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README.md

Selenium Docker

The project is made possible by volunteer contributors who have put in thousands of hours of their own time, and made the source code freely available under the Apache License 2.0.

Community

SeleniumHQ Slack

IRC (#selenium at Freenode)

Docker images for Selenium Standalone Server Hub and Node configurations with Chrome and Firefox

Travis CI

Images included:

  • selenium/base: Base image which includes Java runtime and Selenium Server JAR file
  • selenium/hub: Image for running a Grid Hub
  • selenium/node-base: Base image for Grid Nodes which includes a virtual desktop environment
  • selenium/node-chrome: Grid Node with Chrome installed, needs to be connected to a Grid Hub
  • selenium/node-firefox: Grid Node with Firefox installed, needs to be connected to a Grid Hub
  • selenium/node-chrome-debug: Grid Node with Chrome installed and runs a VNC server, needs to be connected to a Grid Hub
  • selenium/node-firefox-debug: Grid Node with Firefox installed and runs a VNC server, needs to be connected to a Grid Hub
  • selenium/standalone-chrome: Selenium Standalone with Chrome installed
  • selenium/standalone-firefox: Selenium Standalone with Firefox installed
  • selenium/standalone-chrome-debug: Selenium Standalone with Chrome installed and runs a VNC server
  • selenium/standalone-firefox-debug: Selenium Standalone with Firefox installed and runs a VNC server

Running the images

❗️ When executing docker run for an image with Chrome or Firefox please either mount -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm or use the flag --shm-size=2g to use the host's shared memory.

Chrome

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
#OR
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 --shm-size=2g selenium/standalone-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt

Firefox

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt
#OR
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 --shm-size 2g selenium/standalone-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt

This is a known workaround to avoid the browser crashing inside a docker container, here are the documented issues for Chrome and Firefox. The shm size of 2gb is arbitrary but known to work well, your specific use case might need a different value, it is recommended to tune this value according to your needs. Along the examples -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm will be used, but both are known to work.

Standalone Chrome and Firefox

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
# OR
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt

Note: Only one standalone image can run on port 4444 at a time.

To inspect visually what the browser is doing use the standalone-chrome-debug or standalone-firefox-debug images. See Debugging section for details.

Selenium Grid Hub and Nodes

There are different ways to run the images and create a grid, check the following options.

Using docker networking

With this option, the hub and nodes will be created in the same network and they will recognize each other by their container name. A docker network needs to be created as a first step.

$ docker network create grid
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 --net grid --name selenium-hub selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d --net grid -e HUB_HOST=selenium-hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d --net grid -e HUB_HOST=selenium-hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt

When you are done using the grid and the containers have exited, the network can be removed with the following command:

# Remove all unused networks
$ docker network prune
# OR 
# Removes the grid network
$ docker network rm grid

Via docker-compose

The most simple way to start a grid is with docker-compose, use the following snippet as your docker-compose.yaml, save it locally and in the same folder run docker-compose up.

Version 2
# To execute this docker-compose yml file use docker-compose -f <file_name> up
# Add the "-d" flag at the end for deattached execution
version: '2'
services:
  firefox:
    image: selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt
    volumes:
      - /dev/shm:/dev/shm
    depends_on:
      - hub
    environment:
      HUB_HOST: hub

  chrome:
    image: selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
    volumes:
      - /dev/shm:/dev/shm
    depends_on:
      - hub
    environment:
      HUB_HOST: hub

  hub:
    image: selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
    ports:
      - "4444:4444"
Version 3
# To execute this docker-compose yml file use docker-compose -f <file_name> up
# Add the "-d" flag at the end for deattached execution
version: "3"
services:
  selenium-hub:
    image: selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
    container_name: selenium-hub
    ports:
      - "4444:4444"
  chrome:
    image: selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
    depends_on:
      - selenium-hub
    environment:
      - HUB_HOST=selenium-hub
      - HUB_PORT=4444
  firefox:
    image: selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt
    depends_on:
      - selenium-hub
    environment:
      - HUB_HOST=selenium-hub
      - HUB_PORT=4444

To stop the grid and cleanup the created containers, run docker-compose down.

Using --link

This option can be used for a single host scenario (hub and nodes running in a single machine), but it is not recommended for longer term usage since this is a docker legacy feature. It could serve you as an option for a proof of concept, and for simplicity it is used in the examples shown from now on.

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 --name selenium-hub selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt

Configuring the containers

JAVA_OPTS Java Environment Options

You can pass JAVA_OPTS environment variable to java process.

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -e JAVA_OPTS=-Xmx512m --name selenium-hub selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt

SE_OPTS Selenium Configuration Options

You can pass SE_OPTS variable with additional commandline parameters for starting a hub or a node.

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -e SE_OPTS="-debug" --name selenium-hub selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt

Selenium Hub and Node Configuration options

For special network configurations or when the hub and the nodes are running on different machines HUB_HOST and HUB_PORT or REMOTE_HOST can be used.

You can pass the HUB_HOST and HUB_PORT options to provide the hub address to a node when needed.

# Assuming a hub was already started
$ docker run -d -e HUB_HOST=<hub_ip|hub_name> -e HUB_PORT=4444 selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt

Some network topologies might prevent the hub to reach the node through the url given at registration time, REMOTE_HOST can be used to supply the hub a url where the node is reachable under your specific network configuration

# Assuming a hub was already started
$ docker run -d -e HUB_HOST=<hub_ip|hub_name> -e REMOTE_HOST="http://node_ip|node_name:node_port" selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt

Building the images

Clone the repo and from the project directory root you can build everything by running:

$ VERSION=local make build

If you need to configure environment variable in order to build the image (http proxy for instance), simply set an environment variable BUILD_ARGS that contains the additional variables to pass to the docker context (this will only work with docker >= 1.9)

$ BUILD_ARGS="--build-arg http_proxy=http://acme:3128 --build-arg https_proxy=http://acme:3128" make build

Note: Omitting VERSION=local will build the images with the current version number thus overwriting the images downloaded from Docker Hub.

Using the images

Example: Spawn a container for testing in Chrome:
$ docker run -d --name selenium-hub -p 4444:4444 selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
$ CH=$(docker run --rm --name=ch \
    --link selenium-hub:hub -v /e2e/uploads:/e2e/uploads \
    -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm \
    selenium/node-chrome:3.12.0-cobalt)

Note: -v /e2e/uploads:/e2e/uploads is optional in case you are testing browser uploads on your web app you will probably need to share a directory for this.

Example: Spawn a container for testing in Firefox:

This command line is the same as for Chrome. Remember that the Selenium running container is able to launch either Chrome or Firefox, the idea around having 2 separate containers, one for each browser is for convenience plus avoiding certain :focus issues your web app may encounter during end-to-end test automation.

$ docker run -d --name selenium-hub -p 4444:4444 selenium/hub:3.12.0-cobalt
$ FF=$(docker run --rm --name=fx \
    --link selenium-hub:hub -v /e2e/uploads:/e2e/uploads \
    -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm \
    selenium/node-firefox:3.12.0-cobalt)

Note: Since a Docker container is not meant to preserve state and spawning a new one takes less than 3 seconds you will likely want to remove containers after each end-to-end test with --rm command. You need to think of your Docker containers as single processes, not as running virtual machines, in case you are familiar with Vagrant.

Debugging

In the event you wish to visually see what the browser is doing you will want to run the debug variant of node or standalone images. A VNC server will run on port 5900. You are free to map that to any free external port that you wish. Keep in mind that you will only be able to run one node per port so if you wish to include a second node, or more, you will have to use different ports, the 5900 as the internal port will have to remain the same though as thats the VNC service on the node. The second example below shows how to run multiple nodes and with different VNC ports open:

$ docker run -d -P -p <port4VNC>:5900 --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-chrome-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d -P -p <port4VNC>:5900 --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-firefox-debug:3.12.0-cobalt

e.g.:

$ docker run -d -P -p 5900:5900 --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-chrome-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
$ docker run -d -P -p 5901:5900 --link selenium-hub:hub -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/node-firefox-debug:3.12.0-cobalt

to connect to the Chrome node on 5900 and the Firefox node on 5901 (assuming those node are free, and reachable).

And for standalone:

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -p <port4VNC>:5900 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-chrome-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
# OR
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -p <port4VNC>:5900 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-firefox-debug:3.12.0-cobalt

or

$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -p 5900:5900 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-chrome-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
# OR
$ docker run -d -p 4444:4444 -p 5901:5900 -v /dev/shm:/dev/shm selenium/standalone-firefox-debug:3.12.0-cobalt

You can acquire the port that the VNC server is exposed to by running: (Assuming that we mapped the ports like this: 49338:5900)

$ docker port <container-name|container-id> 5900
#=> 0.0.0.0:49338

In case you have RealVNC binary vnc in your path, you can always take a look, view only to avoid messing around your tests with an unintended mouse click or keyboard interrupt:

$ ./bin/vncview 127.0.0.1:49160

If you are running Boot2Docker on OS X then you already have a VNC client built-in. You can connect by entering vnc://<boot2docker-ip>:49160 in Safari or Alfred.

When you are prompted for the password it is secret. If you wish to change this then you should either change it in the /NodeBase/Dockerfile and build the images yourself, or you can define a Docker image that derives from the posted ones which reconfigures it:

#FROM selenium/node-chrome-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
#FROM selenium/node-firefox-debug:3.12.0-cobalt
#Choose the FROM statement that works for you.

RUN x11vnc -storepasswd <your-password-here> /home/seluser/.vnc/passwd

If you want to run VNC without password authentication you can set the environment variable VNC_NO_PASSWORD=1.

Troubleshooting

All output is sent to stdout so it can be inspected by running:

$ docker logs -f <container-id|container-name>