PHP Hamcrest implementation [Official]
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Latest commit f3e4601 Feb 24, 2018

This is the PHP port of Hamcrest Matchers

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Hamcrest is a matching library originally written for Java, but subsequently ported to many other languages. hamcrest-php is the official PHP port of Hamcrest and essentially follows a literal translation of the original Java API for Hamcrest, with a few Exceptions, mostly down to PHP language barriers:

  1. instanceOf($theClass) is actually anInstanceOf($theClass)

  2. both(containsString('a'))->and(containsString('b')) is actually both(containsString('a'))->andAlso(containsString('b'))

  3. either(containsString('a'))->or(containsString('b')) is actually either(containsString('a'))->orElse(containsString('b'))

  4. Unless it would be non-semantic for a matcher to do so, hamcrest-php allows dynamic typing for it's input, in "the PHP way". Exception are where semantics surrounding the type itself would suggest otherwise, such as stringContains() and greaterThan().

  5. Several official matchers have not been ported because they don't make sense or don't apply in PHP:

    • typeCompatibleWith($theClass)
    • eventFrom($source)
    • hasProperty($name) **
    • samePropertyValuesAs($obj) **
  6. When most of the collections matchers are finally ported, PHP-specific aliases will probably be created due to a difference in naming conventions between Java's Arrays, Collections, Sets and Maps compared with PHP's Arrays.

** [Unless we consider POPO's (Plain Old PHP Objects) akin to JavaBeans] - The POPO thing is a joke. Java devs coin the term POJO's (Plain Old Java Objects).


Hamcrest matchers are easy to use as:

Hamcrest_MatcherAssert::assertThat('a', Hamcrest_Matchers::equalToIgnoringCase('A'));

or using static function assertThat as:

$result = true;
// with an identifier
assertThat("result should be true", $result, equalTo(true));

// without an identifier
assertThat($result, equalTo(true));

// evaluate a boolean expression
assertThat($result === true);

// with syntactic sugar is()
assertThat(true, is(true));


A tutorial can be found on the Hamcrest site.

Available Matchers


  • anArray - evaluates an array
assertThat([], anArray());
  • hasItemInArray - check if item exists in array
$list = range(2, 7, 2);
$item = 4;
assertThat($list, hasItemInArray($item));
  • hasValue - alias of hasItemInArray

  • arrayContainingInAnyOrder - check if array contains elements in any order

assertThat([2, 4, 6], arrayContainingInAnyOrder([6, 4, 2]));
assertThat([2, 4, 6], arrayContainingInAnyOrder([4, 2, 6]));
  • containsInAnyOrder - alias of arrayContainingInAnyOrder

  • arrayContaining - An array with elements that match the given matchers in the same order.

assertThat([2, 4, 6], arrayContaining([2, 4, 6]));
assertthat([2, 4, 6], not(arrayContaining([6, 4, 2])));
  • contains - check array in same order
assertThat([2, 4, 6], contains([2, 4, 6]));
  • hasKeyInArray - check if array has given key
assertThat(['name'=> 'foobar'], hasKeyInArray('name'));
  • hasKey - alias of hasKeyInArray

  • hasKeyValuePair - check if arary has given key, value pair

assertThat(['name'=> 'foobar'], hasKeyValuePair('name', 'foobar'));
  • hasEntry - same as hasKeyValuePair

  • arrayWithSize - check array has given size

assertthat([2, 4, 6], arrayWithSize(3));
  • emptyArray - check if array is emtpy
assertThat([], emptyArray());
  • nonEmptyArray
assertThat([1], nonEmptyArray());


  • emptyTraversable - check if traversable is empty
$empty_it = new EmptyIterator;
assertThat($empty_it, emptyTraversable());
  • nonEmptyTraversable - check if traversable isn't empty
$non_empty_it = new ArrayIterator(range(1, 10));
assertThat($non_empty_it, nonEmptyTraversable());
  • traversableWithSize
$non_empty_it = new ArrayIterator(range(1, 10));
assertThat($non_empty_it, traversableWithSize(count(range(1, 10))));


  • allOf - Evaluates to true only if ALL of the passed in matchers evaluate to true.
assertThat([2,4,6], allOf(hasValue(2), arrayWithSize(3)));
  • anyOf - Evaluates to true if ANY of the passed in matchers evaluate to true.
assertThat([2, 4, 6], anyOf(hasValue(8), hasValue(2)));
  • noneOf - Evaluates to false if ANY of the passed in matchers evaluate to true.
assertThat([2, 4, 6], noneOf(hasValue(1), hasValue(3)));
  • both + andAlso - This is useful for fluently combining matchers that must both pass.
assertThat([2, 4, 6], both(hasValue(2))->andAlso(hasValue(4)));
  • either + orElse - This is useful for fluently combining matchers where either may pass,
assertThat([2, 4, 6], either(hasValue(2))->orElse(hasValue(4)));
  • describedAs - Wraps an existing matcher and overrides the description when it fails.
$expected = "Dog";
$found = null;
// this assertion would result error message as Expected: is not null but: was null
//assertThat("Expected {$expected}, got {$found}", $found, is(notNullValue()));
// and this assertion would result error message as Expected: Dog but: was null
//assertThat($found, describedAs($expected, notNullValue()));
  • everyItem - A matcher to apply to every element in an array.
assertThat([2, 4, 6], everyItem(notNullValue()));
  • hasItem - check array has given item, it can take a matcher argument
assertThat([2, 4, 6], hasItem(equalTo(2)));
  • hasItems - check array has givem items, it can take multiple matcher as arguments
assertThat([1, 3, 5], hasItems(equalTo(1), equalTo(3)));


  • hasToString - check __toString or toString method
class Foo {
    public $name = null;

    public function __toString() {
        return "[Foo]Instance";
$foo = new Foo;
assertThat($foo, hasToString(equalTo("[Foo]Instance")));
  • equalTo - compares two instances using comparison operator '=='
$foo = new Foo;
$foo2 = new Foo;
assertThat($foo, equalTo($foo2));
  • identicalTo - compares two instances using identity operator '==='
assertThat($foo, is(not(identicalTo($foo2))));
  • anInstanceOf - check instance is an instance|sub-class of given class
assertThat($foo, anInstanceOf(Foo::class));
  • any - alias of anInstanceOf

  • nullValue check null

assertThat(null, is(nullValue()));
  • notNullValue check not null
assertThat("", notNullValue());
  • sameInstance - check for same instance
assertThat($foo, is(not(sameInstance($foo2))));
assertThat($foo, is(sameInstance($foo)));
  • typeOf- check type
assertThat(1, typeOf("integer"));
  • notSet - check if instance property is not set
assertThat($foo, notSet("name"));
  • set - check if instance property is set
$foo->name = "bar";
assertThat($foo, set("name"));


  • closeTo - check value close to a range
assertThat(3, closeTo(3, 0.5));
  • comparesEqualTo - check with '=='
assertThat(2, comparesEqualTo(2));
  • greaterThan - check '>'
assertThat(2, greaterThan(1));
  • greaterThanOrEqualTo
assertThat(2, greaterThanOrEqualTo(2));
  • atLeast - The value is >= given value
assertThat(3, atLeast(2));
  • lessThan
assertThat(2, lessThan(3));
  • lessThanOrEqualTo
assertThat(2, lessThanOrEqualTo(3));
  • atMost - The value is <= given value
assertThat(2, atMost(3));


  • emptyString - check for empty string
assertThat("", emptyString());
  • isEmptyOrNullString
assertThat(null, isEmptyOrNullString());
  • nullOrEmptyString
assertThat("", nullOrEmptyString());
  • isNonEmptyString
assertThat("foo", isNonEmptyString());
  • nonEmptyString
assertThat("foo", nonEmptyString());
  • equalToIgnoringCase
assertThat("Foo", equalToIgnoringCase("foo"));
  • equalToIgnoringWhiteSpace
assertThat(" Foo ", equalToIgnoringWhiteSpace("Foo"));
  • matchesPattern - matches with regex pattern
assertThat("foobarbaz", matchesPattern('/(foo)(bar)(baz)/'));
  • containsString - check for substring
assertThat("foobar", containsString("foo"));
  • containsStringIgnoringCase
assertThat("fooBar", containsStringIgnoringCase("bar"));
  • stringContainsInOrder
assertThat("foo", stringContainsInOrder("foo"));
  • endsWith - check string that ends with given value
assertThat("foo", endsWith("oo"));
  • startsWith - check string that starts with given value
assertThat("bar", startsWith("ba"));


  • arrayValue - check array type
assertThat([], arrayValue());
  • booleanValue
assertThat(true, booleanValue());
  • boolValue - alias of booleanValue

  • callableValue - check if value is callable

$func = function () {};
assertThat($func, callableValue());
  • doubleValue
assertThat(3.14, doubleValue());
  • floatValue
assertThat(3.14, floatValue());
  • integerValue
assertThat(1, integerValue());
  • intValue - alias of integerValue

  • numericValue - check if value is numeric

assertThat("123", numericValue());
  • objectValue - check for object
$obj = new stdClass;
assertThat($obj, objectValue());
  • anObject
assertThat($obj, anObject());
  • resourceValue - check resource type
$fp = fopen("/tmp/foo", "w+");
assertThat($fp, resourceValue());
  • scalarValue - check for scaler value
assertThat(1, scalarValue());
  • stringValue
assertThat("", stringValue());


  • hasXPath - check xml with a xpath
$xml = <<<XML

$doc = new DOMDocument;
assertThat($doc, hasXPath("book", 2));