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runtime: time.Sleep takes more time than expected #44343

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egonelbre opened this issue Feb 17, 2021 · 15 comments
Open

runtime: time.Sleep takes more time than expected #44343

egonelbre opened this issue Feb 17, 2021 · 15 comments
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@egonelbre
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@egonelbre egonelbre commented Feb 17, 2021

This seems to be a regression with Go 1.16 time.Sleep.

What version of Go are you using (go version)?

$ go version
go version go1.16 windows/amd64

Does this issue reproduce with the latest release?

Yes.

What operating system and processor architecture are you using (go env)?

go env Output
$ go env
set GO111MODULE=
set GOARCH=amd64
set GOBIN=
set GOCACHE=Z:\gocache
set GOENV=C:\Users\egone\AppData\Roaming\go\env
set GOEXE=.exe
set GOFLAGS=
set GOHOSTARCH=amd64
set GOHOSTOS=windows
set GOINSECURE=
set GOMODCACHE=F:\Go\pkg\mod
set GONOPROXY=
set GONOSUMDB=
set GOOS=windows
set GOPATH=F:\Go
set GOPRIVATE=
set GOPROXY=https://proxy.golang.org,direct
set GOROOT=c:\go
set GOSUMDB=sum.golang.org
set GOTMPDIR=
set GOTOOLDIR=c:\go\pkg\tool\windows_amd64
set GOVCS=
set GOVERSION=go1.16
set GCCGO=gccgo
set AR=ar
set CC=gcc
set CXX=g++
set CGO_ENABLED=1
set GOMOD=f:\temp\sleep\go.mod
set CGO_CFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_CPPFLAGS=
set CGO_CXXFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_FFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_LDFLAGS=-g -O2
set PKG_CONFIG=pkg-config
set GOGCCFLAGS=-m64 -mthreads -fmessage-length=0 -fdebug-prefix-map=Z:\Temp\go-build3014714148=/tmp/go-build -gno-record-gcc-switches

What did you do?

package main

import (
	"fmt"
	"time"

	"github.com/loov/hrtime"
)

func main() {
	b := hrtime.NewBenchmark(100)
	for b.Next() {
		time.Sleep(50 * time.Microsecond)
	}
	fmt.Println(b.Histogram(10))
}

hrtime is a package that uses RDTSC for time measurements.

Output on Windows 10:

> go1.16 run .
  avg 15.2ms;  min 55.3µs;  p50 15.5ms;  max 16.3ms;
  p90 16.1ms;  p99 16.3ms;  p999 16.3ms;  p9999 16.3ms;
     55.3µs [  2] █
        2ms [  0]
        4ms [  0]
        6ms [  0]
        8ms [  0]
       10ms [  1] ▌
       12ms [  0]
       14ms [ 75] ████████████████████████████████████████
       16ms [ 22] ███████████▌
       18ms [  0]

> go1.15.8 run .
  avg 1.03ms;  min 63.9µs;  p50 1ms;  max 2.3ms;
  p90 1.29ms;  p99 2.3ms;  p999 2.3ms;  p9999 2.3ms;
     63.9µs [  1] ▌
      500µs [ 47] ███████████████████████████████████████
        1ms [ 48] ████████████████████████████████████████
      1.5ms [  1] ▌
        2ms [  3] ██
      2.5ms [  0]
        3ms [  0]
      3.5ms [  0]
        4ms [  0]
      4.5ms [  0]

Output on Linux (Debian 10):

$ go1.16 run test.go
  avg 1.06ms;  min 1.06ms;  p50 1.06ms;  max 1.08ms;
  p90 1.07ms;  p99 1.08ms;  p999 1.08ms;  p9999 1.08ms;
     1.06ms [  4] █▌
     1.07ms [ 84] ████████████████████████████████████████
     1.07ms [  7] ███
     1.08ms [  3] █
     1.08ms [  1]
     1.09ms [  1]
     1.09ms [  0]
      1.1ms [  0]
      1.1ms [  0]
     1.11ms [  0]

$ go1.15.8 run test.go
  avg 86.7µs;  min 57.3µs;  p50 83.6µs;  max 132µs;
  p90 98.3µs;  p99 132µs;  p999 132µs;  p9999 132µs;
     57.3µs [  2] █
       60µs [  1] ▌
       70µs [ 13] ████████
       80µs [ 64] ████████████████████████████████████████
       90µs [ 11] ██████▌
      100µs [  2] █
      110µs [  1] ▌
      120µs [  3] █▌
      130µs [  3] █▌
      140µs [  0]

The time granularity shouldn't be that bad even for Windows. So, there might be something going wrong somewhere.

@egonelbre
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@egonelbre egonelbre commented Feb 17, 2021

@seankhliao seankhliao changed the title time.Sleep takes more time than expected runtime: time.Sleep takes more time than expected Feb 17, 2021
@bcmills
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@bcmills bcmills commented Feb 17, 2021

That same CL shook out a number of kernel and runtime bugs in various configurations. (See previously #43067, #42515, #42237; cc @prattmic.)

@ianlancetaylor
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@ianlancetaylor ianlancetaylor commented Feb 17, 2021

@ianlancetaylor ianlancetaylor added this to the Go1.17 milestone Feb 17, 2021
@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 17, 2021

This is reproducible with a trivial benchmark in time package:

func BenchmarkSimpleSleep(b *testing.B) {
       for i := 0; i < b.N; i++ {
               Sleep(50*Microsecond)
       }
}

amd64/linux, before/after http://golang.org/cl/232298:

name            old time/op  new time/op   delta
SimpleSleep-12  86.9µs ± 0%  609.8µs ± 5%  +601.73%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 17, 2021

For reference, across different sleep times:

name                  old time/op  new time/op   delta
SimpleSleep/1ns-12     460ns ± 3%    479ns ± 1%    +4.03%  (p=0.000 n=10+9)
SimpleSleep/100ns-12   466ns ± 3%    476ns ± 2%    +2.35%  (p=0.001 n=10+9)
SimpleSleep/500ns-12  6.47µs ±11%   6.70µs ± 5%      ~     (p=0.105 n=10+10)
SimpleSleep/1µs-12    10.3µs ±10%   12.2µs ±13%   +18.23%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
SimpleSleep/10µs-12   81.9µs ± 1%  502.5µs ± 4%  +513.45%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
SimpleSleep/50µs-12   87.0µs ± 0%  622.9µs ±18%  +615.69%  (p=0.000 n=8+10)
SimpleSleep/100µs-12   179µs ± 0%   1133µs ± 1%  +533.52%  (p=0.000 n=8+10)
SimpleSleep/500µs-12   592µs ± 0%   1137µs ± 1%   +91.97%  (p=0.000 n=10+10)
SimpleSleep/1ms-12    1.12ms ± 2%   1.14ms ± 1%    +1.36%  (p=0.000 n=9+10)
SimpleSleep/10ms-12   10.2ms ± 0%   10.3ms ± 0%    +0.79%  (p=0.000 n=9+9)
@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 17, 2021

Looking at the 100µs, the immediate problem is the delay resolution in netpoll.

Prior to http://golang.org/cl/232298, 95% of timer expirations in the 100µs case are detected by sysmon, which calls startm to wake an M to handle the timer (though this is not a particularly efficient approach).

After http://golang.org/cl/232298, this path is gone and the wakeup must come from netpoll (assuming all Ms are parked/blocked). netpoll on Linux only has 1ms resolution, so it must sleep at least that long before detecting the timer.

I'm not sure why I'm seeing ~500µs on the 10µs and 50µs benchmarks, but I may have bimodal distribution where ~50% of cases a spinning M is still awake long enough to detect the timer before entering netpoll.

I'm also not sure why @egonelbre is seeing ~14ms on Windows, as that also appears to have 1ms resolution on netpoll.

@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 17, 2021

I think the ideal fix to this would be to increase the resolution of netpoll. Even for longer timers, this limited resolution will cause slight skew to timer delivery (though of course there are no real-time guarantees).

As it happens, Linux v5.11 includes epoll_pwait2 which switches the timeout argument to a timespec for nanosecond resolution. Unfortunately, Linux v5.11 was released ... 3 days ago, so availability is not widespread to say the least.

In the past, I've also prototyped changing the netpoll timeout to being controlled by a timerfd (with the intention of being able to adjust the timer earlier without a full netpollBreak). That could be an option as well.

Both of these are Linux-specific solutions, I'd have to research other platforms more to get a sense of the options there.

We also may just want to bring the sysmon wakeup back, perhaps with slight overrun allowed to avoid excessive M wakeups.

@ianlancetaylor
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@ianlancetaylor ianlancetaylor commented Feb 18, 2021

I guess that wakeNetPoller doesn't help, because there is no poller sleeping at the point of calling time.Sleep.

Perhaps when netpoll sees a delay that is shorter than the poller resolution it should just do a non-blocking poll. That will effectively turn findrunnable into a busy wait when the next timer is very soon.

@ChrisHines
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@ChrisHines ChrisHines commented Feb 18, 2021

While working on CL232298 I definitely observed anecdotal evidence that the netpoller has more latency than other ways of sleeping. From #38860 (comment):

My anecdotal observation here is that it appears the Linux netpoller implementation has more latency when waking after a timeout than the Go 1.13 timerproc implementation. Most of these benchmark numbers replicate on my Mac laptop, but the darwin netpoller seems to suffer less of that particular latency by comparison, and is also worse in other ways. So it may not be possible to close the gap with Go 1.13 purely in the scheduler code. Relying on the netpoller for timers changes the behavior as well, but these new numbers are at least in the same order of magnitude as Go 1.13.

I didn't try to address that in CL232298 primarily because it was already risky enough that I didn't want to make bigger changes. But an idea for something to try occurred to me back then. Maybe we could improve the latency of non-network timers by having one M block on a notesleep call instead of the netpoller. That would require findrunnable to compute two wakeup times, one for net timers to pass to the netpoller and one for all other timers to use with notesleep depending on which role it takes on (if any) when it cannot find any other work.

I haven't fully gauged how messy that would get.

Questions and concerns:

  • Coordinating two sleeping M's probably has complicating edge cases to figure out.
  • I haven't tested the latency of notesleep wakeups to know if it would actually help.
  • Would it require duplicating all the timer fields on each P, one for net timers and one for the others?

One other oddity that I noticed when testing CL232298: The linux netpoller sometimes wakes up from the timeout value early by a several microseconds. When that happens findrunnable usually does not find any expired timers since they haven't actually expired yet. A new--very short--pollUntil value gets computed and the M reenters the netpoller. The subsequent wakeup is then typically rather late, maybe up to 1ms, but I am going from memory here. I might be able to dig up some trace logs showing this behavior if I still have them and people are interested.

@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 18, 2021

I guess that wakeNetPoller doesn't help, because there is no poller sleeping at the point of calling time.Sleep.

wakeNetPoller shouldn't matter either way, because even if we wake the netpoller, it will just sleep again with a new timeout of 1ms, which is too long. (Unless wakeNetPoller happens to take so long that the timer has expired by the time the woken M gets to checkTimers).

Perhaps when netpoll sees a delay that is shorter than the poller resolution it should just do a non-blocking poll. That will effectively turn findrunnable into a busy wait when the next timer is very soon.

Maybe we could improve the latency of non-network timers by having one M block on a notesleep call instead of the netpoller.

As somewhat of a combination of these, one potential option would be to make netpoll with a short timeout do non-blocking netpoll, short notetsleep, non-blocking netpoll. Though this has the disadvantage of slightly increasing latency of network events from netpoll.

One other oddity that I noticed when testing CL232298: The linux netpoller sometimes wakes up from the timeout value early by a several microseconds. When that happens findrunnable usually does not find any expired timers since they haven't actually expired yet. A new--very short--pollUntil value gets computed and the M reenters the netpoller. The subsequent wakeup is then typically rather late, maybe up to 1ms, but I am going from memory here. I might be able to dig up some trace logs showing this behavior if I still have them and people are interested.

Hm, this sounds like another bug, or perhaps a spurious netpollBreak from another M.

@prattmic
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@prattmic prattmic commented Feb 18, 2021

It seems that on Windows, notetsleep has 1ms precision in addition to netpoll, so the explanation in #44343 (comment) doesn't explain the increase in latency on Windows.

@ChrisHines
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@ChrisHines ChrisHines commented Feb 18, 2021

My first thought on the Windows behavior is that somehow osRelax is being mismanaged and allowing the timer resolution to decrease to its resting mode. That thought is driven by the spike on the above histograms at 15ms. I haven't thought through how that might happen now.

@ChrisHines
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@ChrisHines ChrisHines commented Feb 18, 2021

Hm, this sounds like another bug, or perhaps a spurious netpollBreak from another M.

That could be, but I was logging at least some of the calls to netpollBreak as well and don't recall seeing seeing that happen. I saved my logging code in case it can help. https://github.com/ChrisHines/go/tree/dlog-backup

@vellotis
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@vellotis vellotis commented Feb 25, 2021

For reference, output on my Windows 10:

> go1.16 run .
  avg 1.06ms;  min 475µs;  p50 1.01ms;  max 1.99ms;
  p90 1.13ms;  p99 1.99ms;  p999 1.99ms;  p9999 1.99ms;
      475µs [  1] ▌
      600µs [  1] ▌
      800µs [ 36] ██████████████████████████
        1ms [ 55] ████████████████████████████████████████
      1.2ms [  0]
      1.4ms [  0]
      1.6ms [  0]
      1.8ms [  7] █████
        2ms [  0]
      2.2ms [  0]

A totally different results from the #44343 (comment).

go env Output
$ go env
set GO111MODULE=on
set GOARCH=amd64
set GOBIN=
set GOCACHE=C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\go-build
set GOENV=C:\Users\user\AppData\Roaming\go\env
set GOEXE=.exe
set GOFLAGS=
set GOHOSTARCH=amd64
set GOHOSTOS=windows
set GOINSECURE=
set GOMODCACHE=C:\Projects\Go\pkg\mod
set GONOPROXY=
set GONOSUMDB=
set GOOS=windows
set GOPATH=C:\Projects\Go
set GOPRIVATE=
set GOPROXY=
set GOROOT=C:\Tools\Go\go1.16
set GOSUMDB=sum.golang.org
set GOTMPDIR=
set GOTOOLDIR=C:\Tools\Go\go1.16\pkg\tool\windows_amd64
set GOVCS=
set GOVERSION=go1.16
set GCCGO=gccgo
set AR=ar
set CC=gcc
set CXX=g++
set CGO_ENABLED=1
set GOMOD=NUL
set CGO_CFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_CPPFLAGS=
set CGO_CXXFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_FFLAGS=-g -O2
set CGO_LDFLAGS=-g -O2
set PKG_CONFIG=pkg-config
set GOGCCFLAGS=-m64 -mthreads -fno-caret-diagnostics -Qunused-arguments -fmessage-length=0 -fdebug-prefix-map=C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\Temp\go-build2862485594=/tmp/go-build -gno-record-gcc-switches
@egonelbre
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@egonelbre egonelbre commented Feb 26, 2021

@vellotis this could be because there's something running in the background changing Windows timer resolution. This could be some other Go service/binary built using older Go version. Of course there can plenty of other programs that may change it.

You can use https://github.com/tebjan/TimerTool to see what the current value is. There's some more detail in https://randomascii.wordpress.com/2013/07/08/windows-timer-resolution-megawatts-wasted.

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