a write-only ORM for Node.js
Latest commit efaf537 Jun 24, 2017
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
test returns empty array for one to many relationships in graph query Jun 24, 2017
.eslintrc no es2015 Jun 17, 2017
.gitignore test for sqlite query options Apr 6, 2016
.travis.yml remove node 0.10 tests Jun 17, 2017
changelog.md fixed link Mar 29, 2017
docker-compose.yml logging connections, no id, specs use docker dbs Apr 1, 2016
index.js returns empty array for one to many relationships in graph query Jun 24, 2017
mssqlDriver.js fix issue where saving entities with ID in sqlite returns wrong ID Jun 22, 2017
mysqlDriver.js fix issue where saving entities with ID in sqlite returns wrong ID Jun 22, 2017
optionalRequire.js convert to javascript Jan 8, 2016
oracleDriver.js using cooperative to formatRows in oracle Mar 29, 2017
outstandingQueries.js removed console.logs Jul 28, 2016
package-lock.json 3.7.1 Jun 24, 2017
package.json 3.7.1 Jun 24, 2017
paramRegex.js can unescape params Feb 2, 2017
pgDriver.js update, insert, upsert Feb 3, 2017
promiseFinally.js pre-ES6 syntax Jul 27, 2016
promisify.js added sqlite3 dependency Jan 30, 2016
readme.md changelog for 3.6.0 Mar 29, 2017
redactConfig.js logging connections, no id, specs use docker dbs Apr 1, 2016
redactUrl.js logging connections, no id, specs use docker dbs Apr 1, 2016
sqliteDriver.js fix issue where saving entities with ID in sqlite returns wrong ID Jun 22, 2017
unescape.js fixed issue with unescaped values being passed through to driver Feb 10, 2017
websqlDriver.js fix issue where saving entities with ID in sqlite returns wrong ID Jun 22, 2017

readme.md

SWORM npm version npm Build Status

A very lightweight write only Node.js ORM, with support for:

  • Microsoft SQL Server (MSSQL)
  • PostgreSQL
  • MySQL
  • Oracle DB
  • Sqlite 3
  • Browser Web SQL

Changelog

See changelog.md

NPM

npm install sworm

Then install a database driver, one of:

npm install mssql
npm install pg
npm install mysql
npm install oracledb
npm install sqlite3

There's no need to install a driver for Web SQL, sworm will pick it up from the window object.

See sworm in NPM.

Write Only?

The features in this module are mostly for writing graphs of related entities. Querying, on the other hand, is done with raw SQL so you can do it fast. See the query API for details.

This ORM avoids some of the largest issues experienced in other ORMs:

  • query performance is too opaque
  • N+1 queries are frequently the default
  • configuring eager and lazy loading is tricky
  • one-to-many, many-to-one, many-to-many relationships are notoriously difficult to get right
  • lifecycle management of sessions and identity maps is rarely pleasant
  • check out the massive generated SQL statements!

Just write SQL, you know how.

Example

var person = db.model({table: 'people'});
var address = db.model({table: 'addresses'});

var bob = person({
  name: 'bob',
  address: address({
    address: 'Fremantle'
  })
});

bob.save()

Produces:

-------- people ----------
| id | name | address_id |
--------------------------
| 11 | bob  | 22         |
--------------------------

------- addresses ------
| id | address         |
------------------------
| 22 | Fremantle       |
------------------------

Connection

Connect:

db.connect(config? : {}, fn? : () -> Promise);
  • config database connection configuration, see below
  • fn if passed, connect() will connect to the database, run the function, then disconnect. Ensure that fn returns a promise.

You can pass connection configuration to the sworm.db() function, or to the db.connect() function.

var sworm = require('sworm');

var db = sworm.db({
  driver: 'pg',
  config: {
    user: 'user',
    password: 'password',
    host: 'localhost',
    database: 'databasename'
  }
});

var person = db.model({table: 'people'});

var bob = person({name: 'Bob'});

// sworm connects at the first database interaction
bob.save();

Or define models then connect:

var sworm = require('sworm');

var db = sworm.db();

var person = db.model({table: 'people'});

db.connect({
  driver: 'mssql',
  config: {
    user: 'user',
    password: 'password',
    server: 'localhost',
    database: 'databasename'
  }
}).then(function () {

  ...

});

Or connect, run some code and then disconnect:

var sworm = require('sworm');

var db = sworm.db(config);

var person = db.model({table: 'people'});

db.connect(function () {

  // connected

  var bob = person({name: 'bob'});
  return bob.save().then(function () {
    ...
  });
}).then(function () {
  
  // disconnected

});

Connection options:

sworm.db(options)
sworm.db(url)
  • url, see urls for databases in respective section below

  • options.driver, one of 'mssql', 'mysql', 'pg', 'oracle', 'sqlite' or 'websql'.

  • options.config see configuration for databases in respective section below

  • url a connection URL, the following are supported

    • pg - postgres://user:password@host:5432/database. See the pg url format.
    • oracle - oracle://user:password@host:1521/sid&maxRows=100000&pool=true
  • setupSession a function that is passed the db to setup the session before any queries are run.

    setupSession: function (db) {
      return db.query("alter session set time_zone = 'UTC'");
    }
  • log: either true to log SQL statements with console.log()

    Can also be a function for custom logging:

    function (sql, params) {
      // sql == 'select * from people where name = @name'
      // params == {name: 'bob'}
    }

    Defaults to false, no logging.

Driver Connection Config

  • mysql

    See: https://github.com/felixge/node-mysql#connection-options

    {
      driver: 'mysql',
      config: {
        user: 'username',
        password: 'password',
        host: 'localhost',
        database: 'database name'
      }
    }
  • mssql

    See: https://github.com/patriksimek/node-mssql#configuration-1

    {
      driver: 'mssql',
      config: {
        user: 'username',
        password: 'password',
        server: 'localhost',
        database: 'databaseName'
      }
    }
  • postgres

    URL: postgres://user:password@host:5432/database. See the pg url format.

    See: https://github.com/brianc/node-postgres/wiki/pg#connectstring-connectionstring-function-callback

    The driver will use connection pooling if you pass pool: true.

    {
      driver: 'pg',
      config: {
        user: 'username',
        password: 'password',
        host: 'localhost',
        database: 'database name',
        pool: true
      }
    }
  • oracle

    URL: oracle://user:password@host:port/sid&maxRows=100000&pool=true

    See: getConnection() For options see Oracledb Properties

    The driver fetches maxRows rows at a time, defaulting to 100. You may want to adjust this value if you expect large result sets, higher values can be faster but use more memory.

    The driver will use connection pooling if you pass pool: true.

    By default the driver is set to autoCommit = true, you can pass options: { autoCommit: false} to turn this off again.

    {
      driver: 'oracle',
      config: {
        user: 'username',
        password: 'password',
        connectString: 'localhost/XE',
        pool: true,
    
        options: {
          // options to set on `oracledb`
          maxRows: 1000
        }
      }
    }

    The driver can also use an existing pool:

    {
      driver: 'oracle',
      config: {
        pool: pool // from oracledb.createPool(config, cb),
    
        options: {
          // options to set on `oracledb`
          maxRows: 1000
        }
      }
    }
  • sqlite

    URL: file:///absolute/path/to/database.db or relative/path/to/database.db

    See: https://github.com/mapbox/node-sqlite3/wiki/API#new-sqlite3databasefilename-mode-callback

    {
      driver: 'sqlite',
      config: {
        filename: 'filename or :memory:'
      }
    }
  • websql

    URL: websql:///db-name or db-name

    {
      driver: 'websql',
      config: {
        name: 'db-name',
    
        // the `openDatabase` function to connect to the DB, defaulting to `window.openDatabase`
        openDatabase: window.openDatabase,
    
        // dababase size, defaulting to 5M
        size: 5 * 1024 * 1024
      }
    }

Close

Close the connection after use:

db.close()

Debug

This module uses debug, so you can easily see what's happening under the hood by setting a DEBUG environment variable.

DEBUG=sworm node myapp.js

There are various schemes you can use:

  • sworm all queries
  • sworm:results all results
  • sworm:mssql exact query passed to mssql
  • sworm:mysql exact query passed to mysql
  • sworm:pg exact query passed to postgres
  • sworm:oracle exact query passed to oracle
  • sworm:sqlite exact query passed to sqlite3
  • sworm:websql exact query passed to websql

Models

var createEntity = db.model(options);

createEntity is a function that can be used to create entities from the model.

options can contain the following:

  • table (undefined) the name of the table to save entities to

  • id ('id') the name of the identity column. This can be an array of id columns for compound keys, or false if there is no id column.

  • foreignKeyFor a function that returns a foreign key field name for a member (see Relationships), defaults to:

    function foreignKeyFor(fieldName) {
      return fieldName + '_id';
    }
  • for oracle idType (oracledb.NUMBER) is the type of the identity column, for e.g. oracledb.STRING.

  • for mssql generatedId (scope_identity) is the method to get the generated id for insert statements:

    • scope_identity uses scope_identity() to get the generated id, this is the default.
    • output uses output inserted.id to get the generated id. This will work for uniqueidentifier column types but is not compatible with tables that have triggers.

Model Methods

Any other properties or functions on the options object are accessible by entities.

var address = db.model({
  table: 'addresses',

  addPerson: function(person) {
    this.people = this.people || [];
    person.address = this;
    this.people.push(person);
  }
});

var fremantle = address({address: 'Fremantle'});
fremantle.addPerson(person({name: 'bob'}));

Entities

The entity constructor takes an object with fields to be saved to the database.

var person = db.model({...});

var bob = person({
  name: 'bob'
}, [options]);

Where options can have:

  • saved: if true will update the entity (if modified) on the next save(), if false will insert the entity on the next save(). Default false.
  • modified: if true (and if saved is true), will update the entity on the next save() regardless if it has been modified.

Save

var promise = entity.save([options]);

Inserts or updates the entity into the table. If the entity already has a value for its identity column, then it is updated, if not, it is inserted.

Objects know when they've been modified since their last insert or update, so they won't update unless a field is modified. You can force an update by passing {force: true}.

save() returns a promise.

Identity

entity.identity()

Returns the ID of the entity, based on the identity column specified in the model.

Changed

entity.changed()

Returns true if the object has been modified since the last save().

Relationships

Entities can contain fields that are other entities. This way you can build up graphs of entities and save them all in one go.

Many to One

When entity A contains a field that is entity B, then B will be saved first and B's ID will be set and saved with A.

The foreign key of the member will be saved on the field name member_id. So address will have a foreign key of address_id. See the foreignKeyFor option in Models.

var person = db.model({table: 'people'});
var address = db.model({table: 'addresses'});

var bob = person({
  name: 'bob',
  address: address({
    address: "15 Rue d'Essert"
  })
});

bob.save().then(function () {
  assert(bob.address_id == address.id);
});

Alternatively, you can specify the objects the other way around, the address on the outside (see one-to-many for how this works):

var essert = address({
  address: "15 Rue d'Essert",
  person: (address) => [
    person({
      name: 'bob',
      address: address
    })
  ]
})

essert.save()

In SQL:

-------- people ----------
| id | name | address_id |
--------------------------
| 11 | bob  | 22         |
--------------------------

------- addresses ------
| id | address         |
------------------------
| 22 | 15 Rue d'Essert |
------------------------

One to Many

When entity A contains a field that is an array that contains entities B and C. Then entity A will be saved first, followed by all entities B and C.

This allows entities B and C to refer to entity A, as they would in their tables.

var person = db.model({ table: 'people' });
var address = db.model({ table: 'addresses' });

var bob = person({name: 'bob'});
var jane = person({name: 'jane'});

var essert = address({
  address: "15 Rue d'Essert",
  people: [bob, jane]
});

bob.address = essert;
jane.address = essert;

essert.save().then(function () {
  // all objects saved.
});

Alternatively, we can return the people in the address using a function. When the address is saved, the people function will be called with the owner address as the first argument, then we can set the foreign key for the people. Following the save() the results of the function will be saved as an array on the object.

var person = db.model({ table: 'people' });
var address = db.model({ table: 'addresses' });

var essert = address({
  address: "15 Rue d'Essert",
  people: (addr) => [
    person({ name: 'bob', address: addr }),
    person({ name: 'jane', address: addr })
  ]
});

essert.save().then(function () {
  // all objects saved.
  // essert.people == [{name: 'bob', ...}, {name: 'jane', ...}]
});

Notice that whether we use an array or a function, the field itself is never saved to the database, only the entities inside the array.

In SQL:

-------- people ----------
| id | name | address_id |
--------------------------
| 11 | bob  | 22         |
| 12 | jane | 22         |
--------------------------

------- addresses ------
| id | address         |
------------------------
| 22 | 15 Rue d'Essert |
------------------------

Many to Many

Many-to-many is just a combination of one-to-many and many-to-one:

var db = sworm.db('test/test.db')
var person = db.model({ table: 'people' });
var personAddress = db.model({ table: 'people_addresses', id: ['address_id', 'person_id'] });
var address = db.model({ table: 'addresses' });

var bob = person({name: 'bob'});
var jane = person({name: 'jane'});

var fremantle = address({
  address: 'Fremantle',
  personAddresses: (address) => [
    personAddress({ person: bob, address: address }),
    personAddress({ person: jane, address: address })
  ]
});
var essert = address({
  address: "15 Rue d'Essert",
  personAddresses: (address) => [
    personAddress({ person: jane, address: address })
  ]
});

Promise.all([essert.save(), fremantle.save()]);

In SQL:

-- people ---
| id | name |
-------------
| 11 | bob  |
| 12 | jane |
-------------

------- addresses ------
| id | address         |
------------------------
| 22 | 15 Rue d'Essert |
| 23 | Fremantle       |
------------------------

---- people_addresses ----
| address_id | person_id |
--------------------------
| 22         | 12        |
| 23         | 12        |
| 23         | 11        |
--------------------------

Relationships Summary

In summary, a relationship can be a field containing one of the following:

  • a sworm entity

      outer({
        field: inner({ ... })
      })
    1. the entity is saved
    2. the ID is placed in the outer entity's field_id field. (See foreignKeyFor)
    3. the outer entity is saved
  • an array of sworm entities

      outer({
        field: [
          inner({ ... }),
          inner({ ... })
        ]
      })
    1. the outer entity is saved
    2. each of the entities in the array are saved
  • a function that returns an array of sworm entities

      outer({
        field: (outer) => [
          inner({ outer: outer, ... }),
          inner({ outer: outer, ... })
        ]
      })
    1. the outer entity is saved
    2. the function is called, passing the outer entity as the first argument
    3. the function returns an array of entities
    4. each of those entities are saved
    5. the array is assigned to the outer entity's field

Unescaping

It's sometimes useful to pass in some real unescaped SQL, for this you can use sworm.unescape() for model values or query parameters.

Usual qualifiers apply here: when using this feature, make sure to protect your application from SQL injection by properly escaping strings with sworm.escape() or by being extra careful!

For example, you can pass in an array of values for an in (...) statement:

db.query('select * from people where names in (@names)', {names: sworm.unescape("'bob', 'jane'")})

will become

select * from people where names in ('bob', 'jane')

These parameters are not passed to the database driver.

This is also useful for handling differences in database drivers, such as sysdate or now:

db.query(
  'select * from people where subscription_date < @now',
  {now: sworm.unescape(usingSqlite? "date('now')": "now()")},
)

Or, to refer to SQL features when inserting, such as sequences in oracle:

person({id: sworm.unescape('sequence.nextVal'), name: 'bob'}).save()

Escaping

Use sworm.escape(string) to escape strings.

Queries

db.query(sql, [parameters]).then(function (records) {
});

Where:

  • sql is the SQL query, can be a query (i.e. select), or a command (update, insert, stored proc)
  • parameters. If sql contains parameters in the form of @paramName the corresponding property on the parameters object will be substituted into the SQL, doing any escaping necessary.

For select queries, returns an array of objects, containing the fields of each record.

db.query('select * from people where name = @name', {name: 'Bob'}).then(function (results) {
  console.log(results);

  /*
     [
       {id: 2, name: 'Bob'}
     ]
   */
}); 

Stored Procedure Example

db.query('myProcName @param1, @param2', {param1: 'a', param2: 'b'});

Model Queries

model.query(sql, [parameters]).then(function (entities) {
});

Same as db.query() but records returned are turned into entities of the model that can subsequently be modified and saved.

person.query('select * from people where id = @id', {id: 1}, function (people) {
  var bob = people[0];
  bob.name = 'Jack';
  return bob.save();
});

Statements

Statements are just like queries but they don't bother to parse or log the results.

db.statement(query, [params, [options]]);

update, insert, upsert

You can explicitly insert, update or upsert a record:

var bob = person({name: 'bob'})
bob.insert()
// insert into people (name) values ('bob')
var bob = person({name: 'bob', id: 4})
bob.update()
// update people set name = 'bob' where id = 4

Upsert works by detecting the presence of an id, if there is an id, it updates the record, if not it inserts it.

var bob = person({name: 'bob'})
bob.upsert()
// insert into people (name) values ('bob')
var bob = person({name: 'bob', id: 4})
bob.upsert()
// update people set name = 'bob' where id = 4

For updates, an error is thrown if there are no records found with that id, or indeed if no id is given.

Transactions

You can insert update or query the database using transactions. Transactions can be used in two forms, explicitly running db.begin(), db.commit() and db.rollback(), or by calling db.transaction(fn) with a function that will commit automatically if it didn't fail.

The explicit form:

db.begin().then(() => {
  var bob = person({name: 'bob'});
  return bob.save();
}).then(() => {
  db.rollback();
  // or
  db.commit();
});

The implicit form:

db.transaction(() => {
  var bob = person({name: 'bob'});
  return bob.save();
});
db.begin([options]);

Begin the transaction

  • options a string that is appended to the database's begin command, for e.g. db.begin('isolation level read committed') will result in the sql begin isolation level read committed.
db.rollback();

Rollback the transaction

db.commit();

Commit the transaction

db.transaction(options? : String, fn : () => Promise)
  • options a string that is appended to the database's begin command, for e.g. db.begin('isolation level read committed') will result in the sql begin isolation level read committed.
  • fn a function that is executed after the transaction has begun. The function is expected to return a promise, if resolved, the transaction will be committed, if rejected, the transaction will be rolled back.
db.transaction(() => {
  // this transaction will be rolled back
  return db.query('update people set name = @name', {name: 'jane'}).then(() => {
    throw new Error('uh oh!');
  });
});

db.transaction(() => {
  // this transaction will be committed
  return db.query('update people set name = @name', {name: 'jane'});
});

Accessing the Connection

You can access the underlying driver's connection after the database has connected of course through db.driver.connection.

Options

You can pass options to the database driver when executing a query

db.query(sql, parameters, [options])
  • SQLite3
    • multiline or exec runs the exec() method on the connection which executes multiple lines, see exec. Note that this method ignores any query parameters passed in.
  • Oracle
    • formatRows if false will not format rows as lower case and will return the raw oracledb results. Formatting rows may be a performance issue for large result sets.
    • any other options are passed to oracledb's execute method.

Development

Tests

The only thing slightly awkward about this project are the test environments for each database. I've tried to make this as easy as possible however:

  • sqlite3 works out of the box on most if not all platforms
  • mysql, postgres and oracle instances can be found in the docker-compose.yml file. Install docker, make it run somehow, then run docker-compose up -d. This will download and start each of the databases necessary to run the tests. The tests look for the $DOCKER_HOST environment variable to see where the docker host is, if it's in a VM or somewhere else, otherwise the databases are expected to be on localhost, running on their default ports.
  • mssql is less friendly, and all I ask is that it's running on a machine called windows (hack your /etc/hosts file if necessary), with a fresh database called sworm, with user user and password password.

Each database can be tested individually by running mocha test/{mssql,mysql,postgres,oracle,sqlite}Spec.js. All of them with simply npm test.

Nevertheless, this project is almost entirely covered with tests and I expect any pull request to have tests that demonstrate any new feature or bugfix.