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README.md

TurboCookedRabbit

A user friendly RabbitMQ library written in Golang.
Based on my work found at CookedRabbit.

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Developer's Notes

It was programmed against the following:

  • Golang 1.13.0
  • RabbitMQ Server v3.7.17 (simple localhost)
  • Erlang v22.0 (OTP v10.4)
  • Streadway/Amqp Latest

Minute Breaking Changes (9/22/2019)

v1.0.2 -> v1.1.0
New RabbitService, Supporting Encryption, Compression
I will hotfix v1.0.2 should anyone need fixes but not wanting to move to v1.1.0
I apologize for any inconvenience and the changes are minute.

Having issues with more advanced setups? Open up and issue but I will need an intimate description of the setup. Without it, I more than likely won't be able to resolve it. I can accept PRs if you want to test out fixes that resolve things for yourself.

If you see something syntactically wrong, do speak up! I am, relatively speaking, an idiot (^.^) and I am still new to golang.

My background is in performant infrastructure development, using C# and the .NET/NetCore ecosystem... so if any golang wizards want to provide advice or criticism, please do!

I also don't have the kind of free time I used to. I apologize in advance but, hey, that's life. So keep in mind that I am not paid to do this - this isn't my job or a fancy corporate sponsorship - this was being down with a plague for a couple of weekends. Suffice to say, the golden rule works wonders on me / mind your Ps and Qs.

Basic Performance

JSON Config Used: testseason.json Benchmark Ran: BenchmarkPublishConsumeAckForDuration in main_bench_test.go

1x Publisher AutoPublish ~ 21000 msg/s - Single Queue - Small Message Sizes
1x Consumer Consumption ~ 15-17000 msg/s - Single Queue - Small Message Sizes

Stress Test - 2 hours of Publish/Consume

PS C:\GitHub\personal\turbocookedrabbit> go test -timeout 121m -run "^(TestStressPublishConsumeAckForDuration)$" -v

=== RUN   TestStressPublishConsumeAckForDuration
2019-09-15 12:07:08.9556184 -0400 EDT m=+0.100359901: Benchmark Starts
2019-09-15 14:07:08.9566168 -0400 EDT m=+7200.101358301: Est. Benchmark End
Messages Acked: 3662418
Messages Failed to Ack: 0
Messages Received: 3662418
ChannelPool Errors: 0
ConnectionPool Errors: 0
Consumer Errors: 0
Messages Published: 3662418
Messages Failed to Publish: 0
2019-09-15 14:07:08.9711087 -0400 EDT m=+7200.115850201: Benchmark Finished
--- PASS: TestStressPublishConsumeAckForDuration (7200.02s)
PASS
ok      github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit 7201.863s

Work Recently Finished

  • Solidify Connections/Pools outage handling.
  • Solidify Consumers outage handling.
    • Publishers were still working.
      • Blocking introduced on QueueLetter.
  • Publisher AutoPublish performance up to par!
  • Properly handle total outages server side.
  • Refactor the reconnection logic.
    • Now everything stops/pauses until connectivity is restored.
  • RabbitMQ Topology Creation/Destruction support.
  • Started Profiling and including Benchmark/Profile .svgs.

Current Known Issues

  • CPU/MEM spin up on a total server outage even after adjusting config.
    • Channels in ChannelPool aren't redistributing evenly over Connections.
  • Consumer stops working after server outage restore.
    • Publisher is still working though.
  • AutoPublisher is a tad on the slow side. Might be the underlying Channel/QueueLetter.
    • Raw looped Publish shows higher performance.
  • README needs small comments/updates related to new work finished on 9/13/2019 - 7:10 PM EST.

Work In Progress

  • Streamline error handling.
  • More documentation.
  • A solid Demo Client
  • More Chaos Engineering / More Tests

The Seasoning/Config

The config.json is just a quality of life feature. You don't have to use it. I just like how easy it is to change configurations on the fly.

config, err := utils.ConvertJSONFileToConfig("testconsumerseasoning.json")

The full structure RabbitSeasoning is available under models/configs.go

Click here to see a sample config.json!

{
	"PoolConfig": {
		"ChannelPoolConfig": {
			"ErrorBuffer": 10,
			"SleepOnErrorInterval": 1000,
			"MaxChannelCount": 50,
			"MaxAckChannelCount": 50,
			"AckNoWait": false,
			"GlobalQosCount": 5
		},
		"ConnectionPoolConfig": {
			"URI": "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/",
			"ErrorBuffer": 10,
			"SleepOnErrorInterval": 5000,
			"MaxConnectionCount": 10,
			"Heartbeat": 5,
			"ConnectionTimeout": 10,
			"TLSConfig": {
				"EnableTLS": false,
				"PEMCertLocation": "test/catest.pem",
				"LocalCertLocation": "client/cert.ca",
				"CertServerName": "hostname-in-cert"
			}
		}
	},
	"ConsumerConfigs": {
		"TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-Ackable": {
			"QueueName": "ConsumerTestQueue",
			"ConsumerName": "TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-Ackable",
			"AutoAck": false,
			"Exclusive": false,
			"NoWait": false,
			"QosCountOverride": 5,
			"MessageBuffer": 100,
			"ErrorBuffer": 10,
			"SleepOnErrorInterval": 100,
			"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0
		},
		"TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-AutoAck": {
			"QueueName": "ConsumerTestQueue",
			"ConsumerName": "TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-AutoAck",
			"AutoAck": true,
			"Exclusive": false,
			"NoWait": true,
			"QosCountOverride": 5,
			"MessageBuffer": 100,
			"ErrorBuffer": 10,
			"SleepOnErrorInterval": 100,
			"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0
		}
	},
	"PublisherConfig":{
		"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0,
		"SleepOnQueueFullInterval": 100,
		"SleepOnErrorInterval": 1000,
		"LetterBuffer": 1000,
		"MaxOverBuffer": 1000,
		"NotificationBuffer": 1000
	}
}

The Publisher

Click for creating publisher examples!

Assuming you have a ChannelPool already setup. Creating a publisher can be achieved like so:

publisher, err := publisher.NewPublisher(Seasoning, channelPool, nil)

Assuming you have a ChannelPool and ConnectionPool setup. Creating a publisher can be achieved like so:

publisher, err := publisher.NewPublisher(Seasoning, channelPool, connectionPool)

The errors here indicate I was unable to create a Publisher - probably due to the ChannelPool/ConnectionPool given.


Click for simple publish example!

Once you have a publisher, you can perform a relatively simple publish.

letter := utils.CreateMockLetter(1, "", "TestQueueName", nil)
publisher.Publish(letter)

This CreateLetter method creates a simple HelloWorld message letter with no ExchangeName and a QueueName/RoutingKey of TestQueueName. The body is nil, the helper function creates bytes for "h e l l o w o r l d".

The concept of a Letter may seem clunky on a single publish. I don't disagree and you still have streadway/amqp to rely on. The letter idea makes more sense with AutoPublish.


Click for AutoPublish example!

Once you have a publisher, you can perform StartAutoPublish!

allowInternalRetry := false
publisher.StartAutoPublish(allowInternalRetry)

ListeningForNotificationsLoop:
for {
    select {
    case notification := <-publisher.Notifications():
        if !notification.Success {
            /* Handle Requeue or a manual Re-Publish */
        }
    default:
        time.Sleep(1 * time.Millisecond)
    }
}

This tells the Publisher to start reading an internal queue, and process Publishing concurrently.

That could be simple like this...

publisher.QueueLetter(letter) // How simple is that!

...or more complex such as...

for _, letter := range letters {
    // will queue up to the letter buffer
    // will allow blocking calls upto max over buffer
    // after reaching full LetterBuffer+MaxOverBuffer, it spins a
    //    sleep loop based on the SleepOnErrorInterval for Publishers
    publisher.QueueLetter(letter)
}

So you can see why we use these message containers called letter. The letter has the body and envelope inside of it. It has everything you need to publish it. Think of it a small, highly configurable, unit of work and address.

Notice that you don't have anything to do with channels and connections (even on outage)!


Click for a more convoluted AutoPublish example!

Let's say the above example was too simple for you... ...let's up the over engineering a notch on what you can do with AutoPublish.

allowInternalRetry := true
publisher.StartAutoPublish(allowInternalRetry) // this will retry based on the Letter.RetryCount passed in.

timer := time.NewTimer(1 * time.Minute) // Stop Listening to notifications after 1 minute.

messageCount = 1000
channelFailureCount := 0
successCount := 0
failureCount := 0

ListeningForNotificationsLoop:
    for {
        select {
        case <-timer.C:
            break ListeningForNotificationsLoop  
        case chanErr := <-channelPool.Errors():
            if chanErr != nil {
                channelFailureCount++ // Count ChannelPool failures.
            }
            break
        case notification := <-publisher.Notifications():
            if notification.Success {
                successCount++
            } else {
                failureCount++
            }

            // I am only expecting to publish 1000 messages
            if successCount+failureCount == messageCount { 
                break ListeningForNotificationsLoop
            }

            break
        default:
            time.Sleep(1 * time.Millisecond)
            break
        }
    }

We have finished our work, we succeeded or failed to publish 1000 messages. So now we want to shutdown everything!

publisher.StopAutoPublish()
// channelPool.Shutdown() // don't forget to cleanup (if you have a pointer to your channel pool nearby)!


Click for a clean AutoPublish benchmark!

Early on the performance was not really there on Publish - some 500 msgs/s. Which is great, but not the numbers found during development. Somewhere along the way I introduced one too many race conditions. Also aggressively throttled configurations don't help either. Any who, I isolated the components and benched just AutoPublish and with a few tweaks - I started seeing raw concurrent/parallel Publishing performance for a single a Publisher!

Ran this benchmark with the following Publisher settings and distributed over 10 queues (i % 10).

"PublisherConfig":{
	"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0,
	"SleepOnQueueFullInterval": 1,
	"SleepOnErrorInterval": 1000,
	"LetterBuffer": 10000,
	"MaxOverBuffer": 2000,
	"NotificationBuffer": 1000
}
PS C:\GitHub\personal\turbocookedrabbit> go.exe test -benchmem -run=^$ github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/publisher -bench "^(BenchmarkAutoPublishRandomLetters)$" -v
goos: windows
goarch: amd64
pkg: github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/publisher
BenchmarkAutoPublishRandomLetters-8            1        7346832700 ns/op        563734704 B/op   4525448 allocs/op
--- BENCH: BenchmarkAutoPublishRandomLetters-8
	publisher_bench_test.go:21: 2019-09-15 18:58:57.6932202 -0400 EDT m=+0.107877301: Purging Queues...
	publisher_bench_test.go:37: 2019-09-15 18:58:57.6972462 -0400 EDT m=+0.111903301: Building Letters
	publisher_bench_test.go:42: 2019-09-15 18:58:58.9048792 -0400 EDT m=+1.319536301: Finished Building Letters
	publisher_bench_test.go:43: 2019-09-15 18:58:58.9048792 -0400 EDT m=+1.319536301: Total Size Created: 199.844457 MB
	publisher_bench_test.go:62: 2019-09-15 18:58:58.9058787 -0400 EDT m=+1.320535801: Queueing Letters
	publisher_bench_test.go:67: 2019-09-15 18:59:02.669778 -0400 EDT m=+5.084435101: Finished Queueing letters after 3.7638993s
	publisher_bench_test.go:68: 2019-09-15 18:59:02.669778 -0400 EDT m=+5.084435101: 26568.192194 Msg/s
	publisher_bench_test.go:74: 2019-09-15 18:59:04.6839535 -0400 EDT m=+7.098610601: Purging Queues...
PASS
ok      github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/publisher       10.092s

Noice!


The Consumer

Click for simple Consumer usage example!

Consumer provides a simple Get and GetBatch much like the Publisher has a simple Publish.

autoAck := true
message, err = consumer.Get("ConsumerTestQueue", autoAck)

Exit Conditions:

  • On Error: Error Return, Nil Message Return
  • On Not Ok: Nil Error Return, Nil Message Return
  • On OK: Nil Error Return, Message Returned

We also provide a simple Batch version of this call.

autoAck := false
messages, err = consumer.GetBatch("ConsumerTestQueue", 10, autoAck)

Exit Conditions:

  • On Error: Error Return, Nil Messages Return
  • On Not Ok: Nil Error Return, Available Messages Return (0 upto (nth - 1) message)
  • When BatchSize is Reached: Nil Error Return, All Messages Return (n messages)

Since autoAck=false is an option so you will want to have some post processing ack/nack/rejects.

Here is what that may look like:

requeueError := true
for _, message := range messages {
    /* Do some processing with message */

    if err != nil {
        message.Nack(requeueError)
    }

    message.Acknowledge()
}


Click for an actual Consumer consuming example!

Let's start with the ConsumerConfig, and again, the config is just a quality of life feature. You don't have to use it.

Here is a JSON map/dictionary wrapped in a ConsumerConfigs.

"ConsumerConfigs": {
	"TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-Ackable": {
		"QueueName": "ConsumerTestQueue",
		"ConsumerName": "TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-Ackable",
		"AutoAck": false,
		"Exclusive": false,
		"NoWait": false,
		"QosCountOverride": 5,
		"MessageBuffer": 100,
		"ErrorBuffer": 10,
		"SleepOnErrorInterval": 100,
		"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0
	},
	"TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-AutoAck": {
		"QueueName": "ConsumerTestQueue",
		"ConsumerName": "TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-AutoAck",
		"AutoAck": true,
		"Exclusive": false,
		"NoWait": true,
		"QosCountOverride": 5,
		"MessageBuffer": 100,
		"ErrorBuffer": 10,
		"SleepOnErrorInterval": 100,
		"SleepOnIdleInterval": 0
	}
},

And finding this object after it was loaded from a JSON file.

consumerConfig, ok := config.ConsumerConfigs["TurboCookedRabbitConsumer-AutoAck"]

Creating the Consumer from Config after creating a ChannelPool.

consumer, err := consumer.NewConsumerFromConfig(consumerConfig, channelPool)

Then start Consumer?

consumer.StartConsuming()

Thats it! Wait where our my messages?! MY QUEUE IS DRAINING!

Oh, right! That's over here, keeping with the out of process design...

ConsumeMessages:
    for {
        select {
        case message := <-consumer.Messages():

            requeueError := false
            var err error
            /* Do something with the message! */
            if message.IsAckable { // Message might be Ackable - be sure to check!
                if err != nil {
                    message.Nack(requeueError)
                }

                message.Acknowledge()
            }

        default:
            time.Sleep(100 * time.Millisecond) // No messages == optional nap time.
        }
    }


Wait! What the hell is coming out of <-Messages()

Great question. I toyed with the idea of returning Letters like Publisher uses (and I may still at some point) but for now you receive a models.Message.

But... why? Because the payload/data/message body is in there but, more importantly, it contains the means of quickly acking the message! It didn't feel right being merged with a models.Letter. I may revert and use the base amqp.Delivery which does all this and more... I just didn't want users to have to also pull in streadway/amqp to simplify their imports. If you were already using it wouldn't be an issue. This design is still being code reviewed in my head.

One of the complexities of RabbitMQ is that you need to Acknowledge off the same Channel that it was received on. That makes out of process designs like mine prone to two things: hackery and/or memory leaks (passing the channels around everywhere WITH messages).

There are two things I hate about RabbitMQ

  • Channels close on error.
  • Messages have to be acknowledge on the same channel.

What I have attempted to do is to make your life blissful by not forcing you to deal with it. The rules are still there, but hopefully, I give you the tools to not stress out about it and to simplify out of process acknowledgements.

That being said, there is only so much I can hide in my library, which is why I have exposed .Errors(), so that you can code and log accordingly.

err := consumer.StartConsuming()
// Handle failure to start.

ctx, cancel := context.WithTimeout(context.Background(), time.Duration(1)*time.Minute) // Timeouts

ConsumeMessages:
for {
    select {
    case <-ctx.Done():
        fmt.Print("\r\nContextTimeout\r\n")
        break ConsumeMessages
    case message := <-consumer.Messages(): // View Messages
        fmt.Printf("Message Received: %s\r\n", string(message.Body))
    case err := <-consumer.Errors(): // View Consumer errors
        /* Handle */
    case err := <-channelPool.Errors(): // View ChannelPool errors
        /* Handle */
    default:
        time.Sleep(100 * time.Millisecond)
        break
    }
}

Here you may trigger StopConsuming with this

consumer.StopConsuming(false)

But be mindful there are Channel Buffers internally that may be full and goroutines waiting to add even more.

I have provided some tools that can be used to help with this. You will see them sprinkled periodically through my tests.

consumer.FlushStop() // could have been called more than once.
consumer.FlushErrors() // errors can quickly build up if you stop listening to them
consumer.FlushMessages() // lets say the ackable messages you have can't be acked and you just need to flush them all out of memory

Becareful with FlushMessages(). If you are autoAck = false and receiving ackAble messages, this is safe. You will merely wipe them from your memory and they are still in the original queue.

Here I demonstrate a very busy ConsumerLoop. Just replace all the counter variables with logging and then an action performed with the message and this could be a production microservice loop.

ConsumeLoop:
	for {
		select {
		case <-timeOut:
			break ConsumeLoop
		case notice := <-publisher.Notifications():
			if notice.Success {
				fmt.Printf("%s: Published Success - LetterID: %d\r\n", time.Now(), notice.LetterID)
				messagesPublished++
			} else {
				fmt.Printf("%s: Published Failed Error - LetterID: %d\r\n", time.Now(), notice.LetterID)
				messagesFailedToPublish++
			}
		case err := <-ChannelPool.Errors():
			fmt.Printf("%s: ChannelPool Error - %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
			channelPoolErrors++
		case err := <-ConnectionPool.Errors():
			fmt.Printf("%s: ConnectionPool Error - %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
			connectionPoolErrors++
		case err := <-consumer.Errors():
			fmt.Printf("%s: Consumer Error - %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
			consumerErrors++
		case message := <-consumer.Messages():
			messagesReceived++
			fmt.Printf("%s: ConsumedMessage\r\n", time.Now())
			go func(msg *models.Message) {
				err := msg.Acknowledge()
				if err != nil {
					fmt.Printf("%s: AckMessage Error - %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
					messagesFailedToAck++
				} else {
					fmt.Printf("%s: AckMessaged\r\n", time.Now())
					messagesAcked++
				}
			}(message)
		default:
			time.Sleep(100 * time.Millisecond)
		}
	}


The Pools

Rabbit Pools, how do they even work?!

ChannelPools are built on top of ConnectionPools and unfortunately, there is a bit of complexity here. Suffice to say I recommend (when creating both pools) to think 1:5 ratio. If you have one Connection, I recommend around 5 Channels to be built on top of it.

Ex.) ConnectionCount: 5 => ChannelPool: 25

I allow most of this to be configured now inside the ChannelPoolConfig and ConnectionPoolConfig. I had previously been hard coding some base variables but that's wrong.

"PoolConfig": {
	"ChannelPoolConfig": {
		"ErrorBuffer": 10,
		"SleepOnErrorInterval": 1000,
		"MaxChannelCount": 50,
		"MaxAckChannelCount": 50,
		"AckNoWait": false,
		"GlobalQosCount": 5
	},
	"ConnectionPoolConfig": {
		"URI": "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/",
		"ErrorBuffer": 10,
		"SleepOnErrorInterval": 5000,
		"MaxConnectionCount": 10,
		"Heartbeat": 5,
		"ConnectionTimeout": 10,
		"TLSConfig": {
			"EnableTLS": false,
			"PEMCertLocation": "test/catest.pem",
			"LocalCertLocation": "client/cert.ca",
			"CertServerName": "hostname-in-cert"
		}
	}
},

Feel free to test out what works for yourself. Suffice to say though, there is a chance for a pause/delay/lag when there are no Channels available. High performance on your system may require fine tuning and benchmarking. The thing is though, you can't just add Connections and Channels evenly. First off Connections, server side are not infinite. You can't keep just adding those.

Every sequential Channel you get from the ChannelPool, was made with a different Connection. They are both backed by a Queue data structure, so this means you can't get the same Connection twice in sequence* (*with the exception of probability and concurrency/parallelism). There is a significant chance for greater throughput/performance by essentially load balancing Connections (which boils down to basically TCP sockets). All this means, layman's terms is that each ChannelPool is built off a Round Robin ConnectionPool (TCP Sockets). The ChannelPool itself adds another distribution of load balancing by ensuring every ChannelPool.GetChannel() is also non-sequential (Queue-structure). It's a double layer of Round Robin.

Why am I sharing any of this? Because the ChannelPool / ConnectionPool can be used 100% independently of everything else. You can implement your own fancy RabbitService using just my ConnectionPool and it won't hurt my feelings. Also - it looks complicated. There is a lot going on under the covers that can be confusing without explaining what I was trying to do. Hell you may even see my mistakes! (Submit PR!)

The following code demonstrates one super important part with ChannelPools: flag erred Channels. RabbitMQ server closes Channels on error, meaning this guy is dead. You normally won't know it's dead until the next time you use it - and that can mean messages lost. By flagging the channel as dead properly, on the next GetChannel() call - if we get the channel that was just flagged - we discard it and in place make a new fresh Channel for caller to receive.

chanHost, err := pub.ChannelPool.GetChannel()
if err != nil {
    pub.sendToNotifications(letter.LetterID, err)
    pub.ChannelPool.ReturnChannel(chanHost)
    continue // can't get a channel
}

pubErr := pub.simplePublish(chanHost.Channel, letter)
if pubErr != nil {
    pub.handleErrorAndFlagChannel(err, chanHost.ChannelID, letter.LetterID)
    pub.ChannelPool.ReturnChannel(chanHost)
    continue // flag channel and try again
}

Unfortunately, there are still times when GetChannel() will fail, which is why we still produce errors and I do return those to you.


Click here to see how to build a Connection and Channel Pool!

Um... this is the easy way to do is with the Configs.

connectionPool, err := pools.NewConnectionPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, false)
channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, connectionPool, false)

Then you want to Initiate the Pools (this builds your Connections and Channels)

connectionPool, err := pools.NewConnectionPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, false)
channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, connectionPool, false)
connectionPool.Initialize()
channelPool.Initialize()

I saw this as rather cumbersome... so I provided some short-cuts. The following instantiates a ConnectionPool internally to the ChannelPool. The only thing you lose here is the ability to share or use the ConnectionPool independently of the ChannelPool.

connectionPool, err := pools.NewConnectionPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, false)
channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, connectionPool, false)
channelPool.Initialize() // auto-initializes the ConnectionPool...

But I am still pretty lazy.

channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, nil, false)
channelPool.Initialize()


Click here to see how to get and use a Channel!

So now you will more than likely want to use your ChannelPool.

channelHost, err := channelPool.GetChannel()

channelPool.ReturnChannel(chanHost)

This ChannelHost is like a wrapper around the AmqpChannel that adds a few features like Errors and ReturnMessages. You also don't have to use my Publisher, Consumer, and Topologer. You can use the ChannelPools yourself if you just like the idea of backing your already existing code behind a ChannelPool/ConnectionPool.

The Publisher/Consumer/Topologer all use code similar to this!

channelHost, err := channelPool.GetChannel()
channelHost.Channel.Publish(
		exchangeName,
		routingKey,
		mandatory,
		immediate,
		amqp.Publishing{
			ContentType: contentType,
			Body:        body,
		},
    )
channelPool.ReturnChannel(chanHost)

I am working on streamlining the ChannelHost integration with ChannelPool. I want to allow communication between the two by flowing Channel errors up to pool/group. It's a bit clunky currently but I am still thinking how best to do such a thing. Ideally all Channel errors (CloseErrors) would be subscribed to and perhaps AutoFlag the channels as dead and I can consolidate my code if that's determine reliable.


What happens during an outage?

Well, if you are using a ChannelPool w/ ConnectionPool, it will handle an outage, full or transient, just fine. The Connections/ConnectionHosts will be either heartbeat recovered or be replaced. The Channels will all have to be replaced during the next GetChannel() invocation.

There is one small catch though when using ChannelPools.

Since dead Channels are replaced during a call of GetChannel() and you may have replaced all your ConnectionHosts, you may not fully rebuild all your channels. The reason for that is demand/load. I have done my best to force ChannelHost creation and distribution across the individual ConnectionHosts... but unless you are rapidly getting all ChannelHosts, you may never hit your original MaxChannelCount from your PoolConfig based on your use case scenarios. If you can't generate ChannelHost demand through GetChannel() calls, then it won't always rebuild. On the other hand, if your GetChannel() call count does increase, so to will your ChannelHost counts.

I intend to tweak things here. I have tested multiple back-to-back outages during tests/benches and it has allowed me to improve the user experience / system experience significantly - but refactoring could have brought about bugs. Like I said, I will keep reviewing my work and checking if there are any tweaks.


Click to see how to properly prepare for an outage!

Observe the following code example:

channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, nil, true)

iterations := 0
maxIterationCount := 100000

// Shutdown RabbitMQ server after entering loop, then start it again, to test reconnectivity.
for iterations < maxIterationCount {

	chanHost, err := channelPool.GetChannel()
	if err != nil {
		fmt.Printf("%s: Error - GetChannelHost: %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
	} else {
		fmt.Printf("%s: GotChannelHost\r\n", time.Now())

		select {
		case <-chanHost.CloseErrors():
			fmt.Printf("%s: Error - ChannelClose: %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
		default:
			break
		}

		letter := utils.CreateMockRandomLetter("ConsumerTestQueue")
		err := chanHost.Channel.Publish(
			letter.Envelope.Exchange,
			letter.Envelope.RoutingKey,
			letter.Envelope.Mandatory, // publish doesn't appear to work when true
			letter.Envelope.Immediate, // publish doesn't appear to work when true
			amqp.Publishing{
				ContentType: letter.Envelope.ContentType,
				Body:        letter.Body,
			},
		)

		if err != nil {
			fmt.Printf("%s: Error - ChannelPublish: %s\r\n", time.Now(), err)
			channelPool.FlagChannel(chanHost.ChannelID)
			fmt.Printf("%s: ChannelFlaggedForRemoval\r\n", time.Now())
		} else {
			fmt.Printf("%s: ChannelPublishSuccess\r\n", time.Now())
		}
	}
	channelPool.ReturnChannel(chanHost)
	iterations++
	time.Sleep(10 * time.Millisecond)
}

channelPool.Shutdown()

This is a very tight publish loop. This will blast thousands of messages per hour.

Simulating a server shutdown: bin\rabbitmq-service.bat stop

The entire thing loop will pause at GetChannel(). It will hault in GetChannel() as I preemptively determine the Channel's parent Connection is already closed. We then go into an infinite (but throttled) loop here. The loop consists of regenerating the Channel/ChannelHost (or even the Connection underneath).

What dictates the iteration time of these loops until success is the following:

"ChannelPoolConfig": {
	"ErrorBuffer": 10,
	"SleepOnErrorInterval": 1000,
	"MaxChannelCount": 50,
	"MaxAckChannelCount": 50,
	"AckNoWait": false,
	"GlobalQosCount": 5
},

The related settings for outages are here:

  • ErrorBuffer is the buffer for the Error channel. Important to subscribe to the ChannelPool Error channel some where so it doesn't become blocking/full.
  • SleepOnErrorInterval is the built in sleep when an error or closed Channel is found.
    • This is the minimum interval waited when rebuilding the ChannelHosts.
"ConnectionPoolConfig": {
	"URI": "amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/",
	"ErrorBuffer": 10,
	"SleepOnErrorInterval": 5000,
	"MaxConnectionCount": 10,
	"Heartbeat": 5,
	"ConnectionTimeout": 10,
	"TLSConfig": {
		"EnableTLS": false,
		"PEMCertLocation": "test/catest.pem",
		"LocalCertLocation": "client/cert.ca",
		"CertServerName": "hostname-in-cert"
	}
}

The related settings for outages are here:

  • ErrorBuffer is the buffer for the Error channel. Important to subscribe to the ChannelPool Error channel some where so it doesn't become blocking.
  • SleepOnErrorInterval is the built in sleep when an error or closed Connection is found.
    • This is the minimum interval waited when rebuilding the ConnectionHosts.
    • I recommend this value to be higher than the ChannelHost interval.


Click here for more details on the Circuit Breaking!

We will use the above settings in the ChannelPool (SleepOnErrorInterval = 1000) and ConnectionPool (SleepOnErrorInterval = 5000) here is what will happen to the above code when publishing.

  1. RabbitMQ Server outage occurs.
  2. Everything pauses in place, creating infinite loops on GetChannel() (which calls GetConnection()).
    • This can be a bit dangerous itself if you have thousands of goroutines calling GetChannel() so plan accordingly.
    • Some errors can occur in Consumers/Publishers/ChannelPools/ConnectionPools for in transit at the time of outage.
  3. RabbitMQ Server connectivity is restored.
  4. The loop iterations start finding connectivity, they build a connection.
    • The minimum wait time is 5 seconds for the ConnectionHost.
    • You will also start seeing very slow publishing.
  5. This same loop is building a ChannelHost.
    • The minimum wait time after ChannelHost was built is 1 second.
  6. The total time waited should be about 6 seconds.
  7. The next GetChannel() is called.
    • Because we use Round Robin connections, the next Connection in the pool is called.
    • We wait a minimum of time of 5 seconds for recreating the ConnectionHost, then 1 second again for the ChannelHost.
  8. This behavior continues until all Connections have been successfully restored.
  9. After ConnectionHosts, restoring the remaining ChannelHosts.
    • The minimum wait time is now 1 second, no longer the combined total of 6 seconds.
    • Slightly faster publshing can be observed.
  10. Once all Channels have been restored, the time wait between publishes is found in the publishing loop: 10 ms. * The connectivity has been fully regenerated at this point. * Full speed publishing can now be observed.

So you make recognize this as a funky CircuitBreaker pattern.

Circuit Breaker Behaviors

  • We don't spin up memory, we don't spin up CPU.
  • We don't spam connection requests to our RabbitMQ server.
  • Once connectivity is restored, we don't flood the RabbitMQ server.
    • This is slow-open.
    • The duration of this time becomes (time(connectionSleep + channelSleep)) * n) where n is the number of unopened Connections.
  • As connectivity is restored in Connections, we still see throttling behavior.
    • This is medium-open.
    • The duration of this time becomes (time(channelSleep) * n) where n is the number of still unopened Channel.
  • Once connectivity is fully open, publish rate should return to normal (pre-outage speed).
  • At any time, you can revert back to medium-open, slow-open, fully paused.
    • The loops never stop so you never have to worry about connectivity or reconnectivity.

All of this behavior depends on the healthy config settings that you determine upfront though - so this is all up to you!

Just remember Channels get closed or get killed all the time, you don't want this wait time too high. Connections rarely fully die, so you want this delay reasonably longer.


Click here for some Channel Pool benchmarks!

This is a raw AMQP publish test. We create an AMQP connection, create an AMQP channel, and execute an AMQP publish looped. MessageCount: 100,000 MessageSize: 2500 (2.5KB)

PS C:\GitHub\personal\turbocookedrabbit> go.exe test -timeout 30s github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools -run "^(TestCreateSingleChannelAndPublish)$" -v
=== RUN   TestCreateSingleChannelAndPublish
--- PASS: TestCreateSingleChannelAndPublish (4.57s)
	pools_test.go:51: 2019-09-15 14:48:11.615081 -0400 EDT m=+0.085770701: Benchmark Starts
	pools_test.go:95: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: Benchmark End
	pools_test.go:96: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: Time Elapsed 4.5729159s
	pools_test.go:97: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: Publish Errors 0
	pools_test.go:98: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: Publish Actual 100000
	pools_test.go:99: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: Msgs/s 21867.885215
	pools_test.go:100: 2019-09-15 14:48:16.1879969 -0400 EDT m=+4.658686601: MB/s 54.669713
PASS
ok      github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools   6.188s

Apples to Apples comparison using a ChannelPool. As you can see - the numbers went up - but should have been relatively the same. There is some variability with these tests. The important thing to note is that there isn't a significant reduction in performance. You shouldn't see more or less performance - that is the target!

PS C:\GitHub\personal\turbocookedrabbit> go.exe test -timeout 30s github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools -run "^(TestGetSingleChannelFromPoolAndPublish)" -v
=== RUN   TestGetSingleChannelFromPoolAndPublish
--- PASS: TestGetSingleChannelFromPoolAndPublish (4.30s)
	pools_test.go:106: 2019-09-15 14:50:01.2111296 -0400 EDT m=+0.104896201: Benchmark Starts
	pools_test.go:146: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5139474 -0400 EDT m=+4.407714001: Benchmark End
	pools_test.go:147: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5140242 -0400 EDT m=+4.407790801: Time Elapsed 4.3028178s
	pools_test.go:148: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5140242 -0400 EDT m=+4.407790801: Publish Errors 0
	pools_test.go:149: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5140242 -0400 EDT m=+4.407790801: Publish Actual 100000
	pools_test.go:150: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5140623 -0400 EDT m=+4.407828901: Msgs/s 23240.584345
	pools_test.go:151: 2019-09-15 14:50:05.5140623 -0400 EDT m=+4.407828901: MB/s 58.101461
PASS
ok      github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools   4.507s

Apples to Apple-Orange-Hybrid comparison. Exact same premise, but different ChannelHost per Publish allowing us to publish concurrently. I was just showing off at this point.

PS C:\GitHub\personal\turbocookedrabbit> go test -timeout 10s github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools -run "^(TestGetMultiChannelFromPoolAndPublish)" -v
=== RUN   TestGetMultiChannelFromPoolAndPublish
--- PASS: TestGetMultiChannelFromPoolAndPublish (4.95s)
	pools_test.go:157: 2019-09-15 14:53:41.2687154 -0400 EDT m=+0.091933501: Benchmark Starts
	pools_test.go:204: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: Benchmark End
	pools_test.go:205: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: Time Elapsed 2.9471258s
	pools_test.go:206: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: ChannelPool Errors 0
	pools_test.go:207: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: Publish Errors 0
	pools_test.go:208: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: Publish Actual 100000
	pools_test.go:209: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: Msgs/s 33931.364586
	pools_test.go:210: 2019-09-15 14:53:46.2171263 -0400 EDT m=+5.040344401: MB/s 84.828411
PASS
ok      github.com/houseofcat/turbocookedrabbit/pools   5.143s


The Topologer

How do I create/delete/bind queues and exchanges?

Coming from plain streadway/amqp there isn't too much to it. Call the right method with the right parameters.

I have however integrated those relatively painless methods now with a ChannelPool and added a TopologyConfig for a JSON style of batch topology creation/binding. The real advantages here is that I allow things in bulk and allow you to build topology from a topology.json file.

Creating an Exchange with a models.Exchange

err := top.CreateExchangeFromConfig(exchange) // models.Exchange
if err != nil {
    return err
}

Or if you prefer it more manual:

exchangeName := "FancyName"
exchangeType := "fanout"
passiveDeclare, durable, autoDelete, internal, noWait := false, false, false, false, false

err := top.CreateExchange(exchangeName, exchangeType, passiveDeclare, durable, autoDelete, internal, noWait, nil)
if err != nil {
    return err
}

Creating an Queue with a models.Queue

err := top.CreateQueueFromConfigeateQueue(queue) // models.Queue
if err != nil {
    return err
}

Or, again, if you prefer it more manual:

queueName := "FancyQueueName"
passiveDeclare, durable, autoDelete, exclusive, noWait := false, false, false, false, false

err := top.CreateQueue(queueName, passiveDeclare, durable, autoDelete, exclusive, noWait, nil)
if err != nil {
    return err
}


How do I do this in bulk?

Here I demonstrate the Topology as JSON (full sample is checked in as testtopology.json)

{
	"Exchanges": [
		{
			"Name": "MyTestExchangeRoot",
			"Type": "direct",
			"PassiveDeclare": true,
			"Durable": true,
			"AutoDelete": false,
			"InternalOnly": false,
			"NoWait": true
		}
	],
	"Queues": [
		{
			"Name": "QueueAttachedToRoot",
			"PassiveDeclare": true,
			"Durable": true,
			"AutoDelete": false,
			"Exclusive": false,
			"NoWait": true
		}
	],
	"QueueBindings": [
		{
			"QueueName": "QueueAttachedToRoot",
			"ExchangeName": "MyTestExchangeRoot",
			"RoutingKey": "RoutingKeyRoot",
			"NoWait": true
		}
	],
	"ExchangeBindings":[
		{
			"ExchangeName": "MyTestExchange.Child01",
			"ParentExchangeName": "MyTestExchangeRoot",
			"RoutingKey": "ExchangeKey1",
			"NoWait": true
		}
	]
}

I have provided a helper method for turning it into a TopologyConfig.

topologyConfig, err := utils.ConvertJSONFileToTopologyConfig("testtopology.json")

Creating a simple and shareable ChannelPool.

channelPool, err := pools.NewChannelPool(Seasoning.PoolConfig, nil, false)

Using the ChannelPool to create our Topologer.

topologer := topology.NewTopologer(channelPool)

Assuming you have a blank slate RabbitMQ server, this shouldn't error out as long as you can connect to it.

ignoreErrors := false
err = topologer.BuildToplogy(topologyConfig, ignoreErrors)

Fin.

That's it really. In the future I will have more features. Just know that I think you can export your current Server configuration from the Server itself.


The RabbitService

Click here to see how RabbitService simplifies things even more!

Here I demonstrate the steps of loading the JSON configuration and creating a new RabbitService!

var err error
Config, err = utils.ConvertJSONFileToConfig("testseasoning.json")
if err != nil {
	fmt.Print(err)
	return
}

Service, err = NewRabbitService(Config)
if err != nil {
	fmt.Print(err)
	return
}

Service.StartService(false)

The Service.StartService(true/false) begins monitoring errors and notifications in the background while at the same time centralizing all the errors from the sub-processes. You should subscribe to these errors... just need to turn on .CentralErr()

It also starts the internal Publisher's AutoPublisher so you need that .Notifications()

func serviceMonitor(done chan bool, se   
	go func() {
	MonitorLoop:
		for {
			select {
			case <-done:
				break MonitorLoop
			case <-service.CentralErr():
			case <-service.Notifications():
			}
		}

	}()
}

The service has direct access to a Publisher and Topologer

rs.Topologer.CreateExchangeFromConfig(exchange)
rs.Publisher.Publish(letter)

The consumer section is more complicated but I read the map of consumers that were in config and built them out for you to use when ready:

var consumer *consumer.Consumer
consumer, err := rs.GetConsumer("MyConsumer")
consumer.StartConsuming()

And don't forget to subscribe to Consumer.Messages() when using StartConsuming() to actually get them out of the buffer!


But wait, there's more!

The service allows JSON Marshalling, Argon2 hashing, Aes-128/192/256 bit encryption, and GZIP/ZSTD compression.
Note: ZSTD is from 3rd party library and it's working but in Beta - if worried use the standard vanilla GZIP.

Setting Up Hashing (required for Encryption):

password := "SuperStreetFighter2Turbo"
salt := "MBisonDidNothingWrong"

Service.SetHashForEncryption(password, salt)

The password/passphrase is your responsibility on keeping it safe. I recommend a Key Vault of some flavor.

We set the HashKey internally to the Service so you can do seamless encryption during Service.Publish and what you have in the corresponding Configs added to RabbitSeasoning. Here are some decent settings for Argon2 hashing.

"EncryptionConfig" : {
	"Enabled": true,
	"Type": "aes",
	"TimeConsideration": 1,
	"MemoryMultiplier": 64,
	"Threads": 2
},
"CompressionConfig": {
	"Enabled": true,
	"Type": "gzip"
},

And all of this is built-in into the Service level Publisher.

Here are some examples...

JSON Marshalled Data Example:

Service.Config.EncryptionConfig.Enabled = false
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Enabled = false

wrapData := false
data := interface{}
err := Service.Publish(data, "MyExchange", "MyQueue", wrapData)
if err != nil {
	
}

Isn't that easy?

Let's add compression!

  1. Marshal interface{} into bytes.
  2. Compress bytes.
  3. Publish.
Service.Config.EncryptionConfig.Enabled = false
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Enabled = true
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Type = "gzip"

wrapData := false
data := interface{}
err := Service.Publish(data, "MyExchange", "MyQueue", wrapData)
if err != nil {
	
}

To reverse it into a struct!

  • Consume Message (get your bytes)
  • Decompress Bytes (with matching type)
  • Unmarshal bytes to your struct!
  • Profit!

What about Encryption?

Well if you are following my config example, we will encrypt using a SymmetricKey / AES-256 bit, with nonce and a salty 32-bit HashKey from Argon2.

Service.Config.EncryptionConfig.Enabled = true
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Enabled = false

wrapData := false
data := interface{}
err := Service.Publish(data, "MyExchange", "MyQueue", wrapData)
if err != nil {
	
}

Boom, finished! That's it. You have encrypted your entire payload in the queue. Nobody can read it without your passphrase and salt.

So to reverse it into a struct, you need to:

  • Consume Message (get your bytes)
  • Decrypt Bytes (with matching type)
  • Unmarshal bytes to your struct!
  • Profit!

What about Compcryption (a word I just made up)?

Good lord, fine!

The steps this takes is this:

  1. Marshal interface{} into bytes.
  2. Compress bytes.
  3. Encrypt bytes.
  4. Publish.
Service.Config.EncryptionConfig.Enabled = true
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Enabled = true

wrapData := false
data := interface{}
err := Service.Publish(data, "MyExchange", "MyQueue", wrapData)
if err != nil {
   
}

So to reverse compcryption, you need to:

  • Consume Message (get your bytes)
  • Decrypt Bytes (with matching type)
  • Decompress bytes (with matching type)
  • Unmarshal bytes to your struct!

Depending on your payloads, if it's tons of random bytes/strings, compression won't do much for you - probably even increase size. AES encryption only adds little byte size overhead for the nonce I believe.

Here is a possible good use case for compcryption. It is a beefy 5KB+ JSON string of dynamic, but not random, sensitive data. Quite possibly PII/PCI user data dump. Think list of Credit Cards, Transactions, or HIPAA data. Basically anything you would see in GDPR bingo!

So healthy sized JSONs generally compress well ~ 85-97% at times. If it's sensitive, it needs to be encrypted. Smaller (compressed) bytes encrypt faster. Compcryption!

So what's the downside? It's slow, might need tweaking still... but it's slow. At least compared to plain publishing.

SECURITY WARNING

This doesn't really apply to my use cases, however, some forms of deflate/gzip, combined with some protocols, created a vulnerability by compressing and then encrypting.

I would be terrible if I didn't make you aware of CRIME and BREACH attacks. https://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/29972/is-there-an-existing-cryptography-algorithm-method-that-both-encrypts-and-comp/29974#29974

So you can choose wisely :)


Wait... what was that wrap boolean?

I knew I forgot something!

Consider the following example, here we are performing Compcryption.

Service.Config.EncryptionConfig.Enabled = true
Service.Config.CompressionConfig.Enabled = true

wrapData := false
data := interface{}
err := Service.Publish(data, "MyExchange", "MyQueue", wrapData)
if err != nil {
	
}

The problem here is that the message could leave you blinded by the dark! I tried to enhance this process, by wrapping your bits.
If you wrap your message, it is always of type models.ModdedLetter.

The following change (with the above code)...

wrapData = true

...produces this message wrapper.

{
	"LetterID": 0,
	"Body": {
		"Encrypted": true,
		"EncryptionType": "aes",
		"Compressed": true,
		"CompressionType": "gzip",
		"UTCDateTime": "2019-09-22T19:13:55Z",
		"Data": "+uLJxH1YC1u5KzJUGTImKcaTccSY3gXsMaCoHneJDF+9/9JDaX/Fort92w8VWyTiKqgQj+2gqIaAXyHwFObtjL3RAxTn5uF/QIguvuZ+/2X8qn/+QDByuCY3qkRKu3HHzmwd+GPfgNacyaQgS2/hD2uoFrwR67W332CHWA=="
	}
}

You definitely can't tell this is MBison's Social Security Number, but can see it's metadata.

The idea around this metadata is that it could help identify when a passphrase was used to create this, then you can determine which key was live based on UTCDateTime.

The inner Data deserializes to []byte, which means based on a consumed models.ModdedLetter, you know immediately if it is a compressed, encrypted, or just a JSON []byte.


I think I bitshifted to the 4th dimension... how the hell do I get my object/struct back?

I am going to assume we are Compcrypting, so adjust this example to your needs

First we get our data out of a Consumer, once we have a models.Body.Data []byte, we can begin reversing it.

var json = jsoniter.ConfigFastest // optional - can use built-in json if you prefer

message := <-consumer.Messages() // get compcrypted message

modLetter := &models.ModdedLetter{}
err = json.Unmarshal(message.Body, modLetter) // unmarshal as ModdedLetter
if err != nil {
	// I probably have a bug.
}

buffer := bytes.NewBuffer(modLetter.Body.Data)

// Helper function to get the original JSON marshal bytes back.
err = utils.ReadPayload(buffer, Service.Config.CompressionConfig, Service.Config.EncryptionConfig)
if err != nil {
	// I probably have a bug.
}

myStruct := &MyStruct{}
err = json.Unmarshal(buffer.Bytes(), myStruct) // unmarshal as actual type!
if err != nil {
	// You probably have a bug!
}

There maybe changes as I am tightening this up a bit.

Be sure to keep an eye on the integration test for this TestPublishCompressionEncryptionWithWrapAndConsume


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