response function was called, if the view was found and called, but it returned something that did not implement IResponse, the error would pass by unflagged. This was noticed when I created a view function that essentially returned None, but received a NotFound error rather than a ValueError when the view was rendered. This was fixed.

0.4.0 (2008-10-03)


  • An "Environment and Configuration" chapter was added to the narrative portion of the documentation.


  • Ensure bfg doesn't generate warnings when running under Python 2.6.
  • The environment variable BFG_RELOAD_TEMPLATES is now available (serves the same purpose as reload_templates in the config file).
  • A new configuration file option debug_authorization was added. This turns on printing of security authorization debug statements to sys.stderr. The BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION environment variable was also added; this performs the same duty.

Bug Fixes

  • The environment variable BFG_SECURITY_DEBUG did not always work. It has been renamed to BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION and fixed.


  • A deprecation warning is now issued when old API names from the repoze.bfg.templates module are imported.

Backwards incompatibilities

  • The BFG_SECURITY_DEBUG environment variable was renamed to BFG_DEBUG_AUTHORIZATION.

0.3.9 (2008-08-27)


  • A repoze.bfg.location API module was added.

Backwards incompatibilities

  • Applications must now use the repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation interface rather than zope.location.interfaces.ILocation to represent that a model object is "location-aware". We've removed a dependency on zope.location for cleanliness purposes: as new versions of zope libraries are released which have improved dependency information, getting rid of our dependence on zope.location will prevent a newly installed repoze.bfg application from requiring the, egg, which not truly used at all in a "stock" repoze.bfg setup. These dependencies are still required by the stack at this time; this is purely a futureproofing move.

    The security and model documentation for previous versions of repoze.bfg recommended using the zope.location.interfaces.ILocation interface to represent that a model object is "location-aware". This documentation has been changed to reflect that this interface should now be imported from repoze.bfg.interfaces.ILocation instead.

0.3.8 (2008-08-26)


  • Documented URL dispatch better in narrative form.

Bug fixes

  • Routes URL dispatch did not have access to the WSGI environment, so conditions such as method=GET did not work.


  • Add principals_allowed_by_permission API to security module.
  • Replace support with support for chameleon.zpt. Chameleon is the new name for the package that used to be named NOTE: If you update a repoze.bfg SVN checkout that you're using for development, you will need to run " install" or " develop" again in order to obtain the proper Chameleon packages. is no longer supported by repoze.bfg. All API functions that used to render templates will work fine with the new packages, and your templates should render almost identically.
  • Add a repoze.bfg.chameleon_zpt module. This module provides Chameleon ZPT support.
  • Add a repoze.bfg.xslt module. This module provides XSLT support.
  • Add a repoze.bfg.chameleon_genshi module. This provides direct Genshi support, which did not exist previously.


  • Importing API functions directly from repoze.bfg.template is now deprecated. The get_template, render_template, render_template_to_response functions should now be imported from repoze.chameleon_zpt. The render_transform, and render_transform_to_response functions should now be imported from repoze.bfg.xslt. The repoze.bfg.template module will remain around "forever" to support backwards compatibility.

0.3.7 (2008-09-09)


  • Add compatibility with 1.0a7+ ( became a namespace package).

Bug fixes

  • repoze.bfg.traversal.find_model function did not function properly.

0.3.6 (2008-09-04)


  • Add startup process docs.
  • Allow configuration cache to be bypassed by actions which include special "uncacheable" discriminators (for actions that have variable results).

Bug Fixes

  • Move core repoze.bfg ZCML into a repoze.bfg.includes package so we can use repoze.bfg better as a namespace package. Adjust the code generator to use it. We've left around the configure.zcml in the repoze.bfg package directly so as not to break older apps.
  • When a zcml application registry cache was unpickled, and it contained a reference to an object that no longer existed (such as a view), bfg would not start properly.

0.3.5 (2008-09-01)


  • Event notification is issued after application is created and configured (IWSGIApplicationCreatedEvent).
  • New API module: repoze.bfg.view. This module contains the functions named render_view_to_response, render_view_to_iterable, render_view and is_response, which are documented in the API docs. These features aid programmatic (non-server-driven) view execution.

0.3.4 (2008-08-28)

Backwards incompatibilities

  • Make repoze.bfg a namespace package so we can allow folks to create subpackages (e.g. repoze.bfg.otherthing) within separate eggs. This is a backwards incompatible change which makes it impossible to import "make_app" and "get_options" from the repoze.bfg module directly. This change will break all existing apps generated by the paster code generator. Instead, you need to import these functions as repoze.bfg.router:make_app and repoze.bfg.registry:get_options, respectively. Sorry folks, it has to be done now or never, and definitely better now.


  • Add model_path API function to traversal module.


  • Normalize path returned by repoze.bfg.caller_path.

0.3.3 (2008-08-23)

  • Fix generated module to use project name rather than package name.

0.3.2 (2008-08-23)

  • Remove sampleapp sample application from bfg package itself.
  • Remove dependency on FormEncode (only needed by sampleapp).
  • Fix paster template generation so that case-sensitivity is preserved for project vs. package name.
  • Depend on version 1.0a1 (which requires the [lxml] extra currently).
  • Read and write a pickled ZCML actions list, stored as configure.zcml.cache next to the applications's "normal" configuration file. A given bfg app will usually start faster if it's able to read the pickle data. It fails gracefully to reading the real ZCML file if it cannot read the pickle.

0.3.1 (2008-08-20)

  • Generated application differences: make_app entry point renamed to app in order to have a different name than the bfg function of the same name, to prevent confusion.
  • Add "options" processing to bfg's make_app to support runtime options. A new API function named get_options was added to the registry module. This function is typically used in an application's app entry point. The Paste config file section for the app can now supply the reload_templates option, which, if true, will prevent the need to restart the appserver in order for or XSLT template changes to be detected.
  • Use only the module name in generated project's "test_suite" (run all tests found in the package).
  • Default port for generated apps changed from 5432 to 6543 (Postgres default port is 6543).

0.3.0 (2008-08-16)

  • Add get_template API to template module.

0.2.9 (2008-08-11)

  • 0.2.8 was "brown bag" release. It didn't work at all. Symptom: ComponentLookupError when trying to render a page.

0.2.8 (2008-08-11)

  • Add find_model and find_root traversal APIs. In the process, make ITraverser a uni-adapter (on context) rather than a multiadapter (on context and request).

0.2.7 (2008-08-05)

  • Add a request_type attribute to the available attributes of a bfg:view configure.zcml element. This attribute will have a value which is a dotted Python path, pointing at an interface. If the request object implements this interface when the view lookup is performed, the appropriate view will be called. This is meant to allow for simple "skinning" of sites based on request type. An event subscriber should attach the interface to the request on ingress to support skins.
  • Remove "template only" views. These were just confusing and were never documented.
  • Small url dispatch overhaul: the connect method of the urldispatch.RoutesMapper object now accepts a keyword parameter named context_factory. If this parameter is supplied, it must be a callable which returns an instance. This instance is used as the context for the request when a route is matched.
  • The registration of a RoutesModelTraverser no longer needs to be performed by the application; it's in the bfg ZCML now.

0.2.6 (2008-07-31)

  • Add event sends for INewRequest and INewResponse. See the events.rst chapter in the documentation's api directory.

0.2.5 (2008-07-28)

  • Add model_url API.

0.2.4 (2008-07-27)

  • Added url-based dispatch.

0.2.3 (2008-07-20)

  • Add API functions for authenticated_userid and effective_principals.

0.2.2 (2008-07-20)

  • Add authenticated_userid and effective_principals API to security policy.

0.2.1 (2008-07-20)

  • Add find_interface API.

0.2 (2008-07-19)

  • Add wsgiapp decorator.
  • The concept of "view factories" was removed in favor of always calling a view, which is a callable that returns a response directly (as opposed to returning a view). As a result, the factory attribute in the bfg:view ZCML statement has been renamed to view. Various interface names were changed also.
  • render_template and render_transform no longer return a Response object. Instead, these return strings. The old behavior can be obtained by using render_template_to_response and render_transform_to_response.
  • Added 'repoze.bfg.push:pushpage' decorator, which creates BFG views from callables which take (context, request) and return a mapping of top-level names.
  • Added ACL-based security.
  • Support for XSLT templates via a render_transform method

0.1 (2008-07-08)

  • Initial release.