REST behaviour and Plug router for hypermedia web applications in Elixir
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README.md

PlugRest

Build Status Hex Version

An Elixir port of Cowboy's REST sub-protocol for Plug applications.

PlugRest has two main components:

  • PlugRest.Router - supplements Plug's router with a resource macro, which matches a URL path with a Plug module for all HTTP methods
  • PlugRest.Resource - defines a behaviour for Plug modules to represent web resources declaratively using multiple callbacks

PlugRest is perfect for creating well-behaved and semantically correct hypermedia web applications.

If you use Phoenix, be sure to check out PhoenixRest.

Documentation for PlugRest is available on hexdocs.
Source code is available on Github.
Package is available on hex.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Hello World

Define a router to match a path with a resource handler:

defmodule MyRouter do
  use PlugRest.Router

  plug :match
  plug :dispatch

  resource "/hello", HelloResource
end

Define the resource handler and implement the optional callbacks:

defmodule HelloResource do
  use PlugRest.Resource

  def to_html(conn, state) do
    {"Hello world", conn, state}
  end
end

Features

Router

  • Route all requests for a path to a plug, for any HTTP method

Resource

  • Built-in HEAD and OPTIONS responses, and easy handling of GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE requests
  • Content negotiation for media types, languages, and charsets
  • HTTP access authentication
  • Observance of etag, expires, last-modified, and vary headers
  • Multiple choices for redirects, not modified responses, etc.
  • Correct HTTP status codes for common 400 and 500 level errors

Why PlugRest?

The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource.
—Roy Fielding

In the REST architectural style, one of the uniform interface constraints is the identification of resources. Using Plug, we can satisfy this requirement by routing requests based on a URL path.

PlugRest goes a step further. Rather than manually defining HTTP semantics for each route and dividing a resource's behavior over multiple controller actions, PlugRest lets us describe our resources in a declarative way (by implementing callbacks), and follows protocol for us, including returning the correct status code when something goes wrong (or right).

PlugRest can help your Elixir application become a fluent speaker of the HTTP protocol. It can assist with content negotiation, cache headers, basic authentication, and redirects. However, it is not a full-featured framework with views, templates, sessions, or web sockets. It also lacks a requisite solution for hypermedia controls, which are essential to REST.

PlugRest is not the first REST-based framework to take a resource-oriented approach. Basho's Webmachine has inspired many such libraries, including cowboy_rest.

You can use PlugRest in a standalone web app or as part of an existing Phoenix application. Details below!

Installation

If starting a new project, generate a supervisor application:

$ mix new my_app --sup
$ cd my_app

Add PlugRest to your project in two steps:

  1. Add :cowboy, :plug, and :plug_rest to your list of dependencies in mix.exs:

    def deps do
      [{:cowboy, "~> 1.0.0"},
       {:plug, "~> 1.4"},
       {:plug_rest, "~> 0.13"}]
    end
  2. Add these dependencies to your applications list:

    def application do
      [applications: [:cowboy, :plug, :plug_rest]]
    end

Install the dependencies by running mix deps.get and mix deps.compile.

Getting Started

Resources

Create a file at lib/my_app/resources/hello_resource.ex to hold your Resource Handler:

defmodule MyApp.HelloResource do
  use PlugRest.Resource

  def allowed_methods(conn, state) do
    {["HEAD", "GET", "OPTIONS"], conn, state}
  end

  def content_types_provided(conn, state) do
    {[{"text/html", :to_html}], conn, state}
  end

  def to_html(conn, state) do
    {"Hello #{state}", conn, state}
  end
end

Router

Create a file at lib/my_app/router.ex to hold the Router:

defmodule MyApp.Router do
  use PlugRest.Router
  use Plug.ErrorHandler

  plug :match
  plug :dispatch

  resource "/hello", MyApp.HelloResource, "World"

  match "/match" do
    send_resp(conn, 200, "Match")
  end
end

The PlugRest Router adds a resource macro which accepts a URL path, a Plug module, and its options. If the module is a PlugRest.Resource, it will begin executing the REST callbacks, passing in any initial state given to it.

The router contains a plug pipeline and requires two plugs: match and dispatch. You can add custom plugs into this pipeline.

You can also use the match macros from Plug.Router. This provides an escape hatch to bypass the REST mechanism for a particular route and send a Plug response manually.

If no routes match, PlugRest will send a response with a 404 status code to the client automatically.

Dynamic path segments

Router paths can have segments that match URLs dynamically:

resource "/users/:id", MyApp.UserResource

The path parameters can be accessed in your resource in conn.params:

def to_html(%{params: params} = conn, state) do
  user_id = params["id"]
  {"Hello #{user_id}", conn, state}
end

Application

Finally, add the Router to your supervision tree by editing lib/my_app.ex:

# Define workers and child supervisors to be supervised
children = [
  Plug.Adapters.Cowboy.child_spec(:http, MyApp.Router, [], [port: 4001])
]

Running

Compile your application and then run it:

$ mix compile
$ iex -S mix

Your server will be running and the resource will be available at http://localhost:4001/hello.

Tasks

You can generate a new PlugRest resource (with all of the callbacks implemented) by using a Mix task:

$ mix plug_rest.gen.resource UserResource

The task will create a resource at lib/my_app/resources/user_resource.ex.

Callbacks

The PlugRest.Resource module defines dozens of callbacks that offer a declarative strategy for defining a resource's behavior. Implement your desired callbacks and let this library do the REST, including returning the appropriate response headers and status code.

Each callback takes two arguments:

  • conn - a %Plug.Conn{} struct; use this to fetch details about the request (see the Plug docs for more info)
  • state - the state of the Resource; use this to store any data that should be available to subsequent callbacks

Each callback must return a three-element tuple of the form {value, conn, state}. All callbacks are optional, and will be given default values if you do not define them. Some of the most common and useful callbacks are shown below with their defaults:

  allowed_methods        : ["GET", "HEAD", "OPTIONS"]
  content_types_accepted : none
  content_types_provided : [{{"text/html"}, :to_html}]
  expires                : nil
  forbidden              : false
  generate_etag          : nil
  is_authorized          : true
  last_modified          : nil
  malformed_request      : false
  moved_permanently      : false
  moved_temporarily      : false
  resource_exists        : true

The docs for PlugRest.Resource list all of the supported REST callbacks and their default values.

Content Negotiation

Content Types Provided

You can return representations of your resource in different formats by implementing the content_types_provided callback, which pairs each content-type with a handler function:

def content_types_provided(conn, state) do
  {[{"text/html", :to_html},
    {"application/json", :to_json}], conn, state}
end

def to_html(conn, state) do
  {"<h1>Hello</h1>", conn, state}
end

def to_json(conn, state) do
  {"{\"title\": \"Hello\"}", conn, state}
end

Content Types Accepted

Similarly, you can accept different media types from clients by implementing the content_types_accepted callback:

def content_types_accepted(conn, state) do
  {[{"mixed/multipart", :from_multipart},
    {"application/json", :from_json}], conn, state}
    end

def from_multipart(conn, state) do
  # fetch or read the request body params, update the database, etc.
  {true, conn, state}
end

def from_json(conn, state) do
  {true, conn, state}
end

The content handler functions you implement can return either true, {true, URL} (for redirects), or false (for errors). Don't forget to add "POST", "PUT", and/or "PATCH" to your resource's list of allowed_methods.

Consult the Plug.Conn and Plug.Parsers docs for information on parsing and reading the request body params.

Testing

Use Plug.Test to help verify your resource's responses to separate requests. Create a file at test/resources/hello_resource_test.exs to hold your test:

defmodule MyApp.HelloResourceTest do
  use ExUnit.Case
  use Plug.Test

  alias MyApp.Router

  test "get hello resource" do
    conn = conn(:get, "/hello")

    conn = Router.call(conn, [])

    assert conn.status == 200
    assert conn.resp_body == "Hello world"
  end
end

Run the test with:

$ mix test

Debugging

To help debug your app during development, add Plug.Debugger to the top of the router, before use Plug.ErrorHandler:

defmodule MyApp.Router do
  use PlugRest.Router

  if Mix.env == :dev do
    use Plug.Debugger, otp_app: :my_app
  end

  use Plug.ErrorHandler

  # ...
end

Error Handling

By adding use Plug.ErrorHandler to your router, you will ensure it returns correct HTTP status codes when plugs raise exceptions. To set a custom error response, add the handle_errors/2 callback to your router:

defp handle_errors(conn, %{kind: _kind, reason: _reason, stack: _stack}) do
  send_resp(conn, conn.status, "Something went wrong")
end

Phoenix

You can use PlugRest's router and resources in your Phoenix app like any other plug by forwarding requests to them:

forward "/rest", HelloPhoenix.RestRouter

To get the resource macro directly in your Phoenix router, use PhoenixRest.

Information

The Cowboy documentation has more details on the REST protocol:

Upgrading

PlugRest is still in an initial development phase. Expect breaking changes at least in each minor version.

See the CHANGELOG for more information.

License

PlugRest copyright © 2016, Christopher Adams

cowboy_rest copyright © 2011-2014, Loïc Hoguin essen@ninenines.eu

Cowboy logo copyright © 2016, dikaio

PlugRest source code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.